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2019 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 932 A Research Roadmap for Transportation and Public Health Laura Sandt Alyson West Sarah Johnson Kristen Brookshire Kelly Evenson HigHway Safety ReSeaRcH centeR and injuRy PRevention ReSeaRcH centeR univeRSity of noRtH caRolina Chapel Hill, NC Lauren Blackburn Kara Peach Margaret Tartala vHB Raleigh, NC Anna Ricklin Sagar Shah ameRican Planning aSSociation Washington, D.C. Daniel A. Rodriguez Jason Corburn indePendent conSultantS Berkeley, CA Subscriber Categories Highways â¢ Public Transportation â¢ Research Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transporta- tion results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to high- way authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniquesâthe National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRBâs recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRBâs relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the Federal Highway Administration. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&Iâs recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 932 Project 20-112 ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-48098-7 Library of Congress Control Number 2019954590 Â© 2019 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 932 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Senior Program Officer Brittany Summerlin-Azeez, Program Coordinator Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Heidi Willis, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 20-112 PANEL Field of Special Projects Marilee C. Mortenson, California DOT, Sacramento, CA (Chair) Jason Broehm, U.S. DOT, Washington, D.C. Kathryn A. âKatieâ Caskey, HDR, Minneapolis, MN Andrew L. Dannenberg, University of Washington, Seattle, WA Eileen Gunn, Massachusetts DOT, Boston, MA B. Casey Langford, Tennessee DOT, Nashville, TN Carolyn A. McAndrews, University of WisconsinâMadison, Madison, WI Leslie A. Meehan, Tennessee Department of Health, Nashville, TN Bethany Rogerson, Washington, D.C. Sandra J. âSandyâ Wesch, Dallas, TX Victoria Martinez, FHWA Liaison Alina B. Baciu, Health and Medicine Division Liaison Bernardo Kleiner, TRB Liaison
F O R E W O R D By Marci A. Greenberger Staff Officer Transportation Research Board NCHRP Research Report 932 provides state departments of transportation, their trans- portation partners, and the public health community with a broad overview of highly relevant research needs at the intersection of transportation and public health in the United States. This research roadmap will facilitate systematic inquiry in this topic area with the ultimate goal of providing transportation and public health communities with better information on how to integrate public health considerations at all levels of their agenciesâ decision-making. Transportation is an essential component of a functioning society. Transportation provides access to jobs, education, health care, recreation, and essential goods and servicesâall of which are aspects of the social determinants of health. Distribution of transportation goods and services across populations substantially contributes to the length and quality of life. The missions of state departments of transportation (DOTs) typically include safety, efficiency, mobility, accessibility, and quality of lifeâand each of these have implications for public health. The missions of state health agencies include protecting, promoting, and improving the health of people; the outcomes of these are affected by transportation systems and policies. A growing number of state and local transportation and public health agencies are collaborating to improve public health and transportation system performance; this collaboration can contribute to an improved economy and quality of life. The relationship between transportation and public health is complex and manifests itself in a variety of ways and at various levels of decision-making. The transportation sector has conducted robust research to understand the impacts of transportation on air quality, safety, and noise. However, there are gaps in the understanding of transporta- tionâs relationship to other areas of public health. Some of the under-researched areas include how transportation affects the social determinants of health, the health of underserved populations, equitable access to transportation services, and how performance measurement in both sectors can support better health outcomes. Addressing these gaps may require research in areas such as active transportation, multimodal connectivity, economic development, the built environment, land use, and how decisions made in each of these areas can improve public health outcomes. Under NCHRP Project 20-112, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill was asked to develop a research roadmap plan that outlines the key opportunities and chal- lenges associated with transportation and public health, identify why they are important to transportation agencies, identify gaps in knowledge and practice, and outline and pri- oritize specific research projects needed to address these gaps. The research team also
provided a communications and implementation plan (Appendix A) to help make stake- holders aware of the research and how to use the roadmap. A glossary of terms and list of acronyms that may be useful for professionals in different sectors in order to share a common vocabulary regarding transportation and health research needs is included in the contractorâs final report, available on the TRB website (www.trb.org) by searching for âNCHRP Research Report 932.â
1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 Roadmap Purpose and Intended Audience/Use 2 Roadmap Organization 4 Chapter 2 Transportation Agency Processes 4 Policy Making 6 Planning 8 Capital Programs, Projects, and Implementation 10 Monitoring and Evaluation 11 Data Improvement and Integration 13 Chapter 3 Transportation Agency Practices and Research Translation 13 Setting Goals and Performance Measures 14 Interagency Collaborations 16 Chapter 4 Specific Topics and Emerging Issues 16 Transit 17 Demographic, Cultural, and Travel Behavior Shifts 18 Emerging Forms of Transportation and Mobility 19 Emerging Data Sources 20 Chapter 5 Research Problem Statements 21 Problem Statement #1: Synthesis of Best Practices for Including Health Outcomes in Transportation Project Prioritization 24 Problem Statement #2: Data Sources for Establishing Health Outcome Performance Measures for Transportation Projects 27 Problem Statement #3: Practices and Recommendations in Reporting and Integrating Pedestrian and Bicycle Non-Fatal Injury Data Systems 31 Problem Statement #4: A Guidebook for Considering the Public Health Impacts of Public Transportation Decisions 34 Problem Statement #5: Effect of Demographic Change on Travel Behavior and Health 36 Problem Statement #6: Evaluating and Integrating Emerging Data Sources to Support Transportation and Health Planning and Operations A-1 Appendix A Research Communications and Implementation Plan A-1 TRB/AASHTO/NCHRP Research Funding Process and Opportunities A-4 Federal/State/Local Agencies A-6 University Transportation Centers C O N T E N T S
A-6 Private Foundations A-7 Member Organizations A-7 Sample Communications Content A-7 Updating the Roadmap B-1 Appendix B Bibliography Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.