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Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Analysis of Recent Public Transit Ridership Trends. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25635.
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Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Analysis of Recent Public Transit Ridership Trends. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25635.
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Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Analysis of Recent Public Transit Ridership Trends. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25635.
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Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Analysis of Recent Public Transit Ridership Trends. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25635.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

ii Contents SUMMARY 1 CHAPTER 1: BACKGROUND 7 Literature Overview 9 CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH APPROACH 11 Clustering 11 Ridership Trends 15 Transit Agency Strategies and Case Study Selection 15 CHAPTER 3: NATIONAL RIDERSHIP TRENDS 17 Ridership Trends Analysis for Mixed Traffic Modes 17 Ridership Trends Analysis for Dedicated Right-of-way Modes 31 Summary 37 CHAPTER 4: TRANSIT AGENCY STRATEGIES 38 Service Levels 38 Bus Network Restructuring 38 Mode Integration 40 Dedicated Right-of-way & Bus Rapid Transit 41 Transportation Network Companies (TNCs) & Bike, Scooter and Car Sharing Partnerships 42 Demand Response & Flex Routes 43 Fare Media & Integration 44 Additional Strategies 45 Summary 46 CHAPTER 5: CASE STUDIES 47 Case Study 1 – Connect Transit, Bloomington-Normal, IL 48 Case Study 2 – Greater Portland METRO, Portland, ME 51

iii Case Study 3 – IndyGo, Indianapolis, IN 54 Case Study 4 – King County Metro, Seattle, WA 58 Case Study 5 – Maryland Transit Administration, Baltimore, MD 62 Case Study 6 – Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, Boston, MA 65 Case Study 7 – Metro Transit, Minneapolis, MN 70 Case Study 8 – Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Houston, TX 73 Case Study 9 – Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority (PSTA), Pinellas County, FL 76 Case Study 10 – Spokane Transit Authority, Spokane, WA 79 Summary 81 CONCLUSIONS AND NEXT STEPS 84 REFERENCES 87 APPENDIX A: LITERATURE REVIEW 91 APPENDIX B: DATA LIMITATIONS 99 APPENDIX C: METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREAS ABBREVIATIONS BY CLUSTER 103

iv Table of Figures Figure 1: Change in Annual Ridership by year for Bus, Rail and All Modes ................................ 7 Figure 2: Change in Annual Ridership by year for Commuter Rail ............................................... 8 Figure 3: Change in Annual Vehicle Revenue Miles by year for Bus, Rail and All Modes .......... 8 Figure 4: Map of Mixed Traffic Transit Regions by Cluster ........................................................ 13 Figure 5: Dendogram of Dedicated Right-of-Way Clusters ......................................................... 15 Figure 6: 2012 Transit Ridership vs Population for Mixed Traffic Modes .................................. 18 Figure 7: Change in Transit Ridership vs Change in Population for Mixed Traffic Modes ........ 20 Figure 8: 2012 Transit Ridership vs 2012 Percent of Zero Vehicle Households ......................... 22 Figure 9: Change in Transit Ridership vs Change in Zero Vehicle Households for Mixed Traffic Modes ............................................................................................................................................ 24 Figure 10: 2012 Transit Ridership vs 2012 Transit Service Levels for Mixed Traffic Modes .... 26 Figure 11: Change in Transit Ridership vs Change in Transit Service Levels for Mixed Traffic Mode ............................................................................................................................................. 28 Figure 12: 2012 Transit Ridership vs 2012 Population for Dedicated Right-of-way Modes ....... 32 Figure 13: Percentage change in Ridership vs Percentage Change in Population between 2012 and 2016 for Dedicated Right-of-way Modes .............................................................................. 32 Figure 14: 2012 Transit Ridership vs % Zero Vehicle Households for Dedicated Right-of-way Modes ............................................................................................................................................ 33 Figure 15: Percent Change in Transit Ridership vs Percent change in Share of Zero Vehicle Households between 2012 and 2016 for Dedicated Right-of-way Modes ................................... 34 Figure 16: 2012 Transit Ridership vs 2012 Transit Service Levels for Dedicated Right-of-way Modes ............................................................................................................................................ 35 Figure 17: Percent Change in Transit Ridership vs Percent Change in Transit Service between 2012 and 2016 for Dedicated Right-of-way Modes ..................................................................... 36 Figure 18: Houston Metro Before and After Frequent Network Redesign Map .......................... 39 Figure 19: Connect Transit Bus Systemwide Trends ................................................................... 49 Figure 20: Connect Transit Frequency and Ridership and Trends in 2013 and 2018 .................. 50 Figure 21: Connect Transit On-time Performance and Ridership Trends in 2013 and 2018 ....... 50 Figure 22: METRO Bus Systemwide Trends ............................................................................... 52 Figure 23: METRO Bus Ridership Trends by Route.................................................................... 52 Figure 24: METRO Bus On-time Performance Trends by Route ................................................ 53 Figure 25: IndyGo Bus Systemwide Trends from 2012 to 2018 .................................................. 55 Figure 26: IndyGo Frequency and Ridership Trends in 2013 and 2017 ....................................... 55 Figure 27: IndyGo On-time Performance and Ridership Trends in 2013 and 2017 ..................... 56 Figure 28: IndyGo Systemwide On-Time Performance ............................................................... 56 Figure 29: IndyGo Area Year over Year Ridership Gains (Losses) ............................................. 57 Figure 30: King County Bus Systemwide Trends from 2012 to 2018 ......................................... 59 Figure 31: King County Streetcar Systemwide Trends from 2012 to 2018 ................................. 59 Figure 32: King County Bus Frequency and Ridership Trends in 2015 and 2017 ....................... 60 Figure 33: King County Bus On-time Performance and Ridership Trends in 2015 and 2017 ..... 60 Figure 34: MTA Bus Systemwide Trends from 2012 to 2018 ..................................................... 63 Figure 35: MTA Light Rail and Heavy Rail Systemwide Trends from 2012 to 2018 ................. 63 Figure 36: MTA Commuter Rail Systemwide Trends from 2012 to 2018 ................................... 63 Figure 37: MTA Frequency and Ridership Trends in 2014 and 2017 .......................................... 64 Figure 38: MBTA Bus Systemwide Trends.................................................................................. 66

