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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25671.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25671.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25671.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25671.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25671.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25671.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25671.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25671.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25671.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25671.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25671.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25671.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25671.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25671.
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ACRP 01-35: TNCS: IMPACTS TO AIRPORT REVENUES AND OPERATIONS AUGUST 19, 2019 FINAL DRAFT DELIVERABLE Reference Guide |A-1 | Appendix A APPENDIX A ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Airports Council International – North America. (2014). Recommendations of ACI-NA Multi-Committee Task Force on Ride-Booking Operations at Airports. Retrieved from http://www.aci- na.org/sites/default/files/considerations_for_airport_regulation_of_ride-booking_services.pdf Examples of operational challenges for ride-booking services at airports are provided; which includes distracted drivers, vehicle inspection and safety standards, congestion of roadways and facilities, nearby communities concern of increased traffic, enforcement of vehicle trade dress, difficulty with collection of permit and other fees, and policies and regulations that were developed before permitted airport TNC operations. Considerations for airport regulation of ridesharing services were provided; which includes questions of regulatory authority, parties to regulate, and means of regulation. Existing ground transportation policies and regulations were suggested to be reviewed. Charging for ridesharing services, ground transportation fee structure, enforcement, revenue definition, and vehicle tracking were discussed. Landside and facility considerations include passenger pick-up and drop-off location, passenger and vehicle waiting area, signage, and vehicle identification by the airport and ridesharing passengers. 2. Airports Council International - North America. (2018). Ride-Booking (TNCs) Resource Page. Retrieved from http://www.aci-na.org/ride-booking Resources are provided for airports to consider with regulation of transportation network companies (TNC) services, with documents addressing a range of issues, factors, and options. TNC agreements, TNC permits, and conference presentations are most of the documents provided on the resource page. 3. Alemi, F., Circella, G., Mokhtarian, P., & Handy, S. (2019). What drives the use of ridehailing in California? Ordered probit models of the usage frequency of Uber and Lyft. Transportation Research Part C, 102, 233-248. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2018.12.016 A statistical model, using online survey data of millennials and preceding generation X, was developed to understand factors affecting the frequency of using TNC services. Results indicate that sociodemographic variables are predictors of service adoption but do not explain the change in frequency. Findings showed that travelers using TNCs more include those with a higher willingness to pay to reduce travel time, use smartphone apps to manage their travels, and leisure travelers that travel long-distances via flying. Individuals owning a private vehicle and whom have concerns about the security/safety of TNCs use the service less frequently. 4. American Associates of Airport Executives. (2018). Establishing a Common Standard for TNC Wayfinding at Airports. AAAE. TNC wayfinding is not standardized at airports, often causing confusion among TNC drivers and passengers, as well as increasing curbside congestion. To establish a common practice and standard for TNC wayfinding, a working group of U.S. airport leaders was formed. After an extensive six-month process involving many stakeholders, a recommended term and icon in airport signage was selected. Best practices for using the standard is provided.

ACRP 01-35: TNCS: IMPACTS TO AIRPORT REVENUES AND OPERATIONS AUGUST 19, 2019 FINAL DRAFT DELIVERABLE Reference Guide |A-2 | Appendix A 5. American Planning Association. (2018). Knowledgebase Collection: Autonomous Vehicles. Retrieved from https://www.planning.org/knowledgebase/autonomousvehicles/ Resources on autonomous and connected vehicles are provided, including videos, briefing papers, functional plans, staff reports, guides, and background repositories. These resources provide background on autonomous vehicles (AV), policy recommendations for communities, and examples of impacts to equity and access, the transportation network, land use, and the built environment. 6. Arbib, J., & Seba, T. (2017). Rethinking Transportation 2020-2030. RethinkX Sector Distribution Report. This research discusses how autonomous and connected vehicles will cause a major disruption to the transportation and oil markets, with the disruption driven by economic trends. Private vehicle ownership will have increasing costs, decreasing convenience, and a diminishing quality of service. The authors estimate that by 2030, 95 percent of U.S. passenger miles will be with on-demand autonomous electric vehicle fleets in a business model deemed transport-as-a-service. The behavioral issues that are barriers to AV adoption (e.g., preference for driving and fear of new technology) will be outweighed by the significant transportation cost savings. 7. Beer, R., Brakewood, C., Rahman, S., & Viscardi, J. (2017). Qualitative Analysis of Ride-Hailing Regulations in Major American Cities. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 84-91. doi:10.3141/2650-10 A qualitative analysis of ridesharing (TNC) regulations was conducted, specifically focused on driver and company-related regulations. Driver-related included background checks, driver's licenses, vehicle registration, and external vehicle display. Company-related included data sharing, providing a list of drivers, and numerical limits on fleet size. Findings show that driver-related regulations vary significantly by city; two key findings include that fingerprint background checks lessen the likelihood of TNC operations and Atlanta is the only city with numerical limits on TNCs (unclear if practiced, the aviation general manager may set limit at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport). 8. Bischak, C. A. (2019). The Impact of Transportation Network Companies on Urban Transportation Systems. The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX. National household travel survey data was analyzed to investigate how travelers perceive and use TNCs. Study findings indicate that TNCs are supplementing urban transportation services and are not transforming them. The study found most users only use TNCs for a few times a month or less, primarily on non-work days (e.g., weekends) and in the evenings. Users perceived TNCs as more convenient compared to public transportation or taxis and is a main factor for choosing a TNC service. 9. Bits and Atoms. (March 2017). Taming the Autonomous Vehicle: A Primer for Cities. Long Island City, NY: Bloomberg Philanthropies and the Aspen Institute Center for Urban Innovation. This report assessed AV technology, with the benefits, risks, unintended consequences, regulatory challenges, and impact to cities discussed. Cities across the world are preparing for AVs, with examples of initiative cities provided. While past thinking has been on autonomous high-speed highways, the future will focus on city driving: the largest market and most technically challenging. Different types of urban AVs may include private passenger cars, autovots/taxibots, driverless shuttles, and software trains (tractor-trailers). Many groups of people will see increased mobility from AVs use, in particular: non-drivers, senior-citizens,

