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Effectiveness and Impacts of Dust Control Measures for Owens Lake Owens Lake Scientific Advisory Panel Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Water Science and Technology Board Division on Earth and Life Studies This prepublication version of Effectiveness and Impacts of Dust Control Measures for Owens Lake has been provided to the public to facilitate timely access to the report. Although the substance of the report is final, editorial changes may be made throughout the text and citations will be checked prior to publication. The final report will be available through the National Academies Press in Spring 2020. A Consensus Study Report of
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by a contract between the National Academy of Sciences and the Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control District. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: International Standard Book Number-10: Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25658 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2020 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Effectiveness and Impacts of Dust Control Measures for Owens Lake. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25658. Prepublication VersionâSubject to further editorial revision.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. Prepublication VersionâSubject to further editorial revision.
Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the studyâs statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committeeâs deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. Prepublication VersionâSubject to further editorial revision.
OWENS LAKE SCIENTIFIC ADVISORY PANEL DAVID T. ALLEN, Chair, NAE, University of Texas at Austin NEWSHA K. AJAMI, Stanford University, Stanford, CA ROYA BAHREINI, University of California, Riverside PRATIM BISWAS, NAE, Washington University in St. Louis VALERIE T. EVINER, University of California, Davis GREGORY S. OKIN, University of California, Los Angeles ARMISTEAD G. RUSSELL, Georgia Institute of Technology SCOTT TYLER, University of Nevada, Reno R. SCOTT VAN PELT, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service AKULA VENKATRAM, University of California, Riverside National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Staff RAYMOND WASSEL, Scholar STEPHANIE JOHNSON, Senior Program Officer CARLY BRODY, Senior Program Assistant (July 2019) RITA GASKINS, Administrative Coordinator Prepublication VersionâSubject to further editorial revision. v
BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY WILLIAM H. FARLAND, Chair, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO LESA AYLWARD, Summit Toxicology, LLP, Falls Church, VA ANN M. BARTUSKA, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC GERMAINE M. BUCK LOUIS, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA E. WILLIAM COLGLAZIER, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC FRANCESCA DOMINICI, Harvard University, Boston, MA GEORGE GRAY, The George Washington University, Washington, DC R. JEFFREY LEWIS, ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences, Inc., Annandale, NJ LINSEY C. MARR, VA Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA R. CRAIG POSTLEWAITE, Department of Defense, Burke, VA REZA J. RASOULPOUR, Corteva Agriscience, Indianapolis, IN IVAN RUSYN, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX DEBORAH L. SWACKHAMER, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN JOSHUA TEWKSBURY, Future Earth, Boulder, CO SACOBY M. WILSON, University of Maryland College Park, MD National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Staff CLIFFORD S. DUKE, Director RAYMOND WASSEL, Scholar and Director of Environmental Studies LAURA LLANOS, Finance Business Partner TAMARA DAWSON, Program Associate Prepublication VersionâSubject to further editorial revision. vi
BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES ISABEL P. MONTAÃEZ, Chair, University of California, Davis ESTELLA A. ATEKWANA, University of Delaware, Newark BRENDA B. BOWEN, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City CHRISTOPHER (SCOTT) CAMERON, Geological Consulting, LLC, Houston, TX NELIA W. DUNBAR, New Mexico Bureau of Geology & Mineral Resources, Socorro RODNEY C. EWING, Stanford University, Stanford, CA CAROL P. HARDEN, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville ROBERT L. KLEINBERG, Institute for Sustainable Energy, Boston University, MA THORNE LAY, University of California, Santa Cruz ZELMA MAINE-JACKSON, Washington State Department of Ecology, Richland MICHAEL MANGA, University of California, Berkeley MARTIN W. MCCANN, Stanford University, Stanford, CA JEFFREY N. RUBIN, Tualatin Valley Fire & Rescue, Tigard, OR JAMES A. SLUTZ, National Petroleum Council, Washington, DC SHAOWEN WANG, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ELIZABETH J. WILSON, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Staff ELIZABETH EIDE, Director ANNE LINN, Scholar DEBORAH GLICKSON, Senior Staff Officer SAMMANTHA MAGSINO, Senior Staff Officer NICHOLAS ROGERS, Financial Business Partner COURTNEY DEVANE, Administrative Coordinator ERIC EDKIN, Program Coordinator RAYMOND (REMY) CHAPPETTA, Senior Program Assistant/Research Assistant Prepublication VersionâSubject to further editorial revision. vii
WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BOARD CATHERINE L. KLING, Chair, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY NEWSHA AJAMI, Stanford University, Stanford, CA JONATHAN D. ARTHUR, Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee DAVID A. DZOMBAK, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA WENDY D. GRAHAM, University of Florida, Gainesville MARK W. LECHEVALLIER, Water Consulting, LLC, Morrison, CO MARGARET A. PALMER, SESYNCâUniversity of Maryland, Annapolis DAVID L. SEDLAK, University of California, Berkeley DAVID L. WEGNER, Jacobs Engineering, Tucson, AZ P. KAY WHITLOCK, Christopher B. Burke Engineering, Ltd., Rosemont, IL National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Staff ELIZABETH EIDE, Director LAURA J. EHLERS, Senior Staff Officer STEPHANIE E. JOHNSON, Senior Staff Officer M. JEANNE AQUILINO, Financial Business Partner/Administrative Associate ERIC J. EDKIN, Program Coordinator Prepublication VersionâSubject to further editorial revision. viii
Acknowledgments In the course of preparing its report, the Owens Lake Scientific Advisory Panel (OLSAP) held public information-gathering sessions during two meetings and three web conferences to hear presentations from representatives of Air Sciences, Inc., Big Pine Paiute Tribe of Owens Valley, California Department of Fish and Wildlife, California State Lands Commission, Eastern Sierra Audubon, Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control District, Lone Pine Paiute-Shoshone Reservation, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, and Ramboll. OLSAP gratefully acknowledges the individuals listed in Appendix B for their presentations during the information-gathering sessions. In addition, OLSAP is grateful to the many individuals who arranged for the three field-trip sessions at Owens Lake and provided written materials in response to panel requests. This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Douglas Burbank, University of California, Santa Barbara Bart Croes, California Air Resources Board (retired) Andrew Elmore, University of Maryland Marilyn Fogel, University of California, Riverside Jenny Hand, Colorado State University Nicholas Lancaster, Desert Research Institute Jay Lund, University of California, Davis Joanna Nield, University of Southampton Raymond Torres, University of South Carolina Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Deb Niemeier, University of California at Davis, and Thure Cerling, University of Utah. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. Prepublication VersionâSubject to further editorial revision. ix
Abbreviations AF acre feet BACM Best Available Control Measure CAA U.S. Clean Air Act CARB California Air Resources Board CDFW California Department of Fish and Wildlife CE control efficiency or control effectiveness CEQA California Environmental Quality Act CFR Code of Federal Regulations DCMs dust control measures ECR Eligible Cultural Resource EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency FAO Food and Agricultural Organization FEM Federal Equivalent Method FRM Federal Reference Method GBUAPCD Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control District GWC gravimetric water content LADWP Los Angeles Department of Water and Power MSAs Metropolitan Statistical Areas NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NDD normalized distance downwind OLSAP Owens Lake Scientific Advisory Panel OVPA Owens Valley Planning Area PM10 particulate matter 10 micrometers or less in diameter PM2.5 particulate matter 2.5 micrometers or less in diameter PV photovoltaic SFWCRFT Shallow Flood Wetness Cover Refinement Field Testing SIP State Implementation Plan SWEEP Single-Event Wind Erosion Evaluation Program TEOM Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance Prepublication VersionâSubject to further editorial revision. xi
Contents Summary 1Â 1 Introduction 11Â Owens Lake: A Source of Dust Emisssions, 11Â Challenges, 17Â Statement of Task, 17Â Organization of the Report, 19Â 2 Air Quality 21Â Dust Generation via Wind Erosion, 21Â Effects of Seasonality on Dust Emissions at Owens Lake, 22Â Air Quality Monitoring Requirements, 23Â Trends in Air Quality Monitoring Data, 25Â PM10 Emissions Estimation, 28Â Apportioning On-Lake and Off-Lake Sources of PM10 Emissions, 31Â State Implementation Plan Development and Air Quality Modeling, 32Â Conclusions and Recommendations, 34Â 3 Natural Resources and Environmental Context 37Â Climate, Hydrology, and Water Resources, 37Â Cultural Resources, 44Â Habitat Resources, 45Â Mineral Resources, 55Â Conclusions and Recommendations, 56Â 4 Evaluations of Dust Control Measures 59Â Existing BACMS, 59Â Other Non-BACM Dust Control Measures, 84Â Dust Control Measures Not Evaluated in Detail, 102Â Monitoring BACM Effectiveness, 103Â Conclusions and Recommendations, 105Â 5 Addressing Current and Future Management Challenges with a Systems Approach 107Â Management for Multiple Goals, 107Â What Is a Systems Approach?, 109Â Toward a Long-Term, Integrated Strategy, 114Â Conclusions and Recommendation, 114Â References 117Â Appendix A Panel Member Biosketches 131Â Appendix B Open-Session Meeting Agendas 135Â Prepublication VersionâSubject to further editorial revision. xiii