v Figure 39: MBTA Heavy Rail and Light Rail Systemwide Trends .............................................. 66 Figure 40: MBTA Commuter Rail Systemwide Trends ............................................................... 67 Figure 41: MBTA Bus Frequency and Ridership Trends in 2014 and 2017 ................................ 67 Figure 42: On-time Performance and Ridership Trends in 2014 and 2017 .................................. 68 Figure 43: Metro Transit Bus Systemwide Trends from 2012 to 2018 ........................................ 71 Figure 44: Metro Transit Light Rail Systemwide Trends from 2012 to 2018 .............................. 71 Figure 45: Metro Transit Commuter Rail Systemwide Trends from 2012 to 2018 ...................... 71 Figure 46: Metro Bus Frequency and Ridership Trends in 2012 and 2017 .................................. 72 Figure 47: Houston METRO Bus Systemwide Trends from 2012 to 2018 .................................. 74 Figure 48: Houston METRO Light Rail Systemwide Trends from 2012 to 2018 ........................ 74 Figure 49: Houston Metro Frequency and Ridership Trends in 2013 and 2017 .......................... 75 Figure 50: PSTA Bus Systemwide Trends from 2012 to 2018 .................................................... 77 Figure 51: PSTA Frequency and Ridership Trends in 2015 and 2018 ......................................... 77 Figure 52: PSTA On-time Performance and Ridership Trends in 2015 and 2018 ....................... 78 Figure 53: Spokane Transit Authority Bus Systemwide Trends from 2012 to 2018 .................... 79 Figure 54: Spokane Transit Frequency and Ridership Trends in 2016 and 2018 ......................... 80 Figure 55: Spokane Transit On-time Performance and Ridership Trends in 2016 and 2018 ....... 81 Figure B-1: % Change in Unlinked Passenger Trips vs. % Change in Dedicated Right-of-way Miles between 2012 and 2016 .................................................................................................... 100 Table of Tables Table 1: Transit Agency Clusters ................................................................................................... 1 Table 2: Analysis of factors impacting transit ridership and change in transit ridership ............... 3 Table 3: Case Study Results ........................................................................................................... 5 Table 4: Case Study Transit agencies ........................................................................................... 16 Table A-1: Newspaper Articles regarding Transit System Changes and Ridership ..................... 91 Table A-2: Transit agency and Government Reports regarding Transit Ridership ...................... 92 Table A-3: Academic Literature on Traditional Causes of Ridership Increases and Decreases .. 93 Table A-4: Academic Literature on Impacts of New Trends on Transit Ridership ...................... 95 Table A-5: Academic Literature on Transit Agency Strategies .................................................... 98

Next: Summary »
Analysis of Recent Public Transit Ridership Trends Get This Book
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Transit ridership across the United States has declined for six straight years. Bus ridership, which has declined more than other transit services, is now at the lowest point since 1965. Rail ridership, with the exception of commuter rail, has also declined, and commuter rail ridership has recently leveled off.

The TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program's TCRP Research Report 209: Analysis of Recent Public Transit Ridership Trends presents a current snapshot of public transit ridership trends in the U.S. on bus and rail services in urban and suburban areas, focusing on what has changed in the past several years. It also explores and presents strategies that transit agencies are considering and using for all transit modes in response to changes in ridership.

Ten case studies are included to better understand individual strategies transit agencies are using to mitigate ridership losses and increase ridership overall. Nearly every transit agency investigated in the case studies had ridership increases between 2012 and 2015 followed by steady decreases in ridership. Generally, on-time performance has been improving, although it is not causing transit ridership to increase.

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