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Evidence-Based Practice for Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response (2020)

Chapter: Appendix D: Commissioned Scoping Review and Series of Evidence Maps

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Commissioned Scoping Review and Series of Evidence Maps." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evidence-Based Practice for Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25650.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Commissioned Scoping Review and Series of Evidence Maps." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evidence-Based Practice for Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25650.
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Page 512
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Commissioned Scoping Review and Series of Evidence Maps." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evidence-Based Practice for Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25650.
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Page 513
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Commissioned Scoping Review and Series of Evidence Maps." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evidence-Based Practice for Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25650.
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Page 514
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Commissioned Scoping Review and Series of Evidence Maps." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evidence-Based Practice for Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25650.
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Page 515
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Commissioned Scoping Review and Series of Evidence Maps." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evidence-Based Practice for Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25650.
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Page 516
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Commissioned Scoping Review and Series of Evidence Maps." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evidence-Based Practice for Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25650.
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Page 517
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Commissioned Scoping Review and Series of Evidence Maps." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evidence-Based Practice for Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25650.
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Page 518
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Commissioned Scoping Review and Series of Evidence Maps." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evidence-Based Practice for Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25650.
×
Page 519
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Commissioned Scoping Review and Series of Evidence Maps." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evidence-Based Practice for Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25650.
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Page 520
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Commissioned Scoping Review and Series of Evidence Maps." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evidence-Based Practice for Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25650.
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Page 521
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Commissioned Scoping Review and Series of Evidence Maps." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evidence-Based Practice for Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25650.
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Page 522
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Commissioned Scoping Review and Series of Evidence Maps." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evidence-Based Practice for Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25650.
×
Page 523
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Commissioned Scoping Review and Series of Evidence Maps." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evidence-Based Practice for Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25650.
×
Page 524
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Commissioned Scoping Review and Series of Evidence Maps." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evidence-Based Practice for Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25650.
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Page 525
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Commissioned Scoping Review and Series of Evidence Maps." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evidence-Based Practice for Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25650.
×
Page 526
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Commissioned Scoping Review and Series of Evidence Maps." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evidence-Based Practice for Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25650.
×
Page 527
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Commissioned Scoping Review and Series of Evidence Maps." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evidence-Based Practice for Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25650.
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Page 528

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Appendix D Commissioned Scoping Review and Series of Evidence Maps The committee sought to understand the extent, range, and nature of public health emergency preparedness and response (PHEPR) research across the 15 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) PHEPR Capabilities, with a specific focus on studies evaluating the impact of PHEPR practices, and commissioned an expert group to visualize these findings using high-level evidence maps. This appendix contains excerpts and evidence maps from the group’s full paper, “Review and Evidence Mapping of Scholarly Publications Within CDC’s 15 Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Capabilities.”1 A total of 1,692 articles (published 2001–2019), consisting of quantitative (comparative and noncomparative) impact studies, quantitative nonimpact studies, qualitative studies, modeling studies, literature reviews, after action reports and case studies, and commentaries, were initially included in the commissioned scoping review.2 Ultimately, the committee was most interested in those studies that could potentially provide evidence regarding the 15 PHEPR Capabilities. Therefore, after this initial classification of all study designs, commentaries and literature reviews were excluded from subsequent analyses, resulting in a total of 1,106 articles for final inclusion. 3 1 The full paper can be found under the resources tab at http://www.nap.edu/catalog/25650 2 The task of finding and classifying the body of research underlying all of the 15 PHEPR Capabilities was challenging because of the broad scope, complexity, and nature of the research topics. The evidence maps prepared for this study certainly do not contain every published study examining PHEPR practices since 2001. The authors of the scoping review did not attempt to capture after action reports that were not published in journals and searchable in bibliographic databases. Future efforts could focus on conducting detailed scoping reviews on specific capabilities or practices. 3 The 1,106 articles included in the final analysis were described in the commissioned report as “evidentiary studies,” which required some form of systematic data collection and analysis that could provide evidence regarding the PHEPR Capabilities. Non-evidentiary studies include opinion, concept, and opinion papers, as well as literature reviews. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS D-1

D-2 EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE FOR PHEPR DESCRIPTIVE MAPS OF ARTICLES WITHIN THE 15 PUBLIC HEALTH EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE CAPABILITIES FIGURE D-1 Distribution of all articles by study design (N = 1,692). PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

APPENDIX D D-3 FIGURE D-2 Study design by PHEPR Capability (N = 1,184). FIGURE D-3 Distribution of evidentiary articles by PHEPR Capability (N = 1,106). PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

