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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 220 2021 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation • Environment Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports Geoff Morrison Damon Fordham Elise Emil Cian Fields Kelly Blynn Toral Patel James Schroll The Cadmus Group LLC Bethesda, MD Katherine Preston HMMH Burlington, MA Adam Klauber Rocky Mountain Institute Boston, MA Kristin Lemaster Changing Climates Consulting, Inc. San Francisco, CA Alexander Epstein U.S. DOT Volpe National Transportation Systems Center Cambridge, MA

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in transpor- tation of people and goods and in regional, national, and international commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for man- aging and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research pro- grams. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative High- way Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100— Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 220 Project 02-82 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-67419-5 Library of Congress Control Number 2021943052 © 2021 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transporta- tion Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names or logos appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 220 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Jarrel McAfee, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Publications Senior Advisor Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Sreyashi Roy, Editor ACRP PROJECT 02-82 PANEL Field of Environment Kris Kristoffer Russell, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, DFW Airport, TX (Chair) Treber Andersen, Salt Lake City Department of Airports, Salt Lake City, UT Kane Carpenter, Austin-Bergstrom International Airport, Austin, TX Samuel J. Hartsfield, Port of Portland, Oregon, Portland, OR Mark Kunugi, Denver International Airport, Denver, CO Stephanie Meyn, Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, Seattle, WA Adam Walters, Southwest Airlines, Dallas, TX Thomas Cuddy, FAA Liaison Rangasayi Narayan Halthore, FAA Liaison Melinda Z. Pagliarello, Airports Council International–North America Liaison Christine L. Gerencher, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This publication would not have been possible without considerable contributions from the following individuals: Sarah Duffy, Oana Leahu-Aluas, and Mia Stephens, Cadmus; Rahi Patel, Janice Shiu, and Connor Farnham, Volpe. The authors would also like to thank the teams at Eugene Airport (EUG) and Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport (DTW) for their participation in piloting a pre-publication version of this guide- book. The authors extend sincere gratitude to Sarah Puls and Andrew Martz of EUG and Sara Kaplan of DTW for their collaboration and dedication to improving this guidebook. Lastly, we thank the following individuals for providing input during phone interviews: • Zach Baumer, Climate Program Manager, Office of Sustainability, Austin, Texas (U.S.); • Marina Bylinsky, Head of Environmental Strategy and Inter-modality, Airports Council International- Europe; • Erin Cooke, Director of Sustainability, San Francisco International Airport (U.S.); • Steve Csonka, Executive Director, Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative; • John Galloway, Carbon Neutral Airport Program Manager, San Francisco International Airport (U.S.); • Jane Hupe, Chief of the Environment, International Civil Aviation Organization; • Noah J. Karberg, Environmental Coordinator, Nantucket Memorial Airport (U.S.); • Mike Kilburn, Assistant General Manager for the Environment, Airport Authority Hong Kong (China);

• Muthukrishnan M., Ahmed Rekibuddin, Senior Environment Planners, Indira Ghandi International Airport (India); • Damien Meadows, Adviser on European and International Carbon Markets, European Commission; • Lyne Michaud, Director, Sustainability and Environment, Montréal–Pierre Elliott Trudeau Inter- national Airport (Canada); • Steve Muzzy, Climate Programs Senior Manager, Second Nature/Climate Leadership Network; • Denise Pronk, Program Manager, Corporate Responsibility, Amsterdam Airport Schiphol (Netherlands); • Brendan Reed, Director of Planning & Environmental Affairs, San Diego International Airport (United States); • Chad Reese, Environmental Affairs Manager, San Diego International Airport (United States); • Miles Thomas, Environment Manager, TAG London Farnborough Airport (United Kingdom); • Steven Thomas, Todd Ernst, Environmental Program Managers, Toronto Pearson International Airport (Canada); • Adam Walters, Manager of Environmental Services, Southwest Airlines; • Lena Wennberg, Sustainability and Environmental Program Manager, Swedavia (Sweden); and • Michelle Zilinskas, Policy Associate, The Climate Registry. AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (Continued)

