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Suggested Citation:"Summary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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Suggested Citation:"Summary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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Suggested Citation:"Summary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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Page 3
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Suggested Citation:"Summary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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1   Objective of Guidebook ACRP Research Report 220: Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports provides airports with the information and resources needed to create a zero- or low-emissions roadmap.1 The guidebook covers all steps of roadmap development, from start to finish, using conceptual diagrams, examples, best practices, and links to external tools and resources. While the main focus of this guidebook is airport-controlled green- house gas (GHG) emissions, the guidebook also discusses airport-influenced emissions from airlines, concessionaires, passengers, and other third parties. Throughout the guide- book, reductions in local air pollution are discussed as co-benefits. Whereas other guidebooks and reference material provide airports with information on emissions mitigation and management—FAA’s Airport Carbon Emissions Reduction (2019a); ACRP Report 11: Guidebook on Preparing Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories (Kim et al. 2009); ACI’s Guidance Manual: Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Management (2009)—this guidebook articulates steps for creating an airport-specific emissions roadmap. Examples of questions addressed by this guidebook include: • How can airports make a business case to pursue zero- or low-emissions targets? [Chapter 1] • How can airports catalyze internal and external stakeholders into developing zero emissions goals or targets? [Chapter 2] • How should airports set goals and target years en route to zero- or low-emissions targets? [Chapter 3] • How should airports evaluate the technology-fuel mixes needed to achieve a given emissions target? [Chapter 4] • What are examples of innovative airport programs that can achieve deep emissions reductions? [Chapters 2 to 4] • What are the pros and cons of various funding options for emissions reductions? [Chapter 5] • How can airports effectively monitor their emissions reduction programs? [Chapter 6] Even if an airport is not ready to develop a full emissions roadmap, the guidebook may still be useful. The guidebook is written in a scalable fashion, so that users can pick-and- choose strategies and contents that suit their needs. Airports should focus on near-term, cost-effective strategies to build momentum over time. With enough successes, an airport may be ready to develop an emissions roadmap. S U M M A R Y Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports 1 While noise can be considered an “emission” as well, only air quality and GHG emissions are within the scope of this guidebook.

2 Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports Audience for Guidebook This guidebook is intended primarily for airports of all sizes and in all global regions, including small-, medium-, and large-hub commercial service, reliever, and general avia- tion, that are interested in developing a zero- or low-emissions roadmap. Even airports without deep interest in long-term emission reductions can benefit from the contents of the guidebook. The target audience for this guidebook includes: • Airport administrators and decision makers. The guidebook provides the information necessary to pursue zero- or low-emissions targets and to consider the impact of these targets within the broader goals of the airport and associated stakeholders. • Airport financial staff. The guidebook provides those responsible for the financial and budgetary aspects of airport projects, operations, and maintenance with the information required to evaluate the costs and benefits of a zero- or low-emissions initiative including required long-term investment needs. • Airport technical staff including airport engineers and sustainability personnel. The guidebook assists technical personnel with evaluating infrastructure projects, building efficiencies, and implementing operational changes that ensure long-term sustainability and cost-effectiveness of airport operations while also promoting the airport’s stated emissions reduction goals. Role of Roadmaps Airports worldwide are setting aggressive zero- or low-emissions targets. To meet these targets, airports are deploying new strate- gies, adopting innovative financing mechanisms, and harnessing the collective resources of voluntary emissions and reporting pro- grams like Airport Carbon Accreditation (ACA), Science-Based Targets (SBTs), The Climate Registry (TCR), Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), and others. In tandem, new and affordable zero- or low-emissions technologies are rapidly becoming available at airports. Vehicle fleet electrification is now possible and economi- cally attractive for a wide variety of vehicle types. Energy-efficient buildings, facilities, and end uses are providing short paybacks and high return on investment. Renewable resources such as solar, wind, and geothermal are often the lowest-cost electricity option for airports. The investments needed to support zero- or low-emission tech- nologies at airports often require long planning horizons and close coordination between many stakeholders. A roadmap is an effec- tive tool for fulfilling these needs and signaling to the broader set of airport investors and partners that an airport takes climate change seriously. This signal has real financial benefits, as discussed in Chapter 1.3. Development of Guidebook This guidebook is the culmination of work conducted between 2018 and 2021. Key tasks during the development of the guidebook included a detailed literature review; inter- views with approximately 20 U.S.-based and international airports; 3 day-long workshops with pilot airports (Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport, Portland-Hillsboro Global Trend Setting aggressive emission reduction targets at airports is part of a broader global trend. Eight countries and one province have pledged to eliminate economy-wide emissions in the coming decades, while other countries and cities have announced plans to eliminate emissions in specific sectors or to establish “low-emission zones.” A growing number of cities (such as C40 Cities), universities, and businesses have also announced carbon neutrality targets for 2050.

