National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Consumer Food Data System for 2030 and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25657.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Consumer Food Data System for 2030 and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25657.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Consumer Food Data System for 2030 and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25657.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Prepublication Copy — Subject to Further Editorial Correction A CONSUMER FOOD DATA SYSTEM FOR 2030 AND BEYOND Panel on Improving Consumer Data for Food and Nutrition Policy Research for the Economic Research Service Committee on National Statistics Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education A Consensus Study Report of

Prepublication Copy — Subject to Further Editorial Correction THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by a contract between the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the Economic Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture under project number 58-5000-7-0106. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25657 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2020 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Consumer Food Data System for 2030 and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25657.

Prepublication Copy — Subject to Further Editorial Correction The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Prepublication Copy — Subject to Further Editorial Correction Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Prepublication Copy — Subject to Further Editorial Correction PANEL ON IMPROVING CONSUMER DATA FOR FOOD AND NUTRITION POLICY RESEARCH FOR THE ECONOMIC RESEARCH SERVICE MARIANNE P. BITLER (Chair), Department of Economics, University of California, Davis TIM BEATTY, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, Davis SOFIA BERTO VILLAS-BOAS, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, Berkeley F. JAY BREIDT, Department of Statistics, Colorado State University CRAIG GUNDERSEN, Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics, University of Illinois MICHAEL LINK, Division for Data Science, Surveys & Enabling Technologies, Abt Associates BRUCE D. MEYER, Harris School of Public Policy Studies, The University of Chicago AMY O’HARA, McCourt School of Public Policy, Georgetown University ERIC B. RIMM, Department of Epidemiology and Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health NORA CATE SCHAEFFER, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin-Madison DIANE W. SCHANZENBACH, Institute for Policy Research and School of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University PARKE E. WILDE, Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tuft University JAMES P. ZILIAK, Center for Poverty Research, University of Kentucky CHRISTOPHER MACKIE, Senior Program Officer NANCY KIRKENDALL, Senior Program Officer MICHAEL SIRI, Associate Program Officer FM - v

Prepublication Copy — Subject to Further Editorial Correction COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL STATISTICS ROBERT M. GROVES, Chair, Office of the Provost, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, and Department of Sociology, Georgetown University ANNE C. CASE, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University JANET M. CURRIE, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University DONALD A. DILLMAN, Social and Economic Sciences Research Center, Washington State University DIANA FARRELL, JPMorgan Chase Institute, Washington, DC ROBERT GOERGE, Chapin Hall at The University of Chicago HILARY HOYNES, Goldman School of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley DANIEL KIFER, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University SHARON LOHR, Consultant and Freelance Writer THOMAS L. MESENBOURG, Retired, formerly U.S. Census Bureau SARAH M. NUSSER, Center for Survey Statistics and Methodology, Iowa State University JEROME P. REITER, Department of Statistical Science, Duke University JUDITH A. SELTZER, Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles C. MATTHEW SNIPP, Department of Sociology, Stanford University JEANETTE WING, Data Science Institute, Columbia University BRIAN HARRIS-KOJETIN, Director CONNIE F. CITRO, Senior Scholar FM - vi

Prepublication Copy — Subject to Further Editorial Correction Acknowledgments This report is the product of contributions from many colleagues whom we thank for their generous time and effort and expert guidance. The project was sponsored by the United States Department of Agriculture’s Economic Research Service (ERS) to provide guidance to its Food Economics Division as it continues development of key national data sources for measuring the food and nutrition conditions faced by consumers, and the factors that affect those conditions. Work by the Food Economics Division is crucial in helping ERS fulfill its mission to “anticipate trends and emerging issues in agriculture, food, the environment, and rural America and to conduct high-quality, objective economic research to inform and enhance public and private decision making.” The efforts of the people listed here enabled the panel to execute its charge to provide guidance to ERS for advancement its Consumer Food Data System (CFDS) over the next 10 years in a way that enhances its capacity to support research and inform current and anticipated policy questions. The panel thanks ERS staff who attended open meetings and generously gave of their time to present material to inform the panel’s deliberations. They provided comprehensive information about the agency’s current projects and priorities related to the CFDS. These presentations informed panel members about key developments—exploiting proprietary data, developing linkages across data sources, adding supplements to exiting surveys, and continued planning of surveys such as FoodAPS—enabling continued progress on the ERS data infrastructure. Mary Bohman, Administrator (former), Jay Variyam, Division Director, and Mark Denbaly, Deputy Division Director for Food Economics Data, outlined goals of the study and detailed the agency’s blueprint for current CFDS program. Throughout the duration of the study, Jay and Mark provided substantive input and kept the panel up to date on developments at ERS and with FoodAPS and other programs. In documenting the agency’s current data programs and research activities, David Levin and Megan Sweitzer, both ERS economists, provided an overview of the use of proprietary data in the CFDS. Andrea Carlson, also an ERS economist, described agency efforts to link nutrition information to other data sources. Shelly Ver Ploeg, Chief, Food Assistance Branch, discussed the role of data linking in informing research on how food store access and the larger food environment impact food choices, diet, and diet-related health. Mark Prell, Senior Economist, presented on the Next Generation Data Platform for using administrative. ERS economist Elina Page provided a detailed overview of FoodAPS and discussed plans for the second round of the survey. Abigail Okrent, ERS research economist, documented current uses of commercial data by ERS and outlined plans for expanding its use. Biing-Hwan Lin, senior economist, presented information on the agency’s work linking the Food Availability Data System (FADS) to nutrition intake data from the Agricultural Research FM - vii