ACRP 01-35: TNCS: IMPACTS TO AIRPORT REVENUES AND OPERATIONS AUGUST 19, 2019 FINAL DRAFT DELIVERABLE Reference Guide |A-3 | Appendix A and the disabled. The timeline for AVs adoption is provided, with tipping points of improved battery and sensor technology driving lower costs of AVs and widespread usage. 10. Bosch, P., Becker, F., Becker, H., & Axhausen, K. (2017). Cost-based analysis of autonomous mobility services. Transport Policy, 1-16. Cost analysis for AVs is discussed, with focus on operational models and future modes' cost structures. Use cases for future travel modes was analyzed, with the mode choice determined not only by cost, but by travel time and comfort, perception of transfers, and waiting times. Results suggested that shared AVs fleets will compete with other modes and private car ownership will remain due to low out-of-pocket vehicle costs. 11. Boston Consulting Group. (December 2017). The Reimagined Car: Shared, Autonomous, and Electric. Researchers propose that electric SAVs will fundamentally change mobility, safety, and reliability, while lowering transportation costs across the world, as much as 50 percent in large cities such as Chicago and New York City. The high cost of private vehicle ownership, due to insurance, fuel, maintenance, and parking, for example, and negative impacts of traffic congestion, air pollution, and automobile fatalities can be reduced due to SAVs. Stakeholders, market opportunity, underlying technologies (ridesharing, autonomy, and electric powertrain), and implementation are discussed. Automakers and suppliers' traditional business models will adapt to electric SAVs. 12. Canalys. (2018). The road to autonomous vehicles. Palo Alto, CA. The potential for AVs to improve mobility and address problems with traditional driving are discussed (e.g., severe traffic congestion, vehicular crashes, and time spent parking). The progression of vehicle autonomy levels toward full automation, critical role of legislation and the regulatory process, and business strategies of companies involved with AVs technologies are discussed. 13. Centre for Aviation. (2016). Airports and Uber 2016: Transportation Network Companies now more welcome at airports. Centre for Aviation. Airports were surveyed about their relations, attitudes, and operations of TNC services, with the primary TNC company being Uber. A comprehensive summary and key findings of TNC operations at airports is provided. Millennials continue to be the leading group using TNCs, but frequent business passengers are increasingly using TNCs because of the app's accessibility. The future direction, emerging negative impacts to car parking revenues, and other implications are discussed. 14. Coleman, M. (2018). Portland International Airport's TNC Experience and Plans for the Future . Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting. Washington, DC: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The rapid growth of TNCs (1.7 percent to 12.4 percent mode share from 2015 to 2017) at Portland International Airport (PDX) is discussed and its impact on ground transportation operations. Public pick-up and drop-off curbside traffic is growing but more slowly, with rental car traffic steady. Taxis, fixed-schedule shuttles, and light rail have declined in share at PDX. Challenges include passenger and driver wayfinding, wait time, pick-up congestion, and pedestrian crossings.

ACRP 01-35: TNCS: IMPACTS TO AIRPORT REVENUES AND OPERATIONS AUGUST 19, 2019 FINAL DRAFT DELIVERABLE Reference Guide |A-4 | Appendix A 15. Collier, R., Dubal, V., & Carter, C. (March 2018). Disrupting Regulation, Regulating Disruption: The Politics of Uber in the United States. San Francisco, CA: University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Uber's dramatic and significant growth in the ride-hailing market has disrupted a highly regulated transportation sector. Previously, taxis benefited from anti-competitive barriers to entry and price control, with safety and labor provisions to protect the public. Key questions are raised for the current and future regulation of Uber and other TNC services and its relation with taxi regulations. 16. Conway, M. W., Salon, D., & King, D. A. (2018). Trends in Taxi Use and the Advent of Ridehailing, 1995– 2017: Evidence from the US National Household Travel Survey. Urban Science, 2(3), 79. doi:10.3390/urbansci2030079 Data from the National Household Travel Survey was used to investigate the expansion of ridehailing (TNCs) services in the U.S. The growth has been greater in mid-sized and large cities, and among younger users and wealthier households. Equity implications are suggested for future research. Findings indicated that residents of dense urban areas have higher TNC usage, emphasizing the need for cities to plan for the growth of TNC services. 17. Davol, A. (2016). A new model for airport ground transportation: Transportation network companies at San Francisco International Airport. Journal of Airport Management, 147-153. As one of the first airports in the U.S. to permit TNCs, San Francisco International Airport (SFO) provides insight on its TNC policies, permitting, and recommendations for other airports. One operational issue is administrative fines and enforcement. At the onset of TNCs, the most common fine was for trade dress and airport placard. As drivers have gained familiarity with airport regulations and operations, the most common fine has become unauthorized parking or staging. A real-time tracking system has been developed and is used to support auditing and enforcement. Recommendations include engaging in the development of regulations, learning about TNC operations and technology, and learning from the passenger's perspective. 18. DiPrima, C. (2018). Integrating TNCs into the Curbside Traffic Model at San Francisco International Airport . Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting. Washington, DC: National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine. SFO's curbside operations are being impacted by continued TNC growth, around 25,000 daily trips in late 2017, with a 19 percent annual growth rate. Areas of curbside congestion are being identified using heat mapping. Results show that pick-up locations are more evenly distributed, while drop-off locations have "hot spots," confirmed by the airport duty manager and police staff. 19. Eibert, S., Girardeau, I., & Phillips, J. (2019). Addressing Airport Congestion as Traffic Takes Off in the Age of Uber and Lyft. Rutgers University. ACRP University Design Competition. This design competition produced potential solutions to address congestion caused by TNC growth at airports. The research team conducted a literature review, interviewed airport landside management staff, conducted a safety risk assessment, and cost-benefit analysis of the proposed recommendations. The recommendations (intended for large-hub airports) include using Rematch, raising per-trip fees, increased enforcement to prevent vehicle idling, and combining passenger drop-off, pick-up, and staging into a single terminal, adjacent to the airport that is not curbside.

