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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Communication Strategies for Airport Passenger Access and Mobility. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25640.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Communication Strategies for Airport Passenger Access and Mobility. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25640.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Communication Strategies for Airport Passenger Access and Mobility. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25640.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Communication Strategies for Airport Passenger Access and Mobility. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25640.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Communication Strategies for Airport Passenger Access and Mobility. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25640.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Communication Strategies for Airport Passenger Access and Mobility. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25640.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Communication Strategies for Airport Passenger Access and Mobility. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25640.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Communication Strategies for Airport Passenger Access and Mobility. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25640.
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Communication Strategies for Airport Passenger Access and Mobility A Synthesis of Airport Practice Shu Cole Weixuan Wang Haoai Zhao Yan Zhang IndIana UnIversIty Bloomington, IN a n d Laurel Van Horn Open dOOrs OrganIzatIOn Chicago, IL 2019 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP SYNTHESIS 101

ACRP SYNTHESIS 101 Project 11-03, Topic S07-02 ISSN 1935-9187 ISBN 978-0-309-48081-9 Library of Congress Control Number 2019951333 © 2019 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Cover photo description: Hearing loops available at information desks at Hartsfield- Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Cover photo credit: Courtesy of Shu Cole. NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100— Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP SYNTHESIS 101 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Gail R. Staba, Senior Program Officer Demisha Williams, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications ACRP PROJECT 11-03 PANEL Joshua D. Abramson, Easterwood Airport Management, College Station, TX (Chair) Debbie K. Alke, Montana DOT, Helena, MT (retired) Gloria G. Bender, TransSolutions, LLC, Fort Worth, TX David A. Byers, Quadrex Aviation, LLC, Melbourne, FL Traci Clark, Allegheny County Airport Authority, West Mifflin, PA David N. Edwards, Jr., Greenville–Spartanburg Airport District, Greer, SC Brenda L. Enos, Burns & McDonnell, Kansas City, MO Linda Howard, Independent Aviation Consultant, Bastrop, TX Patrick W. Magnotta, FAA Liaison Matthew J. Griffin, Airports Consultants Council Liaison Liying Gu, Airports Council International–North America Liaison Adam Williams, Aircraft Owners & Pilots Association Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison TOPIC S07-02 PANEL Gloria Louie, Louie Consulting Services, San Francisco, CA Jon A. Sanford, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA William J. Sproule, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI Stephen C. Wareham, Trillion Aviation, Cannon Falls, MN Vanessa Balgobin, FAA Liaison Jonathan Torres, FAA Liaison

ABOUT THE ACRP SYNTHESIS PROGRAM Airport administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which information already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This infor- mation may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire airport community, the Airport Cooperative Research Program authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing project. This project, ACRP Project 11-03, “Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices,” searches out and synthesizes useful knowl- edge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an ACRP report series, Synthesis of Airport Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. FOREWORD By Gail R. Staba Staff Officer Transportation Research Board The focus of this report is on availability and communication of information, particularly related to airport and airline practices that assist users to maximize their cognitive and sensory abilities to navigate and use airport services, programs, and facilities. Airport operators continue to develop and implement measures to ensure passenger access and mobility, including those travelers with disabilities and other travelers with access or functional needs. Through a synthesis of existing literature, this report (1) documents current airport services, programs, and communication tools to ensure passenger access and mobility; (2) identifies trends and challenges in enhancing access and mobility for travelers with cognitive and sensory disabilities, aging travelers, and travelers with limited English proficiency; and (3) suggests further research for future air travel services and communication strategies. Information used in this study was acquired through a synthesis of existing literature on the U.S. air travel industry and semi-structured interviews with representatives from 15 airports, 5 airlines, and 6 community groups within the United States. Shu Cole and his team at Indiana University synthesized the information and wrote the report. Yan Zhang, who was a member of the team at Indiana University, has now graduated and works at EY Risk Advisory Practice in Chicago. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on page iv. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.