Prepublication Copy — Subject to Further Editorial Correction Service and National Center for Health Statistics to monitor and research the health and dietary outcomes. ERS research economists Brandon Restrepo and Eliana Zeballos and social science analyst Alisha Coleman-Jensen detailed the use of specialized modules added to federal surveys to advance the CFDS. The panel also benefited greatly from a number of presentations by experts from beyond the statistical system. Addressing commercial data sources used by USDA, Brian Burke, IRI, described work by his firm with proprietary household and retail scanner price data; Ann Hanson and Louis Lesce, NPD, presented on that company’s consumer spending and consumption data collections; and Joseph Fortson of Nielsen described their store-level database of retailers selling consumer packaged goods, including food. The panel also learned a great deal about efforts to combine data sources to advance food and nutrition policy and research. Alison Krester and Kyle McKillop of ILSI North America presented on the USDA Branded Food Products Database which augments the USDA National Nutrient Database with nutrient composition and ingredient information. Laurie May and Tom Krenzke of Westat kept the panel informed about progress on FoodAPS-2 which they are contracted to develop and field. Working with panel member Parke Wilde, Mehreen Ismail, Tufts University, summarized strengths and weaknesses of FoodAPS from a researcher perspective and offered suggestions for improvements. Robert Moffitt, Johns Hopkins University, addressed data needs to advance research on program outcomes, food expenditure, reporting errors, and SNAP impacts, thereby providing insights about productive future directions for ERS surveys. Susan Krebs-Smith, Chief, Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch, National Cancer Institute, described the use of USDA consumer food data for health research. Melissa Abelev, Assistant Deputy Administrator at USDA’s Food and Nutrition Service described her agency’s role in producing and its use of CFDS information. Several researchers presented ideas for improving food and nutrition data—including integration of commercial and administrative data—for the purpose of informing policy issues. Colleen Heflin, Syracuse University, presented on the insights that can be gleaned by linking SNAP administrative data with other types of administrative data and limitations to this. Justine Hastings, Brown University, discussed her work using retail panel loyalty card data and Rhode Island state administrative records to analyze how SNAP benefits are spent. And Charles Courtemanche, University of Kentucky, presented work assessing the quality of administrative SNAP data used in FoodAPS. Rachel Shattuck, Chief, Survey Improvement Research Branch of the Census Bureau, presented on the quality and utility of an interagency cooperative program called the Next-Generation Data Platform. John Eltinge, Assistant Director at the U.S. Census Bureau, presented information to the panel about interagency efforts to address quality issues associated with using multiple data sources (including proprietary data). Cordell Golden, statistician as the National Center for Health Statistics, described ongoing record linkage programs at his agency. Rob Santos, vice president and chief methodologist, Urban Institute, described non-government sources for filling data gaps in ERS’s Consumer Food Data System, including those produced through a collaboration with the Feeding America program. Alessandro Bonanno, Colorado State University, presented ideas for improving geospatial information in ERS’s food data system. On the topic of using proprietary data for food policy research, Mary Muth, director of RTI's Food, Nutrition, and Obesity Policy Research Program, described types, sources, and considerations and limitations in using store scanner data, household scanner data, and nutrition data from labels for food policy research. On a related topic, Helen Jensen, Iowa State, described how proprietary scanner data could help shed light on issues related to the WIC program. Carma Hogue, Assistant Division FM - viii