ACRP 01-35: TNCS: IMPACTS TO AIRPORT REVENUES AND OPERATIONS AUGUST 19, 2019 FINAL DRAFT DELIVERABLE Reference Guide |A-5 | Appendix A 20. Erhardt, G., Roy, S., Cooper, D., Sana, B., Chen, M., & Castiglione, J. (2019). Do transportation network companies decrease or increase congestion? Science Advances, 5(5). doi:10.1126/sciadv.aau2670 The growth of TNCs has implications for congestion, with research inconsistent because of limited data. Researchers found that TNCs are the largest factor for the increasing congestion and lower travel time reliability on San Francisco roads. Traffic flow is disrupted by passenger pick-up and drop-off on major arterials. 21. Federal Highway Administration. (February 2018). Integrating Shared Mobility into Multimodal Transportation Planning: Improving Regional Performance to Meet Public Goals. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. As shared mobility services, such as ridesharing (e.g., TNCs) and bikesharing, increase in popularity, transportation planning practices must adapt to ridesharing services. Issues, challenges, and opportunities for shared mobility are reviewed in 13 metropolitan areas. Examples of partnerships to improve regional multimodality include transit agencies and metropolitan planning organizations pilot project partnerships with TNCs. The Metropolitan Transportation Commission in the San Francisco Bay Area is focusing on first- last mile coverage to integrate transit with TNC services. 22. Goodin, G., & Moran, M. (August 2016). Transportation Network Companies Testimony to the Texas House Committee on Transportation. Austin, TX. Policy makers are faced with many issues and considerations for TNC regulation. This testimony presents background information and reviews policy issues with legislation. Driver requirements, vehicle standards, data collection, operational features, and insurance requirements are commonly regulated at the state level, but vary state-by-state. Specific considerations include addressing equity concerns, the role of technology, ensuring safety and security, integrating with mobility plans and programs, and managing impact goals such as traffic congestion reduction. The regulation of TNCs and taxis are compared, with taxis historically regulated at the local level compared to TNCs at the state level. Taxis and TNCs operate under different requirements, with respect to insurance requirements, the permitting process, and fleet size, for example. 23. Graehler, M., Mucci, Richard A.; Erhardt, Gregory D.; Understanding the Recent Transit Ridership Decline in Major US Cities: Service Cuts or Emerging Modes? (2019). 98th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, National Academy of Sciences. Public transit ridership in major US cities has been flat or declining over the past few years. This research conducts a longitudinal analysis of the determinants of public transit ridership in major North American cities for the period 2002-2018, segmenting the analysis by mode to capture differing effects on rail versus bus. The research finds that standard factors, such as changes in service levels, gas price and auto ownership, while important, are insufficient to explain the recent ridership declines. The research found that the introduction of bike share in a city is associated with increased light and heavy rail ridership, but a 1.8% decrease in bus ridership. The results also suggest that for each year after Transportation Network Companies (TNCs) enter a market, heavy rail ridership can be expected to decrease by 1.3% and bus ridership can be expected to decrease by 1.7%. This TNC effect builds with each passing year and may be an important driver of recent ridership declines.

