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Suggested Citation:"Table of Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25671.
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Suggested Citation:"Table of Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25671.
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Page 4
Page 5
Suggested Citation:"Table of Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25671.
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Page 5
Page 6
Suggested Citation:"Table of Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25671.
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ACRP 01-35: TNCS: IMPACTS TO AIRPORT REVENUES AND OPERATIONS AUGUST 19, 2019 FINAL DRAFT DELIVERABLE Reference Guide | i | Table of Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface ......................................................................................................................................................... v 1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 1-1 1.1 Problem Statement ................................................................................................................................................................. 1-1 1.2 Purpose of the Reference Guide ........................................................................................................................................ 1-1 1.3 Approach to Developing the Reference Guide ............................................................................................................ 1-2 1.4 Audience ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1-4 1.5 How to Use the Reference Guide: Overview and Organization ............................................................................ 1-4 2. Transportation Network Companies – Overview ....................................................................... 2-1 2.1 Emergence and development of Transportation Network Companies ............................................................. 2-1 2.2 Outlook ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 2-4 2.3 Evolving Transportation Network Company Business Models .............................................................................. 2-6 2.3.1 Transportation Network Company Public Offerings ................................................................................. 2-9 2.3.2 Recent Uber and Lyft Financial Results ........................................................................................................2-10 2.3.3 Transportation Network Company Business Diversification ................................................................2-11 3. Impact on Airport Operations ...................................................................................................... 3-1 3.1 Curb Management .................................................................................................................................................................. 3-4 3.2 Staging Areas ............................................................................................................................................................................ 3-5 3.3 Balancing Changes in Mode Share ................................................................................................................................... 3-6 3.4 Reassigning Pick-up and Drop-off Locations Due to Major Terminal Renovations/Capital Improvements ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3-6 3.5 Safe and Secure Customer Service: Driver Background Checks and Training; Passenger Wayfinding ................................................................................................................................................................................. 3-7 3.6 Developing Constructive Relationships with Transportation Network Companies ...................................... 3-7 3.7 Ensuring the Accuracy of Trip Reporting and Program Audits ............................................................................. 3-7 4. Impacts on Airport Revenues ....................................................................................................... 4-1 4.1 Survey Data ................................................................................................................................................................................ 4-1 4.1.1 Parking Revenue ...................................................................................................................................................... 4-2 4.1.2 Rental Car Revenue ................................................................................................................................................ 4-2 4.1.3 Taxi/Limo/Shared-Ride Van Revenue ............................................................................................................. 4-2 4.2 Federal Aviation Administration Revenue Data .......................................................................................................... 4-3

ACRP 01-35: TNCS: IMPACTS TO AIRPORT REVENUES AND OPERATIONS AUGUST 19, 2019 FINAL DRAFT DELIVERABLE Reference Guide | ii | Table of Contents 4.2.1 Parking Revenue ...................................................................................................................................................... 4-3 4.2.2 Rental Car Revenue ................................................................................................................................................ 4-5 4.2.3 Longer-Term Trends .............................................................................................................................................. 4-6 4.3 Public Airport Data .................................................................................................................................................................. 4-7 4.4 Proprietary Airport Data ........................................................................................................................................................ 4-9 4.5 Funding Airport Operations and Capital Programs .................................................................................................4-11 4.5.1 Airport Revenue Generation .............................................................................................................................4-11 4.5.2 Funding Airport Capital Programs .................................................................................................................4-14 4.5.3 Airport Funding Needs .......................................................................................................................................4-14 4.5.4 Sources of Funding for Airport Capital Programs ....................................................................................4-14 4.5.5 Rating Agency Criteria and Opinions ............................................................................................................4-15 4.5.6 Funding Parking and Rental Car Facilities ...................................................................................................4-17 4.5.7 Airport Funding Conclusions ............................................................................................................................4-17 5. Best Practices ................................................................................................................................. 5-1 5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................... 5-1 5.2 Summary Tables of Practices ............................................................................................................................................5-10 5.3 Policy Development, Regulations, and Permits .........................................................................................................5-15 5.4 Transportation Network Company and Ground Access Management, Operations, and Analysis ........5-20 5.5 Business and Revenue Analysis and Capital Programming ..................................................................................5-26 5.6 Technology ...............................................................................................................................................................................5-32 6. Conclusion ...................................................................................................................................... 6-1 LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix A Annotated Bibliography Appendix B State Enabling Legislation, City Ordinances, Airport TNC Trip Fees Appendix C Updated FAA CATS Revenue Tables Appendix D Acronyms/Abbreviations Appendix E Glossary

