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D-1Â Â Emissions Reduction and Reporting Programs Voluntary emissions reduction programs allow businesses, colleges and universities, cities, countries, airports, and others to collectively join forces to reduce emissions and gain recogni- tion. These programs include pledges in which an organization publicly states an emissions goal to reach at a future date and accreditation programs that certify an organization meets the criteria of a given emissions level. To date, nine countries and one province have pledged to eliminate economy-wide emis- sions in the coming decades, while other countries have targeted specific sectors or end uses. A growing number of citiesâsuch as those in the C40 Cities Coalition and the Carbon Neutral City Allianceâhave announced carbon neutrality targets for 2050 (CNCA 2020). Hundreds of college campuses have committed to eliminating emissions, and architecture firms and other actors in the building sector have committed to carbon neutral buildings by 2030. The business community is also taking action by adopting âscience-based targetsâ that encourage companies to phase out all GHG emissions by JanuaryÂ 1, 2050. TableÂ D-1 highlights key voluntary emis- sions reduction programs, organized by sector. A P P E N D I X D
D-2 Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports Table D-1. Voluntary emissions reduction milestones and programs. Sector Milestones Number of Commitments (as of January 2021) Airports â¢ 2008: ACA program are established by Airport Council International (ACA 2018a). â¢ 2012: Stockholm-Arlanda is considered the first airport to have achieved carbon neutrality (AB 2012). â¢ 2015: As part of the United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP21, 50 European airports pledged to be carbon neutral by 2030. By 2020, the number had grown to 211 airports (ACI 2020). â¢ 2020: ACA program adds Level 4 and 4+. Two airports have been recognized as ACA Level 4+, and over 300 airports have been recognized at any ACA level. 211 European airports have made the 2030 carbon neutrality pledge (ACI 2020). Buildings â¢ 2006: The American Institute of Architects establishes the 2030 Challenge (Architecture2030 2018). 175 architecture firms and several local governments have joined (Architecture2030 2018). Businesses â¢ 1999: Carbon Neutral Certification (Carbon Neutral Network) established (since discontinued). â¢ 2000: Shaklee Corporation is considered the first Climate Neutral certified business in April 2000. â¢ 2015: Science -Based Targets Initiative established (partnership between CDP, United Nations Global Compact, World Resources Institute, World Wide Fund for Nature, We Mean Business Coalition) (CDP et al. 2020). 553 companies have joined the Science-Based Targets. Cities â¢ 2014: Carbon Neutral Cities Alliance (Urban Sustainability Directors Network) (CNCA 2020). 22 cities are part of the Carbon Neutral Cities Alliance (CNCA 2020). Colleges and Universities â¢ 2006: American College and University Presidentsâ Climate Commitment (Second Nature and The Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education). â¢ 2007: College of the Atlantic in Maine becomes the first American school to achieve carbon neutrality (Gray 2018). Countries â¢ 2017: Bhutan is considered the worldâs first carbon negative country, due to its carbon sinks (CAT 2017). More than 110 nations have committed to carbon neutrality (United Nations 2020). Any Sector â¢ 2001: Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHGP) established by World Resources Institute and World Business Council for Sustainable Development. â¢ 2006: International Organization for Standardization (ISO) establishes ISO 14064, standards for GHG accounting and verification (ISO 2006).