ACRP 01-35: TNCS: IMPACTS TO AIRPORT REVENUES AND OPERATIONS AUGUST 19, 2019 FINAL DRAFT DELIVERABLE Reference Guide |A-6 | Appendix A 24. Greenblatt, J., & Shaheen, S. (2015). Automated Vehicles, On-Demand Mobility, and Environmental Impacts. Curr Sustainable Renewable Energy Rep, 2(3), 74-81. doi:10.1007/s40518-015-0038-5 The timeline for AVs was discussed, with emergence in the 2020s, acceptance in the 2030s, and market domination in the 2050s. Combining on-demand mobility (e.g., ridesharing) with AVs may lead to further benefits and increased adoption of both technologies. Benefits from AVs benefit include an expected reduction of GHG emissions, increased driver productivity, and improved user accessibility. Future trends will change significantly compared to current trends, specifically vehicle size, ownership, and occupancy, as well as commuting patterns and land use. 25. Henao, A., Sperling, J., Garikapati, V., Hou, Y., & Young, S. (2018). Airport Analyses Informing New Mobility Shifts: Opportunities to Adapt Energy-Efficient Mobility Services and Infrastructure: Preprint. Intelligent Transportation Society of America, 2018 Annual Meeting. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Retrieved from https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy18osti/71036.pdf Using case studies for four major cities in the USDOT Smart City Challenge (San Francisco, Portland, Kansas City, and Denver), revenue and mode share trends of TNCs are assessed. Parking revenues per passenger, parking growth rates, and rental car revenues are analyzed amid TNC operations. It is indicated that the trend in airport parking does not reflect growth in airport passengers, indicating that accommodating increased air travel will depend on curb demand instead of parking demand. Future study is suggested for additional airports, gathering public transit data from regional transit agencies, and modeling travel demand and energy impacts. 26. Hermawan, K., & Regan, A. (2017). On-Demand, App-Based Ride Services: A Study of Emerging Ground Transportation Modes Serving Los Angeles International Airport (LAX). Journal of the Transportation Research Forum (JTRF) , 111-128. The impact of travel time and cost on choosing Uber and Lyft is compared to other ground transportation modes serving Los Angeles International Airport. A key finding is TNC demand is heavily influenced by fares; TNC demand would fall by 21 percent for business passengers and 23 percent for leisure passengers if TNC fares were raised to match current taxi costs. 27. Hermawan, K., & Regan, A. (2018). Impacts on Vehicle Occupancy and Airport Curb Congestion of Transportation Network Companies at Airports. Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting. Washington, DC: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The rising prevalence of TNCs at airports has raised questions of congestion impacts and their effect on shared modes such as vans, shuttles, public buses, and light rail. Findings indicate that TNCs are replacing shared modes more than supporting them. While some passengers use Uber Pool or Lyft line, supporting higher-occupancy trips, TNC trips are primarily low-occupancy. This low-occupancy may be result in higher congestion as more private vehicles access the airport's curbs and garage facilities. For example, at San Francisco International Airport, TNCs decreased net shared trips by 215,000 in 2015 and projected to be 840,000 in 2020.

ACRP 01-35: TNCS: IMPACTS TO AIRPORT REVENUES AND OPERATIONS AUGUST 19, 2019 FINAL DRAFT DELIVERABLE Reference Guide |A-7 | Appendix A 28. ICF International; Eno Center for Transportation. (February 2016). Emerging Technology Trends in Transportation. An overview of developing transportation technologies/trends and policy implications was provided, with focus on AVs. The different driving capabilities and levels of automation in vehicles, from Level 0 (no automation) to Level 4 (full self-driving automation) are discussed. Emerging issues include the impact to travel demand, vehicle ownership, urban spaces, highway design, existing infrastructure, insurance, liability, and cyber security. Hacking and cybercrime pose threats and a fully connected transportation system must be protected. 29. InterVISTAS. (April 2016). Transportation Network Companies and Car-Sharing at Airports. ACI- NA/AAAE Airport Board & Commissioners Conference. Indianapolis, IN. This conference presentation focuses on TNCs and carsharing at airports. The timeline for TNC regulations, reasons for passengers choosing TNCs, typical airport commercial ground transportation requirements, and challenges in TNC regulation are discussed. Reasons for passengers choosing TNC services include reliability, cost, convenience, and accountability. Challenges in regulation include imposing and collecting fees, usage of curbside and staging areas, signage and wayfinding, auditing of self-reported trips, and competing services. Carsharing is increasing in popularity, with company owned fleets (e.g., Car2Go and Zipcar) and peer-to-peer services (e.g., Flightcar and Turo) operating at airports. 30. Johnson, C., & Walker, J. (2016). Peak Car Ownership: The Market Opportunity of Electric Automated Mobility Services. Rocky Mountain Institute. The market growth and impact of electric automated mobility services is discussed. By 2035, it is estimated that these services will be logistically, technically, and economically plausible, and able to gather a large market share that is currently attributed to privately-owned vehicles. Automation savings on the cost per mile of TNC service was analyzed by various components such as labor, insurance, and fuel costs. The economic impact of automated mobility services will be substantial, generating $120 billion (U.S.) by 2025; with oil companies projected to lose revenue, automobile manufacturers to be split, and electrical utilities will gain revenue. 31. Joyce, C. (2018). Including TNC’s in the Wider Sustainability and Ground Access Strategy at Heathrow Airport. Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting. Washington, DC: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Sustainability is a critical part of Heathrow Airport's business model, with the rise of TNCs affecting airport operations and ground transportation. Initial problems with drivers parking nearby in short-term lots or neighboring city streets caused the airport to propose a solution. Steps taken included constructing an authorized vehicle area facility, increased enforcement, engagement process with operators, and coordination with local authorities and licensing agencies. The authorized vehicle area is the allowable geofenced area for pick-ups and includes amenities for drivers (e.g., restrooms, vending machines, and refreshments). Currently, the permanent authorized vehicle area gets over a million customers annually and its operation costs are covered.