To reduce or eliminate carbon emissions at airports requires long planning horizons and airports can benefit from understanding where they should start. ACRP Research Report 220: Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports pro- vides the resources and processes to begin. The guidebook includes tools, resources, and information that airport staff can use as they begin considering options to reduce carbon emissions. This guidebook was further enhanced with information and lessons learned from piloting the implementation at two airports—a large-hub and small-hub airport. As global initiatives toward the objective of reducing or eliminating carbon emissions continue to grow, technologies designed to do so have also grown and become more finan- cially feasible. The investment in infrastructure and new technologies to support that objec- tive needs time to plan and there isn’t one solution, but many different initiatives will need to be employed. Developing a roadmap allows an airport to identify its policies and tech- nologies in advance of their need so that they can plan and budget accordingly. The Cadmus Group was selected to develop this guidance and a methodology for airports to develop a roadmap to achieve zero or low emissions. Their research included interviews at 12 different airports from around the world, and eight other organizations on their initia- tives towards zero or low emissions. They validated their findings and conducted a pilot implementation at a large-hub and small-hub airport. The guide was updated to reflect the lessons learned. Appendix E provides more information about the pilots. This guidance will be useful to airport staff of all sizes of airports and to those who work in administration, planning, and sustainability. This guidance helps bring together all of the necessary stakeholders to help develop a roadmap for zero or low emissions. F O R E W O R D By Marci A. Greenberger Staff Officer Transportation Research Board 15894-00b_FM-4thPgs.indd 7 8/17/21 12:11 PM

1 Summary 5 Chapter 1 Initiation of the Roadmap 5 1.1 Ensure Understanding of Foundational Concepts 8 1.2 Review Emission Reduction Programs, Policies, and Regulations 13 1.3 Build Business Cases for Zero- or Low-Emissions Planning Programs 19 1.4 Establish Roadmap Management and Governance 21 Chapter 2 Stakeholder Engagement 22 2.1 Create Stakeholder Teams 27 2.2 Conduct Ongoing Stakeholder Communication 29 Chapter 3 Setting Emissions Goals, Baselines, and Targets 29 3.1 Conduct Greenhouse Gas Inventory 30 3.2 Define Goal Boundary 31 3.3 Choose Goal Type 31 3.4 Define Target Years 33 3.5 Define Allowable Emissions in Target Years 34 Chapter 4 Emissions Reduction Strategies 35 4.1 Reduce Scope 1 and Scope 2 Emissions 42 4.2 Offset Emissions 43 4.3 Reduce Scope 3 Emissions 48 4.4 Select Strategies 51 Chapter 5 Funding Opportunities and Mechanisms 51 5.1 Public Funding 54 5.2 Airport-Based Funding 57 5.3 Third-Party Funding 64 Chapter 6 Monitoring and Outreach 64 6.1 Develop Monitoring and Reporting Program 67 6.2 Identify Triggers for Re-Evaluation 68 6.3 Conduct Outreach 71 References 78 Acronyms A-1 Appendix A Glossary of Terms B-1 Appendix B Frequently Asked Questions About Emissions Planning C O N T E N T S

C-1 Appendix C Examples of Emissions and Technology Roadmaps D-1 Appendix D Emissions Reduction and Reporting Programs E-1 Appendix E Piloting the Implementation of the Guidebook Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions. 15894-00b_FM-4thPgs.indd 10 8/17/21 12:11 PM

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Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports Get This Book
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Airports worldwide are setting aggressive zero- or low-emissions targets. To meet these targets, airports are deploying new strategies, adopting innovative financing mechanisms, and harnessing the collective influence of voluntary emissions and reporting programs. In tandem, new and affordable zero- or low-emissions technologies are rapidly becoming available at airports.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's pre-publication draft of ACRP Research Report 220: Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports covers all steps of roadmap development, from start to finish, using conceptual diagrams, examples, best practices, and links to external tools and resources. While the main focus of this Guidebook is airport‐controlled greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, it provides discussion about airport‐influenced emissions from airlines, concessionaires, and passengers.

Whereas other guidebooks and reference material provide airports with information on emissions mitigation and management (for example, the Federal Aviation Administration’s Airport Carbon Emissions Reduction, ACRP Report 11: Guidebook on Preparing Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories, and the Airport Council International’s Guidance Manual: Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Management), this Guidebook articulates steps for creating an airport‐specific emissions roadmap.

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