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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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  82    References  Airport Business (AB) (2012). Swedavia Becomes World’s First Carbon Neutral National Airport Group.  Airports Council International Europe. http://www.airport‐business.com/2012/11/swedavia‐becomes‐ worlds‐first‐carbon‐neutral‐national‐airport‐group/.   Airport Carbon Accreditation (ACA) (2017). Annual Report 2016‐2017.  https://www.airportcarbonaccreditation.org/component/downloads/downloads/120.html   Airport Carbon Accreditation (ACA) (2017). European Airports Double Their Pledge: 100 Carbon Neutral  Airports by 2030. www.airportcarbonaccreditation.org/news/news/563.html.   Airport Carbon Accreditation (ACA) (2018a). www.airportcarbonaccreditation.org/  Airport Carbon Accreditation (ACA) (2018b). Offsetting Guidance.  Document. https://www.airportcarbonaccreditation.org/component/downloads/downloads/135.html   Airport Carbon Accreditation (ACA) (2019). Accredited Airports Across the World.  https://www.airportcarbonaccreditation.org/airport/participants/north‐america.html  Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) (2009a). ACRP Report 26: Guidebook for Conducting User  Surveys. Transportation Research Board. http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/162765.aspx.   Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) (2009b). ACRP Report 11: Guidebook on Preparing Airport  Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories. Transportation Research Board.  http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/160829.aspx.   Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) (2010a). ACRP Report 28: Marketing Guidebook for Small  Airports. Transportation Research Board. http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/163059.aspx.   Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) (2010b). ACRP Synthesis 21: Airport Energy Efficiency and  Cost Reduction. Transportation Research Board. https://doi.org/10.17226/14413.  Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) (2011a). ACRP Report 57: The Carbon Market: A Primer  for Airports. Transportation Research Board. https://crp.trb.org/acrp0267/acrp‐report‐57‐the‐carbon‐ market‐a‐primer‐for‐airports/.  Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) (2011b). ACRP Report 56: Handbook for Considering  Practical Greenhouse Gas Emission. Transportation Research Board.  http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/166519.aspx.   Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) (2012). ACRP Report 64: Handbook for Evaluating  Emissions and Costs of APUs and Alternative Systems. Transportation Research Board.  http://www.nap.edu/download/22797.   Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) (2012). ACRP Report 78: Airport Ground Support  Equipment (GSE): Emissions Reduction Strategies, Inventory, and Tutorial. Transportation Research  Board. https://doi.org/10.17226/22681. 

  83    Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) (2013). ACRP Synthesis 42: Integrating Environmental  Sustainability into Airport Contracts. Transportation Research Board.  https://www.nap.edu/download/22567#.   Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) (2015). ACRP Report 121: Innovative Revenue Strategies –  An Airport Guide. Transportation Research Board. http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/172699.aspx.   Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) (2015a). ACRP Synthesis Report 65: Practices to Develop  Effective Stakeholder Relationships at Smaller Airports. Transportation Research Board.  http://www.nap.edu/download/22114.  Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) (2015b). ACRP Report 141: Renewable Energy as an  Airport Revenue Source. Transportation Research Board. https://crp.trb.org/acrp0267/acrp‐report‐141‐ renewable‐energy‐as‐an‐airport‐revenue‐source/.   Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) (2016a). ACRP Report 151: Developing a Business Case for  Renewable Energy at Airports. Transportation Research Board. https://crp.trb.org/acrp0267/acrp‐ report‐151‐developing‐an‐airport‐business‐case‐for‐renewable‐energy/.   Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) (2016b). ACRP Report 158: Deriving Benefits from  Alternative Aircraft‐Taxi Systems. Transportation Research Board. https://doi.org/10.17226/23618   Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) (2017a). ACRP Synthesis 85: Alternative Fuels in Airport  Fleets. Transportation Research Board. http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/176442.aspx   Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) (2017b). ACRP Legal Research Digest 7: Airport  Governance and Ownership. Transportation Research Board.  http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/162331.aspx   Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) (2017c). ACRP Synthesis 42: Incorporating Sustainability  into Airport Contracts. Transportation Research  Board. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/22567/integrating‐environmental‐sustainability‐into‐airport‐ contracts  Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) (2017d). ACRP Report 180: Guidebook for Quantifying  Airport Ground Access Vehicle Activity for Emissions Modeling. Transportation Research  Board. https://doi.org/10.17226/24954   Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) (2018a). ACRP Synthesis 93: Sustainability’s Role in  Enhancing Airport Capacity. Transportation Research Board. https://doi.org/10.17226/25159   Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) (2018b). ACRP Synthesis 89 Clean Vehicles, Fuels, and  Practices for Airport Private Ground Transportation Providers. Transportation Research Board.  https://www.nap.edu/download/25193   Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) (2019). ACRP 02‐75: Benefit‐Cost Analyses Guidebook for  Airport Stormwater. http://apps.trb.org/cmsfeed/TRBNetProjectDisplay.asp?ProjectID=4021  