ACRP 01-35: TNCS: IMPACTS TO AIRPORT REVENUES AND OPERATIONS AUGUST 19, 2019 FINAL DRAFT DELIVERABLE Reference Guide |A-8 | Appendix A 32. Kerr, C., & McKenna, D. (January 2018). The Impact of TNCs at Airports: Operational Consequences and Future Considerations. Airport Magazine. The rapid growth of TNCs at airports has significantly affected ground transportation and landside facilities, presenting challenges and opportunities for airport operators. Challenges include curbside congestion and possible detrimental effect on revenue. Opportunities include addressing curbside congestion in ways not possible with other modes, as well as using TNC data to understand passenger access patterns and preferences. Long-term considerations include the evolving nature of TNC technology and business model, and AVs. 33. Kim, S., & Puentes, R. (2018). Taxing New Mobility Services: What's Right? What's Next? . Washington, D.C. : Eno Center for Transportation. The current state of TNC taxes and fees imposed by cities and states is examined. A table of the taxes and fees, date of enactment or implementation, and disposition of funds is provided for seven cities and ten states. Policy questions are addressed regarding the effects of TNC taxes and fees on congestion, infrastructure and public transit funding, traditional taxi services, and funding for regulatory costs and community needs. Congestion reduction is suggested to focus on reducing SOVs, rather than use targeted fees solely on TNCs. 34. Litman, T. (April 2018). Autonomous Vehicle Implementation Predictions: Implications for Transport Planning. Victoria, Canada: Victoria Transport Policy Institute. The benefits, costs, impacts, and the timeline for AV development and adoption are discussed. Some benefits may begin in the 2020s and 2030s, but will be limited to affluent nondrivers. Self-driving and micro- taxi services in urban areas will offer lower costs than traditional taxis, but with low service quality. Benefits such as traffic and parking congestion reduction, increased mobility, increased safety, and reduced air pollution will be likely in the 2040s and 2050s. There is uncertainty on the extent of benefits, costs, travel impacts, and timeline; with current projections double-counting benefits, not fully considering the complexity of regulation, and extent of benefits if not all are AVs. 35. Martin E., Shaheen S., Zohdy I., Chan N., Bansal A., Bhattacharyya A., Tawfik A., Yelchuru B., Finson R., Yeung Yam Wah C.: UNDERSTANDING TRAVEL BEHAVIOR: Research Scan; (2016) Federal Highway Administration, US Department of Transportation. FHWA-PL 17-025 This report presents a research scan of the state of knowledge in transportation to enhance understanding of travel behavior and various influencing factors on future travel. It provides an overview of the current state of travel behavior as measured today, as well as background on the current understanding from literature in travel behavior research. It also explores what is known about the socio-demographic portrait of Americans and how demographics influence travel behavior. The report discusses emerging information technology and its impact on new mobility options. It also presents emerging methodologies and new forms of data that show significant potential to improve the resolution and comprehensiveness of travel behavior information. Finally, it identifies gaps in understanding that could be addressed in the future with appropriate applications of emerging data and technological resources.

ACRP 01-35: TNCS: IMPACTS TO AIRPORT REVENUES AND OPERATIONS AUGUST 19, 2019 FINAL DRAFT DELIVERABLE Reference Guide |A-9 | Appendix A 36. Michel, C., & Mai, A. (March 2018). Lessons from Autonomous Shuttles & Multi-Modal Shifts. Keolis Group. Examples of AVs shuttle services are discussed for Lyon, Paris, London, and Las Vegas. Lessons learned include the need for close collaboration with police, fire departments, and cities on infrastructure, insurance has higher premiums, lengthy licensing, and high level of ongoing maintenance and support. Ridesharing can be used to improve public transportation ridership and revenue (e.g., first- and last-mile coverage), and meet vehicle emission reduction goals. 37. Moran, M., & Lasley, P. (2017). Legislating Transportation Network Companies. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 163-171. TNC legislation in the U.S. was systematically reviewed and a database developed of state level TNC legislation to guide policy makers. As of May 2016, 34 states and Washington, D.C. had passed TNC legislation. Key questions emerged regarding issues of whether and how to regulate TNC, ensuring public safety while maintaining competition, and integrating with existing taxi and transportation policies. 38. Mundy, R. (March 2018). A Review of Airport TNC Agreements. Airport Ground Transportation Association (AGTA). TNC agreements at North American airports were reviewed, with 22 agreements received and 9 with no agreements. The various contract terms, access fees and structure (e.g., fee charged for pick-up, drop-of, or both), application fees, yearly fees, and other fees were outlined. Other requirements including insurance, geofence, and staging area time limits were discussed 39. New York Times, Business Section. (November 2017). Where Self-Driving Cars Go to Learn. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/11/technology/arizona-tech-industry-favorite-self-driving- hub.html An example is provided for Arizona as a state that is attracting the self-driving car industry through less regulation and a conducive political environment. The state plans to attract TNC companies, car manufacturers, and Silicon Valley technology companies, and capture the economic growth. However, there have been setbacks with a high-profile fatal self-driving vehicle crash and concern from public safety advocates. 40. Papa, E., & Ferreira, A. (2018). Sustainable Accessibility and the Implementation of. Urban Science, 2(1). doi:10.3390/urbansci2010005 A scenario-based approach identifies critical accessibility and societal changes that are emerging with fully AVs. The disruptive potential of AVs come with risks; one of the leading risks is management of implementation that may reinforce car dependency. This could lead to negative health, environmental, and societal consequences. Governmental intervention is required to protect public interest because of the tendency for profit and corporate goals in the competitive environment that AVs will operate in. The role of local government is critical to prepare the legal, transportation, and urban systems for AVs integration.