ACRP 01-35: TNCS: IMPACTS TO AIRPORT REVENUES AND OPERATIONS AUGUST 19, 2019 FINAL DRAFT DELIVERABLE Reference Guide | iii | Table of Contents LIST OF TABLES Table 2-1 Transportation Network Company mobility Product Offerings (as of June 2019) .................................... 2-8 Table 3-1 Transportation Network Company Fees and Permit Conditions at Selected Airports ............................ 3-1 Table 3-2 Establishing and Earmarking Transportation Network Company Fees by Hub………………………………..3-2 Table 3-3 Airport Survey Results – Operations and Management by Hub……………………………………………………….3-3 Table 3-4 Key Themes Expressed in Stakeholder Interviews…………...……………………………………………………………….3-4 Table 4-1 Recent Change in Parking Revenue by Hub Size .................................................................................................... 4-2 Table 4-2 Recent Change in Rental Car Revenue by Hub Size .............................................................................................. 4-2 Table 4-3 Recent Change in Taxi/Limo/Shared-Ride Van Revenue by Hub Size ........................................................... 4-3 Table 4-4 Parking and Other Ground Transportation Revenue (USD) ............................................................................... 4-4 Table 4-5 Parking and other Ground Transportation Revenue Net of Estimated Transportation Network Company Revenue – Large-Hub Airports (USD) ..................................................................................................... 4-4 Table 4-6 Rental Car Revenue (USD) ................................................................................................................................................ 4-5 Table 4-7 Ground Transportation Revenue per Airport – Large Hubs (USD) .................................................................. 4-8 Table 4-8 Comparison of Estimated Transportation Network Company Revenue by Airport – Large Hubs (USD)......................................................................................................................................................................................... 4-8 Table 4-9 Revenue per Enplaned Passenger – Large Hubs (USD)……………………………………………………………………4-9 Table 4-10 Airport Funding Needs…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...4-14 Table 4-11 Rating Agency Criteria…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….4-15 Table 5-1 Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (DCA) Model Summary ......................................................... 5-7 Table 5-2 San Francisco International Airport (SFO) Model Summary ............................................................................... 5-8 Table 5-3 Policy Development, Regulations, and Permits .....................................................................................................5-11 Table 5-4 Transportation Network Company / Ground Access Management, Operations, and Analysis .........5-12 Table 5-5 Financial and Business Development, Revenue Analysis, and Capital Programming ............................5-13 Table 5-6 Technology ...........................................................................................................................................................................5-14 Table C-1 FAA CATS Data: Ground Transportation Revenue at Airports ........................................................................... C-1 Table C-2 Total GT Revenue per Enplaned Passenger .............................................................................................................. C-1 Table C-3 Total GT Revenue per O&D Enplaned Passenger ................................................................................................... C-2 Table C-4 Parking and Other Ground Transportation Revenue at Airports ...................................................................... C-2 Table C-5 Rental Car Revenue at Airports ...................................................................................................................................... C-2

ACRP 01-35: TNCS: IMPACTS TO AIRPORT REVENUES AND OPERATIONS AUGUST 19, 2019 FINAL DRAFT DELIVERABLE Reference Guide | iv | Table of Contents LIST OF EXHIBITS Exhibit 1-1 Work Plan ............................................................................................................................................................................... 1-3 Exhibit 2-1 Timeline—Transportation Network Companies ...................................................................................................... 2-3 Exhibit 3-1 Curb Signs .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3-5 Exhibit 3-2 Staging Area .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3-6 Exhibit 4-1 Total Ground Transportation Revenue per Enplaned Passenger ..................................................................... 4-6 Exhibit 4-2 Revenue per Origin and Destination Enplaned Passenger, 2015-2017 .......................................................4-10 Exhibit 4-3 Airport Funding – Key Findings ...................................................................................................................................4-17 Exhibit 5-1 Staging Area—Mineappolis-Saint Paul International Airport ..........................................................................5-10 Exhibit C-1 Total GT Revenue: Index 2015=100 ............................................................................................................................. C-3 Exhibit C-2 Airports Reporting Change in Total GT Revenue from 2015 to 2018 ............................................................ C-3 Exhibit C-3 Total GT Revenue per Epax: Index 2015=100 ......................................................................................................... C-4 Exhibit C-4 Airports Reporting Change in GT Revenue per Epax from 2015 to 2018 ..................................................... C-4 Exhibit C-5 Total GT Revenue per Opax: Index 2015=100 ......................................................................................................... C-5 Exhibit C-6 Parking + Other GT Revenue: Index 2015=100 ....................................................................................................... C-5

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Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations Get This Book
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As of June 2019, transportation network companies (TNCs) such as Uber and Lyft operate in the ground transportation markets at all major domestic commercial airports. The rapid emergence has presented multiple challenges to airport operators, states, regional transit authorities, and city governments.

The pre-publication draft of the TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Research Report 215: Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations is designed to help airport operators develop and implement practical approaches to managing TNCs within the context of commercial ground transportation policies and programs. The report presents best practices that have proven to be effective tools that airport operators can use to manage TNC operations and develop sustainable revenue models. It particularly is designed to help airport operators evaluate the tradeoffs among customer service, revenue generation, current operations, and long-term facility planning.

Additional resources include a Mode Choice and Revenue Simulator Template spreadsheet and an accompanying dataset.

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