National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: Conclusions and Next Steps
Page 92
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Analysis of Recent Public Transit Ridership Trends. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25635.
×
Page 92
Page 93
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Analysis of Recent Public Transit Ridership Trends. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25635.
×
Page 93
Page 94
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Analysis of Recent Public Transit Ridership Trends. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25635.
×
Page 94
Page 95
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Analysis of Recent Public Transit Ridership Trends. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25635.
×
Page 95

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

87 References Abubey, Faith (2017). “Community outraged over MARTA bus changes.” WXIA, 2 Aug 2017, www.11alive.com/article/news/local/community-outraged-over-marta-bus-changes/85-461375365. Altstadt, R. (2018). “Major retailers continue selling paper tickets as Hop Fastpass rollout continues.” TriMet News. APTA, (2018), Policy Development and Research APTA. (2018). “Transit and TNC Partnerships.” Retrieved from https://www.apta.com/resources/mobility/Pages/Transit- and-TNC-Partnerships-.aspx. Austin, D., & Zegras, P. (2012). Taxicabs as public transportation in Boston, Massachusetts. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, (2277), 65-74. A. W. (2017). “An inglorious return to Austin for Uber and Lyft.” The Economist. BaltimoreLink. (2016). “Route Comparison Maps: Draft 3 BaltimoreLink System: Fall 2016.” Retrieved from https://baltimorelink.com/images/library/route_sheets/Route%20Comparison%20Maps.pdf. Becker, J., Teal, R., & Mossige, R. (2013). Metropolitan Transit Agency’s Experience Operating General-Public Demand- Responsive Transit. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, (2352), 136-145. Bliss, L. (2016). “How Houston’s Bus Network Got Its Groove Back.” CityLab. Bliss, L. (2017). “There’s No Transit But Microtransit For This Sprawling Texas City.” CityLab, 21 Nov 2017, www.citylab.com/transportation/2017/11/a-bus-shunning-texas-towns-big-leap-to-microtransit/546134/. Block-Schachter, D., and J. Attanucci (2008). “Employee Transportation Benefits in High Transit Mode Share Areas: University Case Study.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2046: 53-60. Boisjoly, G., Grisé, E., Maguire, M., Veillette, M. P., Deboosere, R., Berrebi, E., & El-Geneidy, A. (2018). Invest in the ride: A 14 year longitudinal analysis of the determinants of public transport ridership in 25 North American cities. Transportation Research Part A, 116, 434-445. Brakewood, C., Macfarlane, G. S., & Watkins, K. (2015). The impact of real-time information on bus ridership in New York City. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 53, 59-75. Bregman, S. and K. Watkins (2013) Best Practices for Transportation Agency Use of Social Media. CRC Press. Brown, A. E. (2017). Car-less or car-free? Socioeconomic and mobility differences among zero-car households. Transport Policy, 60, 152-159. Bueno, P., J. Gomez, J. Peters, and J. Vassallo (2017). “Understanding the effects of transit benefits on employees’ travel behavior: Evidence from the New York-New Jersey region.” Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 99: 1- 13. Capital Metro. (2017). “Cap Metro Brings Ride-Hailing to Public Transit.” Cap Metro Blog. Retrieved from https://capmetroblog.com/2017/06/07/cap-metro-brings-ride-hailing-to-public-transit/#more-8548. City of Boston. (2018, May). “Four-Week, Dedicated Bus Lane Pilot To Begin Monday, May 7, In Roslindale.” Retrieved from https://www.boston.gov/news/four-week-dedicated-bus-lane-pilot-begin-monday-may-7-roslindale. City of Boston. (2018, June). “Permanent Bus Lane To Be Established On Washington Street In Roslindale.” Retrieved from https://www.boston.gov/news/permanent-bus-lane-be-established-washington-street-roslindale. City of Toronto. (2018). “King Street Transit Pilot: April Update.” Retrieved from https://www.toronto.ca/wp- content/uploads/2018/05/985c-KSP_Apr-2018-Dashboard-Update_FINAL.pdf. Correa, D., Xie, K., & Ozbay, K. (2017). Exploring the Taxi and Uber Demand in New York City: An Empirical Analysis and Spatial Modeling (No. 17-05660). Clewlow, R. (2016). “Shared-Use Mobility in the United States: Current Adoption and Potential Impacts on Travel Behavior.” TRB Annual Meeting. Clewlow, R. R., & Mishra, G. S. (2017). Disruptive transportation: the adoption, utilization, and impacts of ride-hailing in the United States (Vol. 7). Research Report–UCD-ITS-RR-17. Coogan, M., Spitz, G., Adler, T., McGuckin, N., Kuzmyak, R. and Karash, K. (2018) TCRP Research Report 201: Understanding Changes in Demographics, Preferences, and Markets for Public Transportation, Transit Cooperative Research Program, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. Davis, J., (2017). VMT hits nominal high, approaches per capita mark. https://www.enotrans.org/article/vmt-hits-nominal- high-approaches-time-per-capita-mark/ July 5, 2018.https://www.enotrans.org/article/vmt-hits-nominal-high- approaches-time-per-capita-mark/ July 5, 2018. DemandTrans. (2018). “Pace Bus Begins Deploying Next-Generation Demand Response/Microtransit Services.” Mass Transit Magazine.