ACRP 01-35: TNCS: IMPACTS TO AIRPORT REVENUES AND OPERATIONS AUGUST 19, 2019 FINAL DRAFT DELIVERABLE Reference Guide |A-10 | Appendix A 41. Pew Research Center. (May 2016). Shared, Collaborative and On Demand: The New Digital Economy. Washington, DC. The market for ridesharing (TNC) customers is examined based on survey data presented on a variety of topics regarding opinions, attitudes, and behaviors toward TNCs. Findings indicated that TNC services are most popular among young adults, urban residents, and college graduates. Usage varies by age, but there are no substantial differences across gender or race. More frequent customers are less likely to own or drive a car and more likely to use transit. Most surveyed customers view TNC services as software companies (58 percent), as compared to transportation, and drivers as independent contractors (66 percent), as compared to company employees. Most customers are familiar with the debate on regulation and strongly feel that TNCs should not be regulated in the same manner as taxis. 42. RAND Corporation. (November 2017). “Why Waiting for Perfect Autonomous Vehicles May Cost Lives". Retrieved from https://www.rand.org/blog/articles/2017/11/why-waiting-for-perfect- autonomous-vehicles-may-cost-lives.html A critical question for policymakers is the timing of AVs entering the consumer market and ensuring the technology is safe. RAND research shows that hundreds of thousands of lives could be saved if AVs are allowed on the road before the technology is flawless because it will lead to more long-term traffic safety benefits. 43. Rayle, L., Dai, D., Chan, N., Cervero, R., & Shaheen, S. (2016). Just a better taxi? A survey-based comparison of taxis, transit, and ridesourcing services in San Francisco. Transport Policy, 45, 168-178. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2015.10.004 As TNCs are gaining in popularity, the impact to other modes and overall vehicle travel has been unclear. Study findings indicate that taxis and TNCs have different characteristics and that TNCs replacing taxis is part of the picture; over half of TNC trips are replacing modes other than taxis, such as public transit and driving. TNCs are expanding mobility for city residents; particularly for those that live in high dense cities with insufficient public transit and constrained/expensive parking. Future research is suggested to assess the overall impact of TNCs on vehicle use and ownership. 44. Research conducted by KC Associates for GateKeeper Systems, Inc. (March 2017). Understanding Important Capabilities in the Successful Management of Airport Ground Transportation Operations. Airport staff and consultants were surveyed to identify the importance of ground transportation management capabilities and enabling technologies. The three most important capabilities included access control, use fee/trip charge creation, and curbside vehicle management. The three least important capabilities included multi-lane/high-speed vehicle detection, online trip fee payments, and capability to identify and track drivers. 45. Schaller, B. (2018). The New Automobility: Lyft, Uber and the Future of American Cities. Brooklyn, NY: Schaller Consulting. A detailed profile of TNC ridership, users, and usage is provided. The continued growth of TNC services is expected to surpass local bus ridership by 2018 year-end. Large, densely populated metro areas have high TNC ridership, with riders that are young, well-educated and mostly affluent. Suburban and rural area residents continue to use traditional taxi services, as well as those with disabilities and without smartphones. TNCs are having a significant role in urban mobility, adding billions of miles of driving and competing with

ACRP 01-35: TNCS: IMPACTS TO AIRPORT REVENUES AND OPERATIONS AUGUST 19, 2019 FINAL DRAFT DELIVERABLE Reference Guide |A-11 | Appendix A public transportation, walking, and biking. Shared ride TNC services were found to add mileage, rather than mitigate the traffic impacts of private ride TNCs. Public transit is extended, but should not be replaced, by TNCs and microtransit. Congestion from increasing TNC trips can be managed by trip fees, bus lanes, congestion pricing, and traffic signal timing. Addressing congestion should focus on reducing traffic and emphasizing high-occupancy vehicles. Public policy intervention is needed in the develop of AVs to ensure frequent, reliable, and comfortable high-capacity transit. 46. Shaheen, S., Chan, N., & Rayle, L. (Spring 2017). Ridesourcing’s Impact and Role in Urban Transportation, Access Magazine. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Berkeley. Policy discussion is evolving at the state and local levels over issues of insurance coverage, taxi competition, and driver and vehicle safety checks. Based on a survey of urban ridesharing (TNCs), and taxi customers, rideshare customers were found to be younger, well-educated, frequently travel in groups, and own less vehicles. Many respondents stated driving less due to ridesharing. There was a need identified for objective analysis of environmental and mobility impacts to inform policy-making. 47. Shaheen, S.; Cohen, A.; Yelchuru, B.; Sarkhili, S. (September 2017). Mobility on Demand Operational Concept Report, Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration, Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office, US Department of Transportation. FHWA-JPO-18-611 This operational concept report provides an overview of the Mobility on Demand (MOD) concept and its evolution, description of the MOD ecosystem in a supply and demand framework, and its stakeholders and enablers. Leveraging the MOD ecosystem framework, this report reviews the key enablers of the system including business models and partnerships, land use and different urbanization scenarios, social equity and environmental justice, policies and standards, and enabling technologies. This review is mostly focused on the more recent forms of MOD (e.g., shared mobility). 48. Shaheen, S., Cohen, A., & Zohdy, I. (April 2016). Shared Mobility: Current Practices and Guiding Principles. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration, US Department of Transportation. There are many environmental, social, and transportation-related benefits of shared mobility modes including reduced vehicle use and costs, higher convenience, and increased multimodality. Laws governing ridesharing (TNCs) are evolving at the state and local level, with respect to TNC insurance requirements, mandatory driver training, limits on consecutive driver hours, consumer protections, and ensuring equal access for customers with disabilities. UberPOOL and Lyft Line are services available to lower fares and facilitate a higher vehicle occupancy by splitting the trip with other customers. 49. Shaheen, S., Totte, H., & Stocker, A. (2018). Future of Mobility White Paper. California Department of Transportation. Retrieved from http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/tpp/offices/osp/future-of-mobility.pdf This comprehensive assessment reviewed a variety of transportation topics affecting California and the U.S. Connected and automated vehicles, zero emission vehicles, carsharing, ridesourcing/TNCs, equity considerations, and shared mobility public-private partnerships and data sharing, were some of topics analyzed. A consistent set of factors was used to assess the topics, including research coverage, state of development, and degree of variance in predictions. TNC trips that are shared with customers are growing in popularity, with 20 percent of Uber trips attributed to UberPOOL and 40 percent of Lyft trips attributed to Lyft Line, where pooled service is available in their U.S. cities. Information and communications technology has an important role in enabling shared and automated vehicles, with future 5G cellular communications technology discussed.