Summary 3   Airport, and John Wayne Airport); and an in-depth year-long implementation project with two airports (Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport and Eugene Airport). A detailed description of the year-long implementation project is provided in Appendix E. Organization of Guidebook This guidebook is organized into six overarching chapters that correspond to the steps needed to create an airport-specific roadmap to a zero- or low-emissions target. • Chapter 1 lays out the basic knowledge and concepts to begin the roadmapping process, describes how to create a compelling business case, and provides important context. • Chapter  2 describes effective engagement strategies that encourage buy-in for the roadmap from internal and external stakeholders. • Chapter 3 reviews steps for setting goals, baselines, and targets. • Chapter 4 describes emissions reduction strategies. • Chapter 5 discusses funding opportunities and mechanisms. • Chapter  6 reviews key steps for monitoring, outreach, and reporting. The appendices provide a glossary of terms, frequently asked questions, example graphics for zero- or low-emissions roadmaps, and a chapter on the implementation of the guidebook. How to Use this Guidebook The diagram on the following page depicts a step-by-step process for creating an airport-specific roadmap. All steps in the diagram should be considered iterative—each are linked and should be re-visited periodically.

4 Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports CHAPTER 1 INITIATION OF THE ROADMAP Section 1.1: Ensure Understanding of Foundational Concepts Section 1.2: Review Emission Reduction Programs, Policies, and Regulations Section 1.3: Build Business Cases for Zero- or Low-Emissions Planning Programs Section 1.4: Establish Roadmap Management and Governance CHAPTER 2 STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT Section 2.1: Create Stakeholder Teams Section 2.2: Conduct Ongoing Stakeholder Communication CHAPTER 5 FUNDING OPPORTUNITIES AND MECHANISMS Section 5.1: Public Funding Section 5.2: Airport-Based Funding Section 5.3: Third-Party Funding CHAPTER 3 SETTING EMISSIONS GOALS, BASELINES, AND TARGETS Section 3.1: Conduct GHG Inventory Section 3.2: Define Goal Boundary Section 3.3: Choose Goal Type Section 3.4: Define Target Years Section 3.5: Define Allowable Emissions in Target Years CHAPTER 4 EMISSIONS REDUCTION STRATEGIES Section 4.1: Reduce Scope 1 and Scope 2 Emissions Section 4.2: Offset Emissions Section 4.3: Reduce Scope 3 Emissions Section 4.4: Select Strategies CHAPTER 6 MONITORING AND OUTREACH Section 6.1: Develop Monitoring and Reporting Program Section 6.2: Identify Triggers for Re-Evaluation Section 6.3: Conduct Outreach

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Airports worldwide are setting aggressive zero- or low-emissions targets. To meet these targets, airports are deploying new strategies, adopting innovative financing mechanisms, and harnessing the collective influence of voluntary emissions and reporting programs. In tandem, new and affordable zero- or low-emissions technologies are rapidly becoming available at airports.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's pre-publication draft of ACRP Research Report 220: Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports covers all steps of roadmap development, from start to finish, using conceptual diagrams, examples, best practices, and links to external tools and resources. While the main focus of this Guidebook is airport‐controlled greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, it provides discussion about airport‐influenced emissions from airlines, concessionaires, and passengers.

Whereas other guidebooks and reference material provide airports with information on emissions mitigation and management (for example, the Federal Aviation Administration’s Airport Carbon Emissions Reduction, ACRP Report 11: Guidebook on Preparing Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories, and the Airport Council International’s Guidance Manual: Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Management), this Guidebook articulates steps for creating an airport‐specific emissions roadmap.

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