  84    Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) (2019b). ACRP Report 205: Guidebook for Revolving  Funds for Sustainability Projects at Airports. Transportation Research  Board. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/25567/revolving‐funds‐for‐sustainability‐projects‐at‐airports  Airports Council International (ACI) (2009). Guidance Manual: Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions  Management. https://store.aci.aero/product/guidance‐manual‐airport‐greenhouse‐gas‐emissions‐ management/.   Airports Council International (ACI) (2017). Airport Carbon and Emissions Reporting Tool (ACERT),  Version 5.0. https://aci.aero/about‐aci/priorities/environment/acert/.   Amaeshi, K., Crane, A. (2005). Stakeholder Engagement: A Mechanism for Sustainable  Aviation. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=763464   Amaeshi, K., Crane, A. (2006). Stakeholder Engagement: A Mechanism  for Sustainable Aviation. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/csr.108   AMERESCO (2012). Energy Service Provider Qualifications to Provide ESPC Services.  https://www.ct.gov/deep/lib/deep/energy/lbe/qesps/ameresco.pdf  American Council for an Energy‐Efficient Economy (2018). State and Local Policy Database ‐  Massachusetts. https://database.aceee.org/state/massachusetts  Anderson, M. (2017). For Earth Day, Here’s How Americans View Environmental Issues. Pew Research  Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact‐tank/2017/04/20/for‐earth‐day‐heres‐how‐americans‐view‐ environmental‐issues/  Appleton International Airport (ATW) (2019). Airline Passenger Statistics. Platinum Flight Center FBO.  https://atwairport.com/general‐aviation/general‐aviation‐fbo‐terminal/  Appleton International Airport (ATW) (2018). Airline Passenger Statistics. https://atwairport.com/wp‐ content/uploads/2019/01/December‐Airline_Statistics_2018_V01.pdf  Architecture 2030 (2018). http://architecture2030.org/2030_challenges/2030‐challenge/   Baietti, A. (2013). Green Infrastructure Finance: A Public‐Private Partnership Approach to Climate  Finance. The World Bank. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/712651468025506948/Green‐ infrastructure‐finance‐a‐public‐private‐partnership‐approach‐to‐climate‐finance   Better Buildings (n.d.). Green Revolving Funds.  https://betterbuildingssolutioncenter.energy.gov/solution‐roundup/green‐revolving‐funds   Blunden, J. et al. (2018). State of the Climate in 2017. American Meteorological Society.  https://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/2018BAMSStateoftheClimate.1  Bonini, S., Gorner, S. (2011). The Business of Sustainability. McKinsey & Company.  https://www.mckinsey.com/business‐functions/sustainability/our‐insights/the‐business‐of‐ sustainability‐mckinsey‐global‐survey‐results https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable‐ business/2014/oct/15/employee‐engagement‐millennials‐social‐responsibility‐innovation‐value‐social‐ responsibility 

  85    Borrego Solar (2016). San Diego Ranks 2nd for Solar Power in Nation.  https://www.borregosolar.com/press/san‐diego‐ranks‐2nd‐solar‐power‐nation.  Burnham A. (2017). User Guide for AFLEET Tool 2017. Argonne National  Laboratory. https://greet.es.anl.gov/files/afleet‐tool‐2017‐user‐guide   Calhoun, K., J. Corvidae, J. Creyts, M. Jungclaus, J. Mandel, E. O’Grady, and P. Bronski (2017). The  Carbon‐Free City Handbook. Rocky Mountain Institute. https://rmi.org/insight/the‐carbon‐free‐city‐ handbook/.   California Air Resources Board (CARB) (2019). California Air Resources Board Approves Comprehensive  Effort to Clean Up Airport Shuttles. https://ww2.arb.ca.gov/news/california‐air‐resources‐board‐ approves‐comprehensive‐effort‐clean‐airport‐shuttles.  California Air Resources Board (CARB) (2019). What is Global Warming Potential?  https://ww2.arb.ca.gov/resources/documents/high‐gwp‐refrigerants  Carbon Neutral Cities Alliance (CNCA) (2018). https://carbonneutralcities.org/cities/   Carbon Offset Research and Education (CORE) (2019). Mandatory & Voluntary Offset  Markets. http://www.co2offsetresearch.org/policy/MandatoryVsVoluntary.html   Casey, D., Sieber, S. (2016). Employees, Sustainability, and Motivation: Increasing Employee Engagement  by Addressing Sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility. Research in Hospitality Management.  https://doi.org/10.2989/RHM.2016.6.1.9.1297 https://www.mckinsey.com/business‐ functions/sustainability/our‐insights/the‐business‐of‐sustainability‐mckinsey‐global‐survey‐results  CDP et al. Science Based Targets Initiative. https://sciencebasedtargets.org/  Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES) (2015). EV Charging Station Financial Tool.   Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES) (2019). U.S. State Greenhouse Gas Emissions Targets.  https://www.c2es.org/document/greenhouse‐gas‐emissions‐targets/.  Chicago Department of Aviation (2012). Sustainable Airport  Manual. https://www.flychicago.com/SiteCollectionDocuments/Community/Environment/SAM/2018Ful lSAM.pdf   Clark, D. (2019). Delivering Shipment Zero, a vision for net zero carbon shipments.  https://blog.aboutamazon.com/sustainability/delivering‐shipment‐zero‐a‐vision‐for‐net‐zero‐carbon‐ shipments  Climate Action Tracker (CAT) (2017). https://climateactiontracker.org/countries/bhutan/.   Department of Energy (DOE) (2014). How Microgrids Work. https://www.energy.gov/articles/how‐ microgrids‐work  Department of Energy (DOE) (2018). Petroleum Reduction Planning Tool.  https://www.afdc.energy.gov/prep/.  