ACRP 01-35: TNCS: IMPACTS TO AIRPORT REVENUES AND OPERATIONS AUGUST 19, 2019 FINAL DRAFT DELIVERABLE Reference Guide |A-12 | Appendix A 50. Smith, T. (April 2018). Protecting your bottom line from the "Uber Effect". Airport Improvement. The impact on airport parking revenue from the rapid expansion of TNCs is discussed. Rental car bookings have dropped alongside airport parking revenues; with the increasing share of business travelers using TNCs suggested as one cause. Examples of ways to preserve parking revenue include implementing online booking, providing parking coupons, and establishing a frequent parking and corporate parking program. Curbside management programs need to be updated to accommodate TNC growth, with flexibility of critical importance. 51. Stocker, A., & Shaheen, S. (2018). Shared Automated Mobility: Early Exploration and Potential Impacts. Road Vehicle Automation 4. Lecture Notes in Mobility , 125-139. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-60934-8_12 The linkage between public and private transportation for shared autonomous vehicles (SAVs), and the impact on travel behaviors and other travel modes is discussed. Future SAVs business models are reviewed including business-to-consumer, peer-to-peer, and for-hire service models. For example, for-hire models include ridesourcing/TNCs, taxis/E-hail, and courier network services. The portion of AVs that will be SAVs is unknown but is expected to be significant. The future of SAVs is heavily dependent on the business models, traveler behaviors and preferences, and public policy. 52. The Economist. (March 2018). Special Report. Autonomous Vehicles: Reinventing Wheels. AVs are an emerging technology with far-reaching social and economic implications, with public concern over potential risks such as ethical dilemmas and cyber-attacks. AVs could greatly reduce deaths and injuries from auto accidents and transform urban areas; affecting congestion, public transportation, urban sprawl, and parking/private vehicle demand. For example, freeways, streets, and parking facilities associated with automobile-dependent cities can be converted to sustainable features such as gardens and bicycle paths. Public transportation could become more viable in less dense areas if AVs were used for "last-mile" coverage to/from transit stations. "Robotaxi" service adoption could be increased if governments restricted or banned cars in some areas, which may have political challenges. 53. Transportation Research Board. (2015). ACRP Report 146: Commercial Ground Transportation at Airports: Best Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/21905 Regulations and permitting of TNCs are discussed, with respect to the business model that airport operators use with commercial ground transportation companies. TNCs use an open access system, where any vehicle with a valid agency-issued permit may serve the airport. TNC driver costs were identified primarily as fuel, with mileage and vehicle wear-and-tear varying based on the number of trips per the driver's flexible work schedule. The sizing of hold lots, types of commercial ground transportation fees, legal considerations, and implementation challenges is discussed. 54. Transportation Research Board. (2016). TCRP Report 188: Shared Mobility and the Transformation of Public Transit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/23578 Research findings suggested that ridesharing and carsharing are not transit substitutes but substitutes for private car or taxi trips. Customers are more likely to have a car but shared modes allow the car to be used less often. Spatial analysis of transit and TNC travel times for U.S. metropolitan areas showed that transit is more competitive than ridesharing when there is a dedicated right-of-way or limited traffic congestion. Trip length and travel time were important factors in selecting a mode, with a faster mode preferred for longer trips. The research highlighted transit agency partnerships with TNC companies to provide first-and-last-