Zainab Alkebsi Policy Counsel Law and Advocacy Center National Association of the Deaf Nina Asay Chief of Strategic Planning & Innovation The Arc San Francisco Christopher Birch Director, Guest Experience/ Chief Operating Officer’s Office San Francisco International Airport Terry Blue Vice President of Operations Memphis-Shelby County Airport Authority Richard Blut Training and Wellness Manager McCarran International Airport Phil Burke Assistant Director of Customer Experience Minneapolis–Saint Paul Metropolitan Airports Commission Frank Ciaccio Emergency Management Coordinator Houston Airport System Chris Danielsen Director of Public Relations The National Federation of the Blind Elise Farris Manager, Customer Relations Allegheny County Airport Authority Pittsburgh International Airport Lise Hamlin Director of Public Policy Hearing Loss Association of America Jennifer Hanrahan Marketing and PR Coordinator Greater Rochester International Airport Sue Hansen-Smith Manager, Airport Customer Service Port of Seattle Bonnie Hayes Analyst Customer Accessibility American Airlines Fiona Hinze Systems Change Coordinator/ Community Organizer Independent Living Resource Center San Francisco Dawn Huddleston Commercial Roadway Manager Port of Portland Anila Jivanji Senior Specialist, Inclusion and Diversity American Airlines Tim Joniec Director of Government Relations/ ADA Coordinator Houston Airport System Stephanie Lanza-Efthimiou Senior Analyst, CRO Compliance JetBlue Erin Lauridsen Director, Access Technology LightHouse for the Blind and Visually Impaired Shelly Lopez Customer Experience Coordinator Minneapolis–Saint Paul Metropolitan Airports Commission Steve Mayers Airport Director, Customer Experience, ADA and Title VI Coordinator Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport Elita McMillon Director of Ethics, Diversity and Administration Tampa International Airport Cindy Montoya Workforce Diversity Program Administrator Massachusetts Port Authority John Newsome Chief Information Officer Greater Orlando Aviation Authority Ray Prentice Director, Customer Advocacy Alaska Airlines Karen Renna Air Terminal Superintendent Buffalo Niagara International Airport Joanne Rolle Chief of Compliance & Quality Assurance The Arc San Francisco Samantha J. Stedford Senior Analyst, Strategic Initiatives, Executive Office Allegheny County Airport Authority Pittsburgh International Airport Dallas Thomas Manager, Customer Advocacy Southwest Airlines Glen Thomas Director of Strategic Marketing & Communications/Public Information Office Memphis-Shelby County Airport Authority Ryan Thomas Senior Manager, Labor Initiatives, Airport Operations Hawaiian Airlines Mary Beth Thompson ADA Coordinator Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport David E. Wilson Director, Airport Innovation Port of Seattle AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors thank the following individuals and organizations for their contributions to this report.

Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions. 1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Introduction 3 1.1 Background 4 1.2 Why Now? Demographic Trends in Air Travel 8 Chapter 2 Objectives of the Report 9 Chapter 3 Methodology 11 Chapter 4 Results 11 4.1 Travelers’ Accessibility 12 4.2 Airport Services, Information, and Communication 49 4.3 Airports’ Offsite Communication to Customers and Internal Training of Employees 61 Chapter 5 Keys to Success and Future Directions 61 5.1 Keys to Success 62 5.2 Future Directions 64 Chapter 6 Conclusions 65 References and Bibliography 70 Appendix A Questionnaire for Airlines and Airports (Same Questions) 72 Appendix B Questionnaire for Community Organizations 74 Appendix C Navigating MSP Program 75 Appendix D SFO Disability Awareness Training Program C O N T E N T S

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Access to relevant, precise, and timely information is crucial for a pleasant experience in air travel. Travelers with cognitive and sensory disabilities, aging travelers, and travelers with limited English proficiency need alternative approaches to those provided for general travelers for accessing and communicating air travel information.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 101: Communication Strategies for Airport Passenger Access and Mobility details how airports and airlines are leading the way in developing new and creative services to provide information and thus enhance passenger access and mobility.

Among the report's findings: Airports’ current efforts to improve passenger access and mobility follow three key trends: commitment to seamless customer experience, developing a sense of place at airports, and improving efficiency and personalized service through the use of technology such as biometrics, robotics, and artificial intelligence.

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