Prepublication Copy — Subject to Further Editorial Correction Chief at the U.S. Census Bureau, described that agency’s work on improving economic statistics through web scraping and machine learning. Finally, the panel heard presentations informing the panel about data needs for implementation and assessment of programs at state and local levels. Shannon Whaley, Director of Research and Evaluation, PHFE WIC, discussed data needs for planning, development, and evaluation of programs designed to promote the healthy development of low-income children and families. Caroline Danielson, Policy Director and Senior Fellow, Public Policy Institute of California, presented data needs for effective administration of state-level programs such as SNAP/Calfresh. Wendi Gosliner, Unit Director at Nutrition Policy Institute, University of California, discussed data needs for research and policy to improve federal food and nutrition programs, such as WIC and SNAP-Ed, designed to improve population health. Hilary Hoynes, Professor of Public Policy and Economics, University of California Berkeley, discussed the role of different kinds of data, including administrative data and data on policy choices made by states, for understanding health outcomes associated with programs such as SNAP and WIC. The panel could not have conducted its work efficiently without the capable staff of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine: Brian Harris-Kojetin, director of the Committee on National Statistics, provided institutional leadership and substantive contributions during meetings. Kirsten Sampson-Snyder, director of reports, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, expertly coordinated the review process; and Marc DeFrancis provided thorough final editing that improved the readability of the report for a wide audience. We also thank senior program associate Michael Siri for his well-organized and efficient logistical support of the panel’s meetings, as well as his contribution to assembling and formatting of this report. Nancy Kirkendall was essential in drafting important sections of the report and providing insights based on her long experience with USDA data and research issues and with the US statistical system. On behalf of the panel, I thank the study director, Christopher Mackie, for his tireless work and enthusiasm which propelled us forward. Finally, and most importantly, a note of appreciation is in order for my fellow panel members. This report reflects the collective expertise and commitment of all panel members: Tim Beatty, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, Davis; Sofia Berto Villas-Boas, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, Berkeley; F. Jay Breidt, Department of Statistics, Colorado State University; Craig Gundersen, Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics, University of Illinois; Michael Link, Division for Data Science, Surveys & Enabling Technologies, Abt Associates; Bruce D. Meyer, Harris School of Public Policy Studies, The University of Chicago; Amy O’Hara, McCourt School of Public Policy, Georgetown University; Eric B. Rimm, Department of Epidemiology and Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health; Nora Cate Schaeffer, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Diane W. Schanzenbach, Institute for Policy Research and School of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University; Parke E. Wilde, Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tuft University; and James P. Ziliak, Center for Poverty Research, University of Kentucky. This group—chosen for their diverse perspectives, backgrounds, and subject matter knowledge—gave generously of their time to attend meetings and to apply their expertise in the writing of this report. This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, FM - ix

Prepublication Copy — Subject to Further Editorial Correction Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Scott W. Allard, Evans School of Public Policy and Governance, University of Washington; Alessandro Bonanno, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Colorado State University; Alicia L. Carriquiry, Department of Statistics, Iowa State University; Randy Green, Food and Agriculture and Public Affairs, Watson Green, LLC, Washington, DC; Danny O. Jacobs, President’s Office, Oregon Health Sciences University; Barbara A. Laraia, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley; William Layden, School of Public Health, Indiana University; Robert A. Moffitt, Department of Economics, Johns Hopkins University; Mary K. Muth, Food and Agricultural Policy Research, RTI International; and Robert L. Santos, Chief Methodologist’s Office, The Urban Institute. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of the report was overseen by Mary Ellen Bock. professor emeritus at Purdue University, and Barbara Schaal, professor at Washington University in St. Louis. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. Marianne P. Bitler, Chair Panel on Improving Consumer Data for Food and Nutrition Policy Research for the Economic Research Service FM - x

Prepublication Copy — Subject to Further Editorial Correction Contents Summary 1 Introduction 1.1. Why Measure the Population’s Food Intake and Nutrition? 1.2. Goals of a Consumer Food Data System 1.3. Charge to the Panel; Report Themes asnd Structure 2 ERS’s Current Consumer Food and Nutrition Data Infrastructure 2.1. Survey Data Sources 2.2. Administrative Data Sources 2.3. Proprietary Commercial Data Sources 2.4. Nutrient/Food Composition Databases 3 Data and Knowledge Gaps 3.1. Monitoring Needs 3.2. Assessing the Quality and Coverage of Data 3.3. A Data Infrastructure for Addressing Descriptive and Causal Questions 3.4. Conclusion 4 Strategies to Strengthen the Infrastructure of a Consumer Food Data System 4.1. Desirable Characteristics of a Consumer Food and Nutrition Data System 4.2. Survey Components of the CFDS 4.3. Opportunities from and Challenges with Expanding Use of Administrative Data 4.4. Opportunities from and Challenges with Expanding Use of Commercial Data 4.5. Creating Comprehensive Policy Databases 4.6. Combining Data Sources and Data Access Appendixes A Summary, First Meeting, April 16, 2018 B Summary, Second Meeting, June 14, 2018 C Summary, Third Meeting, September 21, 2018 D Biographical Sketches of Panel Members References FM - xi

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Patterns of food consumption and nutritional intake strongly affect the population's health and well-being. The Food Economics Division of USDA's Economic Research Service (ERS) engages in research and data collection to inform policy making related to the leading federal nutrition assistance programs managed by USDA's Food and Nutrition Service. The ERS uses the Consumer Food Data System to understand why people choose foods, how food assistance programs affect these choices, and the health impacts of those choices.

At the request of ERS, A Consumer Food Data System for 2030 and Beyond provides a blueprint for ERS's Food Economics Division for its data strategy over the next decade. This report explores the quality of data collected, the data collection process, and the kinds of data that may be most valuable to researchers, policy makers, and program administrators going forward. The recommendations of A Consumer Food Data System for 2030 and Beyond will guide ERS to provide and sustain a multisource, interconnected, reliable data system.

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