  86    Department of Energy (DOE) (2019a). Demand Response.  https://www.energy.gov/oe/activities/technology‐development/grid‐modernization‐and‐smart‐ grid/demand‐response  Department of Energy (DOE) (2019b). Power Purchase Agreements.  https://www.energy.gov/eere/femp/downloads/power‐purchase‐agreements  Department of Energy (DOE) (2019c). Energy Savings Performance Contracting.  https://www.energy.gov/eere/slsc/energy‐savings‐performance‐contracting.   Department of Energy (DOT) Build America Bureau (2018). Public – Private Partnerships.  https://www.transportation.gov/buildamerica/programs‐services/p3.   Energy Transitions Commission (2018). Net‐Zero Carbon Emissions from Harder‐to‐Abate Sectors is  Technically and Financially Possible by Mid‐Century. http://www.energy‐ transitions.org/sites/default/files/Global_PressRelease‐MissionPossible.pdf   Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2016d). Introduction to Virtual Power Purchase Agreements.  https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016‐09/documents/webinar_kent_20160928.pdf.  Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2015). America’s Children and the Environment. October 2015.  https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015‐10/documents/ace3_criteria_air_pollutants.pdf   Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2016a). Technical Support Document: Technical Update of the  Social Cost of Carbon for Regulatory Impact Analysis Under Executive Order 12866. ‐ https://19january2017snapshot.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016‐ 12/documents/sc_co2_tsd_august_2016.pdf  Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2016b). The Social Cost of Carbon.  https://19january2017snapshot.epa.gov/climatechange/social‐cost‐carbon_.html  Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2016c). Global Mitigation of Non‐C02 Greenhouse Gases:  Refrigeration and Air Conditioning. https://www.epa.gov/global‐mitigation‐non‐co2‐greenhouse‐ gases/global‐mitigation‐non‐co2‐greenhouse‐gases‐refrigeration   Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2018). Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs).  https://www.epa.gov/greenpower/renewable‐energy‐certificates‐recs.   Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2019). Energy Resources for State and Local  Governments. https://www.epa.gov/statelocalenergy/state‐energy‐efficiency‐benefits‐and‐ opportunities   Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) (1999). FAA Airport Benefit‐Cost Analysis Guidance. Office of  Aviation Policy and Plans.  https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/policy_guidance/benefit_cost/media/1999_FAA_Airport_Ben efit_Cost_Analysis_Guidance.pdf   Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) (2012). Aviation Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Plan.  https://projects.cadmusgroup.com/sites/4563‐P04/Shared%20Documents/1%20‐ %20References/FAA%20GHG%20REduction%20plan.pdf  

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Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports Get This Book
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Airports worldwide are setting aggressive zero- or low-emissions targets. To meet these targets, airports are deploying new strategies, adopting innovative financing mechanisms, and harnessing the collective influence of voluntary emissions and reporting programs. In tandem, new and affordable zero- or low-emissions technologies are rapidly becoming available at airports.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's pre-publicaton draft of ACRP Research Report 220: Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports covers all steps of roadmap development, from start to finish, using conceptual diagrams, examples, best practices, and links to external tools and resources. While the main focus of this Guidebook is airport‐controlled greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, it provides discussion about airport‐influenced emissions from airlines, concessionaires, and passengers.

Whereas other guidebooks and reference material provide airports with information on emissions mitigation and management (for example, the Federal Aviation Administration’s Airport Carbon Emissions Reduction, ACRP Report 11: Guidebook on Preparing Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories, and the Airport Council International’s Guidance Manual: Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Management), this Guidebook articulates steps for creating an airport‐specific emissions roadmap.

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