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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Sustainability Planning and the Environmental Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25638.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Sustainability Planning and the Environmental Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25638.
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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 209 2019 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation • Environment • Planning and Forecasting Integrating Sustainability Planning and the Environmental Review Process Carol Lurie Matthew Egge VHB, Inc. Watertown, MA i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Environmental Science Associates, Inc. Tampa, FL American Infrastructure Development, Inc. Lake City, FL Changing Climates Consulting San Francisco, CA Ralph Thompson Jasper, GA Randy McGill Toronto, ON, Canada

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100— Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 209 Project 02-69 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-48078-9 Library of Congress Control Number 2019950686 © 2019 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under ACRP Project 02-69 by VHB, Inc. (VHB). VHB served as the contractor and fiscal administrator for this study. Carol Lurie, LEED® AP, ENVISION SP, AICP of VHB was the Principal Investigator. She was sup- ported by Matthew Egge, AICP, LEED® AP, formerly of VHB, who served as the Assistant Principal Investigator. Other contributors to this Guidebook include Kari Hewitt, LEED® AP, Envision SP of VHB, Van Du, LEED® Green Associate, Envision SP of VHB, William Evans of VHB, Nicholas Cohen of VHB, Mike Arnold and Autumn Ward of Environmental Science Associates, Inc. (ESA), Mark Jansen and Timeka Carter of American Infrastructure Development, Inc. (AID), Kristen Lemaster of Changing Climates Consulting (CCC), Randy McGill (Independent Advisor), and Ralph Thompson (Independent Advisor). CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 209 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Joseph D. Navarrete, Senior Program Officer Hana Vagnerova, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Kami Cabral, Editor ACRP PROJECT 02-69 PANEL Field of Environment Arlyn Purcell, Port of Seattle | Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, Seattle, WA (Chair) Prabh K. Banga, Toronto Pearson International Airport, Toronto, ON, Canada Jim R. Halley, III, Florida DOT, Tallahassee, FL Kerry D. Keith, Naples Municipal Airport, Naples, FL Mark Kunugi, Denver International Airport, Denver, CO Susan J.H. Zellers, Hanson Professional Services Inc., Indianapolis, IN Janell Barrilleaux, FAA Liaison Rhonda Solomon, FAA Liaison Melinda Z. Pagliarello, Airports Council International–North America Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison

Environmental regulations have long required airports to undertake review of many actions associated with planning and development. More recently, airports have embraced sustainability as a means for ensuring the long-term viability and community benefits of their facilities. ACRP Research Report 209: Integrating Sustainability Planning and the Environmental Review Process (the Guidebook) is designed for airport industry practitioners who are interested in gaining a better understanding of the benefits of integrating envi- ronmental review with sustainability planning, and who would like strategies and tools to help them implement this integration. Airports undertake capital development projects that often require National Environ- mental Policy Act (NEPA) review. Airports also use sustainability initiatives to increase their economic and operational performance, reduce environmental effects, and enhance social benefits. To date, however, these efforts have often not been well integrated. The disconnect between environmental review and sustainability planning is often a result of incomplete guidance, limited funding, and regulatory requirements. Other challenges to integration include NEPA’s project-specific focus, in contrast to the broader, programmatic view of sustainability planning; a misalignment of impact categories; and the need for greater stakeholder coordination. Research was needed to identify opportunities for integrating the environmental analyses associated with airport development and airport sustain- ability efforts. The research to develop the Guidebook was led by a team from VHB, Inc. The research team began with a review of literature and the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA’s) sustainability program and efforts. Next, the team identified a set of airports that had exemplary sustainability plans and were also undergoing the NEPA process. This list of airports was used to conduct targeted interviews with key stakeholders including FAA officials, airport staff, and consultants to identify current practice, challenges, and oppor- tunities. The team also evaluated nearly 80 tools (e.g., checklists, applications, spread- sheets, rating systems) for their potential utility in facilitating NEPA and sustainability integration, and recommended 14 of these tools. The research team members then devel- oped a draft guidebook based on their research and experience and field tested it with airport industry practitioners. Finally, the team incorporated practitioner feedback and additional insights into the final version of the Guidebook. While the research confirmed the challenges to integrating environmental review and sustainability, the Guidebook focuses on the many opportunities for integration and align- ment. These opportunities recognize that the NEPA process is flexible, sustainability plans can prepare projects for NEPA review, and both processes use similar data. The Guidebook F O R E W O R D By Joseph D. Navarrete Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

helps practitioners build on these opportunities by allowing readers to approach this topic from the perspective of integrating sustainability into the environmental review process or by leveraging the environmental review process for sustainability planning. The Guidebook also features illustrative examples through the use of case studies; a one-page “quick start guide” listing actions focused on planning, communication, policy, procedures, and public and agency engagement; and checklists and lists of resources and tools.

Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions. 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to the Guidebook 1 1.1 Guidebook Overview 2 1.2 How to Use the Guidebook 2 1.3 Why Integrate Sustainability Planning and the Environmental Review Process? 5 1.4 Sustainability at Airports 8 1.5 Environmental Review Process at Airports 11 1.6 Key Terminology 13 1.7 Quick Start Guide 14 1.8 Key Takeaways 15 Chapter 2 How to Integrate Sustainability Planning into the Environmental Review Process 15 2.1 What Is a Typical Environmental Review? 19 2.2 Integrating Sustainability Planning into the Environmental Review Process 31 2.3 Addressing Common Challenges 34 2.4 Special Purpose Laws and Other Environmental Regulations 37 Chapter 3 How to Leverage the Environmental Review Process for Sustainability Planning 37 3.1 What Is Involved in Planning for Sustainability? 39 3.2 Leveraging the Environmental Review Process for Sustainability Planning 50 3.3 Addressing Common Challenges 52 Chapter 4 Tools and Resources 52 4.1 Tools and Terminology Overview 52 4.2 Checklists 55 4.3 Existing Tools and Resources 60 4.4 Interview Respondents 61 Acronyms 63 References and Other Resources C O N T E N T S

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Environmental regulations have long required airports to undertake review of many actions associated with planning and development. More recently, airports have embraced sustainability as a means for ensuring the long-term viability and community benefits of their facilities.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Research Report 209: Integrating Sustainability Planning and the Environmental Review Process is designed for airport industry practitioners who are interested in gaining a better understanding of the benefits of integrating environmental review with sustainability planning, and who would like strategies and tools to help them implement this integration.

While there remain challenges to integrating environmental review and sustainability, this report should help guide practitioners on the many opportunities for integration and alignment.

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