88 Dill, J., Schlossberg, M., Ma, L., & Meyer, C. (2013, January). Predicting transit ridership at the stop level: The role of service and urban form. In 92nd annual meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. Dong, H., L. Ma, and J. Broach (2016). “Promoting sustainable travel modes for commute tours: A comparison of the effects of home and work locations and employer-provided incentives.” International Journal of Sustainable Transportation10.6: 485-494. Dovak, P. (2017). “The map for Baltimore’s new bus system is positively radiant.” Greater Greater Washington. Driscoll, R. A., Lehmann, K. R., Polzin, S., & Godfrey, J. (2018). The Effect of Demographic Changes on Transit Ridership Trends, Transportation Research Record (No. 18-04556). Dueker, Kenneth J., James G. Strathman, and Martha J. Bianco. “Strategies to attract auto users to public transportation.” (1998). Edwards, D. and K. Watkins (2013). “Comparing Fixed-Route and Demand-Responsive Feeder Transit Systems in Real- World Settings”, Transportation Research Record #2352: 128-135. Feigon, S., & Murphy, C. (2016). Shared mobility and the transformation of public transit (No. Project J-11, Task 21). Florida, R (2017). The new urban crisis: How our cities are increasing inequality, deepening segregation, and failing the middle class and what we can do about it. Hachette UK. Frey, W. H., (2018) US population disperses to suburbs, exurbs, rural areas, and of the country metros, The Avenue. Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/the-avenue/2018/03/26/us-population-disperses-to-suburbs-exurbs-rural- areas-and-middle-of-the-country-metros/ FTA. (2017). “Fiscal Year 2016 Mobility on Demand (MOD) Sandbox Program Projects.” FTA. (2018). “Mobility on Demand (MOD) Sandbox Program.” Flynn Meagan. (2015, September). No Easy Ride : What Using Metro’s New Bus Network is Like In a Low-Income Community. Houston Press, Retrieved from https://www.houstonpress.com/news/no-easy-ride-what-using-metros- new-bus-network-is-like-in-a-low-income-community-updated-7727049 Gallup. (2017), State of the American Workplace. Gomez-Ibanez, J. A. (1996). Big-city transit rider snip, deficits, and politics: Avoiding reality in Boston. Journal of the American Planning Association, 62(1), 30-50. Habib, K. (2017). On the Factors Influencing the Choices of Weekly Telecommuting Frequencies of Post-secondary Students in Toronto. No. 17-01865. Hall, J.D., C. Palsson, and J. Price (2018). “Is Uber a Substitute or Complement for Public Transit?” Henao, A. and Marshall, W. (2017). A Framework for Understanding the Impacts of Ridesourcing on Transportation, in G. Meyer and S. Shaheen (eds.), Disrupting Mobility, Springer International Publishing. Hendrickson, C. (1986). A note on trends in transit commuting in the United States relating to employment in the central business district. Transportation Research Part A: General, 20(1), 33-37. HOP Fastpass. (2018). “Earn Passes and Save as You Ride.” Retrieved from https://myhopcard.com/home/#/save-as-you- ride. Hymon, S. (2017). “Metro plans to reimagine and restructure its vast bus system.” The Source, 18 May 2017, thesource.metro.net/2017/05/18/metro-plans-to-reimagine-and-restructure-its-vast-bus-system/. Iacobucci, J., K. Hovenkotter, and J. Anbinder (2017). “Transit Systems and the Impacts of Shared Mobility.” Disrupting Mobility. Springer, Cham, 65-76. Kain, J. F., & Liu, Z. (1999). Secrets of success: assessing the large increases in transit ridership achieved by Houston and San Diego transit providers. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 33(7), 601-624. Keeley, S. (2016). “Solo Seattle car commuters drop to lowest number ever.” Curbed Seattle. Retrieved from https://seattle.curbed.com/2016/9/20/12990478/solo-seattle-car-commuters-lowest-numbers. King County Metro (2017), “Accountability Center.” Ridership – Annual Performance Measures – King County Metro Transit, metro.kingcounty.gov/am/reports/annual-measures/ridership.html. Kittelson & Associates, Parsons Brinckerhoff, KFH Group. (2013). Transit capacity and quality of service manual. Third Edition, Chapter 5, Quality of Service Methods. Kyte, M., Stoner, J., & Cryer, J. (1988). A time-series analysis of public transit ridership in Portland, Oregon, 1971– 1982. Transportation Research Part A: General, 22(5), 345-359. Kohn, H. M. (1999). Factors affecting urban transit ridership. Statistics Canada. Laughlin, J. (2017). “SEPTA looks to Texas for ideas for bus route redesign.” Philly.com, 11 Sept. 2017, www.philly.com/philly/business/transportation/septa-overhaul-bus-service-houston-model-20170911.html. Lewis, P. (2015). “Houston has a shiny, new bus network.” Eno Transportation Weekly. Retrieved from https://www.enotrans.org/article/houston-has-a-shiny-new-bus-network/.

89 Liu, Z. (1993). Determinents of transit ridership analysis of post WWII trends and evaluation of alternative networks. Manville, M., Taylor, B. D., and Blumenberg, E. (2018). “Falling Transit Ridership: California and Southern California.” Southern California Association of Governments, http://www.scag.ca.gov/Documents/ITS_SCAG_Transit_Ridership.pdf Marshall, A. (2016). “Kansas City Is Embarking on a Great Microtransit Experiment.” CityLab. Marshall, A. (2017). “How A Failed Experiment Could Still Be The Future Of Public Transit.” Wired. Martin, E. and S. Shaheen (2011). “The impact of carsharing on public transit and non-motorized travel: an exploration of North American carsharing survey data.” Energies 4.11: 2094-2114. Maryland Transit Administration. (2017). “Network Redesign.” Retrieved from https://baltimorelink.com/service/network- redesign. Metro Transit. (2012). “Central Corridor Transit Service Study Recommendation Plan – November 2012.” Metro Transit. (2014). “Central Corridor Transit Service Study Final Plan Report.” Retrieved from https://www.metrotransit.org/Data/Sites/1/media/pdfs/central/finalcctransitstudyreportupdate.pdf. Metro Transit. (2016). “Metro Transit ridership tops 85.8 million in 2015.” Mills, T., and M. Steele (2017). In Portland, Economic Displacement May Be a Driver of Ridership Loss. Transit Center, 14 Nov. 2017, http://transitcenter.org/2017/11/14/in-portland-economic-displacement-may-be-a-driver-of-transit- ridership-loss/ NACTO. (2015). “Case Study: Metro Bus Network Redesign, Houston.” Transit Street Design Guide. O’Neil, K. (2013). “3 reasons why the CTA is switching to Ventra card payment system.” Chicago Now. Owen, A., & Levinson, D. M. (2015). Modeling the commute mode share of transit using continuous accessibility to jobs. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 74, 110-122. Parsons Brinckerhoff Inc., (2016). Comprehensive Operations Analysis. Atlanta, GA., Task Order No. 2014-LRSRP-2. Polzin, S. (2016), Implications to Public Transportation of Emerging Technologies, National Center for Transit Research, https://www.nctr.usf.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Implications-for-Public-Transit-of-Emerging-Technologies-11- 1-16.pdf. Powers, M (2017). “Metro is mulling a major redesign of the bus system. But first, officials need to figure out why people aren’t riding.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 30 Dec. 2017, www.washingtonpost.com/local/trafficandcommuting/metro-is-mulling-a-major-redesign-of-the-bus-system-but-first- officials-need-to-figure-out-why-people-arent-riding/2017/12/30/ Pritchard, C. (2017). “Capital Metro takes its bus network realignment to the riders.” Austin Monitor, 19 Sept. 2017, www.austinmonitor.com/stories/2017/09/capital-metro-takes-bus-network-realignment-riders PSTA. (2016). “PSTA Expands Transit Partnership With Uber, Lyft Across Pinellas County” Pushkarev, B., Zupan, J. M., (1977). Public Transportation and Land Use Policy. Qiu, F., Shen, J., Zhang, X., & An, C. (2015). Demi-flexible operating policies to promote the performance of public transit in low-demand areas. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 80, 215-230. Rayle, L., Dai, D., Chan, N., Cervero, R., Shaheen, S. (2016). Just a better taxi? A survey-based comparison of taxis, transit, and ridesourcing services in San Francisco, Transport Policy, Volume 45, Pages 168-178, ISSN 0967-070X, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2015.10.004. Sale, J. (1976). Increasing transit ridership : the experience of seven cities (No. UMTA-UPP-S-76-1). Schaller, B. (2018). “The New Automobility: Lyft, Uber and the Future of American Cities.” Schaller Consulting. Schmitt, A. (2017). “Dallas Council Members Say Bus Network Overhaul Can’t Wait.” Streetsblog USA, 10 July 2017, usa.streetsblog.org/2017/07/10/dallas-council-members-say-bus-network-overhaul-cant-wait/. Schmitt, A. (2017). “Transit Ridership Falling Everywhere – But Not in Cities With Redesigned Bus Networks.” Streetsblog USA, 27 Feb. 2017, usa.streetsblog.org/2017/02/24/transit-ridership-falling-everywhere-but-not-in-cities-with- redesigned-bus-networks/. Schmitt A. (a) (2018, 23 MARCH). Only A Few Cities Are Growing in Transit Ridership : Here is What They Are Doing Right. StreetsBlog USA, https://usa.streetsblog.org/2018/03/23/only-a-few-american-cities-are-growing-transit- ridership-heres-what-theyre-doing-right/ Schmitt A. (b) (2018, 12 SEPTEMBER). Indianapolis’ Transit Investment Is Starting to Pay Off. StreetsBlog USA, https://usa.streetsblog.org/2018/09/12/indianapoliss-transit-investment-is-starting-to-pay-off/ SFCTA, (2017), TNCs Today: A Profile of San Francisco Transportation Network Company Activity, Final Report, https://www.sfcta.org/sites/default/files/content/Planning/TNCs/TNCs_Today_112917.pdf Shaheen, S., A. Cohen, and M. Chung (2009). “North American carsharing: 10-year retrospective.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2110: 35-44.

90 Shaheen, S., Stocker, A., Lazarus, J., and Bhattacharyya, A. (2016). “RideKC: Bridj Pilot Evaluation: Impact, Operational, and Institutional Analysis.” Transportation Sustainability Research Center (TSRC), UC Berkeley. Shieferdecker, A. (2017). “Three Complaints and Three Ideas for Minneapolis-St. Paul’s Future METRO System.” Streets MN. Retrieved from https://streets.mn/2017/11/20/three-complaints-and-three-ideas-for-minneapolis-st-pauls-future- metro-system/ Shockley, D., Salinas, J., and Taylor, B. D. (2015). Making Headways: An Analysis of Smart Cards and Bus Dwell Time in Los Angeles. UCLA ITS. Silver, N. and Fischer-Baum, R. (2015). “Public Transit Should Be Uber’s New Best Friend.” FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved from https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/public-transit-should-be-ubers-new-best-friend/ Sioui, L., C. Morency, and M. Trépanier (2013). “How carsharing affects the travel behavior of households: a case study of Montréal, Canada.” International Journal of Sustainable Transportation 7.1: 52-69. Sisson, P. (2018). “Microtransit: How cities are, and aren’t, adapting transit technology.” Curbed. Small, A. (2017). “How Seattle Bucked a National Trend and Got More People to Ride the Bus.” CityLab, 17 Oct. 2017, www.citylab.com/transportation/2017/10/how-seattle-bucked-a-national-trend-and-got-more-people-to-ride-the- bus/542958/. Spielman, F. (2017). “City working on Ventra-Divvy integration.” Chicago Sun-Times. Spillar, R. J., & Rutherford, G. S. (1990). The effects of population density and income on per capita transit ridership in western American cities. In INSTITUTE OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERS MEETING. Spurr, B. (2018). “Spending on King St. up since streetcar pilot began.” The Star. Suel, Esra, and John W. Polak. « Incorporating online shopping into travel demand modelling : challenges, progress, and opportunities. » Transport Reviews 38.5 (2018) : 576-601. Taylor, B. D., Miller, D., Iseki, H., & Fink, C. (2009). Nature and/or nurture? Analyzing the determinants of transit ridership across US urbanized areas. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 43(1), 60-77. Taylor, B. D., and Fink, C. (2013) Explaining transit ridership: What has the evidence shown? Transportation Letters. 5:15- 26. TCRP Report 95, (2004), Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition. Transit Center, (2016), Private mobility, public interest, http://transitcenter.org/publications/private-mobility-public- interest/#summary-of-key-findings Transit Center (2018, 29 June). Lessons on Ridership From the National Literature. http://transitcenter.org/2018/01/29/lessons-on-ridership-from-the-national-literature/ TriMet. (2018). “Paying Fare Using Paper Tickets and Passes.” Van Lierop, D., & El-Geneidy, A. (2017). A new market segmentation approach : evidence from two Canadian cities. Journal of Public Transportation, 20(1), 2. Ventra. (2018). “Introducing the Ventra App.” Retrieved from https://www.ventrachicago.com/app/. Vock, D. (2017). “Bus Network Redesigns Are the Hottest Trent in Transit.” Government Technology: State & Local Government News Articles, www.govtech.com/fs/Bus-Network-Redesigns-are-the-Hottest-Trend-in-Transit.html. VTA. (2016). VTA FLEX: Overview. Retrieved from http://www.vta.org/getting-around/vta-flex. Walker, J. (2012). Human transit : How clearer thinking about public transit can enrich our communities and our lives. Island Press. Wang, F., & Ross, C. L. (2017). New Potential for Multimodal Connection: Exploring the Relationship Between Taxi Trips and Transit in New York City (No. 17-05132). Westervelt, M., Huang, E., Schank, J., Borgman, N., Fuhrer, T. Peppard, C., and Narula-Woods, R. (2018). “UpRouted: Exploring Microtransit in the United States.” Eno Center for Transportation. Yang, C., & Gonzales, E. (2014). Modeling taxi trip demand by time of day in New York City. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, (2429), 110-120. Yang, C., Morgul, E., Gonzales, E., & Ozbay, K. (2014). Comparison of mode cost by time of day for nondriving airport trips to and from New York City’s Pennsylvania Station. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, (2449), 34-44. Zipcar. (2017). “Zipcar and 90aryl-dade county partner to add car-sharing vehicles along metrorail lines.” Zipcar. (2018). “Zipcar and the 90aryland department of transportation 90aryland transit administration partner to launch car-sharing vehicles at transit stations.”

Next: Appendix A: Literature Review »
Analysis of Recent Public Transit Ridership Trends Get This Book
×
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Transit ridership across the United States has declined for six straight years. Bus ridership, which has declined more than other transit services, is now at the lowest point since 1965. Rail ridership, with the exception of commuter rail, has also declined, and commuter rail ridership has recently leveled off.

The TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program's TCRP Research Report 209: Analysis of Recent Public Transit Ridership Trends presents a current snapshot of public transit ridership trends in the U.S. on bus and rail services in urban and suburban areas, focusing on what has changed in the past several years. It also explores and presents strategies that transit agencies are considering and using for all transit modes in response to changes in ridership.

Ten case studies are included to better understand individual strategies transit agencies are using to mitigate ridership losses and increase ridership overall. Nearly every transit agency investigated in the case studies had ridership increases between 2012 and 2015 followed by steady decreases in ridership. Generally, on-time performance has been improving, although it is not causing transit ridership to increase.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!