ACRP 01-35: TNCS: IMPACTS TO AIRPORT REVENUES AND OPERATIONS AUGUST 19, 2019 FINAL DRAFT DELIVERABLE Reference Guide |A-13 | Appendix A mile coverage to improve mobility; with incentives such as free or discounted rides, guaranteed ride home programs, and linked mobile apps. 55. Transportation Research Board. (2016). TRB Special Report 319: Between Public and Private Mobility: Examining the Rise of Technology-Enabled Transportation Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/21875 Recommendations related to TNCs include reassessing TNC (and other modes such as taxi and for-hire services) regulations as technology changes, consider alternative employee classifications, and integrate features of TNCs and shared mobility services into the existing transportation system. Additionally, safety requirements for vehicles and drivers need examined to ensure consistency and a level playing field. Despite the rapid growth of TNCs, data on the scale and performance of the TNC companies (e.g., Uber, Lyft) is limited. Predominant TNC customers are millennials in urban areas, with older urban residents as the least frequent customer. The impact to vehicle miles traveled is not known because TNC pick-up and drop-off mileage increase total travel; however, a higher vehicle occupancy and reduced private vehicle ownership may lead to reduced VMT. 56. Transportation Research Board. (2017). ACRP Synthesis 84: Transportation Network Companies: Challenges and Opportunities for Airport Operators. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/24867 Permits and regulations of TNC drivers, vehicles, and companies are established by the state or other local jurisdictions, with an airport permit required to drop-off and pick-up passengers. A dedicated staging area is provided at most airports (82 percent), consisting of either a surface lot, area within a parking structure, or area used by other commercial drivers. Curbside traffic officers or airport operations staff enforce TNC rules and regulations at most airports (87 percent), with police supporting enforcement at around half of the airports. Fees charged to TNCs include an annual permit fee, per-trip fee, activation fee, and/or a minimum guarantee amount, with 59 percent of airports charging for pick-up only and 41 percent of airports for drop-off only. A summary table of the reported trip fees is provided in the report. The impact on airport total revenue is not addressed, with the question remaining if TNC revenue exceeds a loss from other modes that are displaced. The impact of TNCs on airport operations is discussed with examples including additional responsibilities for airport staff, increased curbside or roadway congestion, decrease in taxi and shared-ride van trips, and a decline in parking. 57. Transportation Research Board. (2017). Advancing Automated and Connected Vehicles: Policy and Planning Strategies for State and Local Transportation Agencies. NCHRP Research Report 845. Washington, DC: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. doi:10.17226/24872 Governmental policy and planning strategies to influence private-sector decisions on automated and connected vehicles (CVs) are discussed. Strategies include mitigating safety risks, encouraging SAV use, addressing liability/insurance issues, reducing congestion, and improving air quality. For example, to encourage SAV use, subsidies, transit benefits, parking cash-out, and road use pricing could be applied. Granting signal priority, granting parking access, and investing in infrastructure may improve traffic safety, reduce congestion, and promote air quality. While AVs may reduce crashes and provide other benefits, authors cautioned that future policy would need to adapt to emerging problems. 58. Transportation Research Board. (2018, September 6). Disruptive Technologies: Impacts on Transportation Revenues (TRB Webinar).

ACRP 01-35: TNCS: IMPACTS TO AIRPORT REVENUES AND OPERATIONS AUGUST 19, 2019 FINAL DRAFT DELIVERABLE Reference Guide |A-14 | Appendix A This webinar discusses the impact to revenue streams for transportation programs from new mobility services such as connected/autonomous vehicles and ridesharing services (TNCs). Revenue impacts, challenges, and opportunities for airport operators is presented. New mechanisms for transportation revenue are suggested for municipalities across the US. The future impacts of increased connected/autonomous vehicles in big cities is presented, with former surface parking and garages being able to be repurposed for other uses such as residential, parks, and bike paths. 59. Transportation Research Board. (2018). U.S. Department of Transportation's Mobility on Demand Initiative: Moving the Economy with Innovation and Understanding. Washington, DC: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The concept of mobility on demand is discussed, with goals that include increasing mobility options, enhancing convenience, improving transportation network efficiency, and reducing customer's costs. Instead of using private vehicles, mobility on demand facilitates alternative modes such as bikesharing, carsharing, ridesharing (TNCs), and public transit by incorporating trip planning, booking, and fare payment into a single application. Los Angeles Metro, a public transportation operator, has expressed interest in partnering with TNCs; noting that service must incorporate accessibility and equal access for customers without smartphones. 60. Transportation Research Circular: Transportation Research Board. (2018). National Academies-TRB Forum on Preparing for Automated Vehicles and Shared Mobility. Washington, DC: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The deployment and impacts of new transportation technologies including automated vehicles and shared mobility is discussed to help inform policy makers. The far-reaching impacts are discussed with relation to safety, the transportation system, energy, social, environment, and the economy. A catalogue of critical research needs is provided to address the impacts, including developing models for data sharing, studying impact to land use, and state and local policies to ensure safety. 61. Wang, M., & Mu, L. (2017). Spatial disparities of Uber accessibility: An exploratory analysis in Atlanta, USA. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 67, 169-175. The emergence of ridesharing (TNCs) has brought up questions of social inequality. A quantitative neighborhood-level analysis of Uber accessibility indicated that wealth, race, and unemployment rate do not have significant effects; whereas a higher road network density, population density, and a shorter commute time increase accessibility. UberX and UberBLACK service correlate with public transit differently; for example, as stops increase, UberX accessibility improves. 62. Wyman, K. (March 2018). The Novelty of TNC Regulation. New York, NY: New York University School of Law. This discussion of TNC regulation highlights as of 2017, 48 state legislatures have passed legislation that legalizes and regulates TNCs. In large cities (e.g., New York and Chicago), TNCs often comply with local regulations in addition to state regulations. The common theme for regulation is a focus on safety, with fares and vehicle fleets not regulated by jurisdictions; however, a few limit surge pricing.

Next: Appendix B. State Enabling Legislation, City Ordinances, Airport Transportation Network Company Trip Fees »
Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations Get This Book
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As of June 2019, transportation network companies (TNCs) such as Uber and Lyft operate in the ground transportation markets at all major domestic commercial airports. The rapid emergence has presented multiple challenges to airport operators, states, regional transit authorities, and city governments.

The pre-publication draft of the TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Research Report 215: Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations is designed to help airport operators develop and implement practical approaches to managing TNCs within the context of commercial ground transportation policies and programs. The report presents best practices that have proven to be effective tools that airport operators can use to manage TNC operations and develop sustainable revenue models. It particularly is designed to help airport operators evaluate the tradeoffs among customer service, revenue generation, current operations, and long-term facility planning.

Additional resources include a Mode Choice and Revenue Simulator Template spreadsheet and an accompanying dataset.

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