D-4 EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE FOR PHEPR FIGURE D-4 Distribution of evidentiary articles across PHEPR Capabilities (N = 1,106). FIGURE D-5 Type of outcome by PHEPR Capability (N = 1,106). PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

APPENDIX D D-5 FIGURE D-6 Type of disaster by PHEPR Capability (N = 1,106). FIGURE D-7 Organization by PHEPR Capability (N = 1,106). PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

D-6 EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE FOR PHEPR FIGURE D-8 Setting by PHEPR Capability (N = 1,106). MATRIX EVIDENCE MAPS OF QUANTITATIVE IMPACT STUDIES WITHIN THE 15 PUBLIC HEALTH EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE CAPABILITIES PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

APPENDIX D D-7 FIGURE D-9 Evidence map: Characteristics of U.S. quantitative impact studies across the PHEPR Capabilities (N = 72). PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

D-8 EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE FOR PHEPR FIGURE D-10 Evidence map: Characteristics of non-U.S. quantitative impact studies across the PHEPR Capabilities (N = 23). PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

APPENDIX D D-9 MATRIX EVIDENCE MAPS OF STUDIES WITHIN SPECIFIC PRACTICE AREAS OF THE 15 PUBLIC HEALTH EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE CAPABILITIES FIGURE D-11 Evidence map: Characteristics of studies for Community Preparedness (N = 221). PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

D-10 EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE FOR PHEPR FIGURE D-12 Evidence map: Characteristics of studies for Community Recovery (N = 78). PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

APPENDIX D D-11 FIGURE D-13 Evidence map: Characteristics of studies for Emergency Operations Coordination (N = 111). PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

D-12 EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE FOR PHEPR FIGURE D-14 Evidence map: Characteristics of studies for Emergency Public Information and Warning (N = 66). FIGURE D-15 Evidence map: Characteristics of studies for Fatality Management (N = 15). PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

APPENDIX D D-13 FIGURE D-16 Evidence map: Characteristics of studies for Information Sharing (N = 38). FIGURE D-17 Evidence map: Characteristics of studies for Mass Care (N = 30). PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

D-14 EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE FOR PHEPR FIGURE D-18 Evidence map: Characteristics of studies for Medical Countermeasure Dispensing and Administration (N = 110). FIGURE D-19 Evidence map: Characteristics of studies for Medical Materiel Management and Distribution (N = 36). PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

APPENDIX D D-15 FIGURE D-20 Evidence map: Characteristics of studies for Medical Surge (N = 87). FIGURE D-21 Evidence map: Characteristics of studies for Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (N = 112). PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

D-16 EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE FOR PHEPR FIGURE D-22 Evidence map: Characteristics of studies for Public Health Laboratory Testing (N = 15). PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

APPENDIX D D-17 FIGURE D-23 Evidence map: Characteristics of studies for Public Health Surveillance and Epidemiological Investigation (N = 102). PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

D-18 EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE FOR PHEPR FIGURE D-24 Evidence map: Characteristics of studies for Responder Safety and Health (N = 51). FIGURE D-25 Evidence map: Characteristics of studies for Volunteer Management (N = 55). PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Next: Appendix E: Public Committee Meeting Agendas and Proceedings of a Workshop - in Brief »
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When communities face complex public health emergencies, state local, tribal, and territorial public health agencies must make difficult decisions regarding how to effectively respond. The public health emergency preparedness and response (PHEPR) system, with its multifaceted mission to prevent, protect against, quickly respond to, and recover from public health emergencies, is inherently complex and encompasses policies, organizations, and programs. Since the events of September 11, 2001, the United States has invested billions of dollars and immeasurable amounts of human capital to develop and enhance public health emergency preparedness and infrastructure to respond to a wide range of public health threats, including infectious diseases, natural disasters, and chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear events. Despite the investments in research and the growing body of empirical literature on a range of preparedness and response capabilities and functions, there has been no national-level, comprehensive review and grading of evidence for public health emergency preparedness and response practices comparable to those utilized in medicine and other public health fields.

Evidence-Based Practice for Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response reviews the state of the evidence on PHEPR practices and the improvements necessary to move the field forward and to strengthen the PHEPR system. This publication evaluates PHEPR evidence to understand the balance of benefits and harms of PHEPR practices, with a focus on four main areas of PHEPR: engagement with and training of community-based partners to improve the outcomes of at-risk populations after public health emergencies; activation of a public health emergency operations center; communication of public health alerts and guidance to technical audiences during a public health emergency; and implementation of quarantine to reduce the spread of contagious illness.

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