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Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
×
Page 5
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Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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i  Contents  Summary ....................................................................................................................................................... 1  Objective of Guidebook ............................................................................................................................ 1  Audience for Guidebook ........................................................................................................................... 1  Role of Roadmaps ..................................................................................................................................... 2  Organization of Guidebook ....................................................................................................................... 2  Chapter 1: Initiation of the Roadmap ........................................................................................................... 5  Chapter 1.1: Ensure Understanding of Foundational Concepts ............................................................... 5  Chapter 1.2: Review Regulatory Landscape ............................................................................................ 11  Chapter 1.3: Build Business Case for Zero or Low Emissions Planning Program .................................... 15  Chapter 1.4: Establish Roadmap Governance ........................................................................................ 21  Chapter 2: Stakeholder Engagement .......................................................................................................... 23  Chapter 2.1: Create Stakeholder Teams ................................................................................................. 23  Chapter 2.2: Conduct Ongoing Stakeholder Communication ................................................................. 29  Chapter 3: Setting Emissions Goal(s), Baseline(s), and Target(s)................................................................ 32  Chapter 3.1: Conduct GHG inventory ..................................................................................................... 32  Chapter 3.2: Define Goal Boundary ........................................................................................................ 33  Chapter 3.3: Choose Goal Type ............................................................................................................... 33  Chapter 3.4: Define Target Year(s).......................................................................................................... 34  Chapter 3.5: Define Allowable Emissions in Target Year(s) .................................................................... 35  Chapter 4: Emissions Reduction Strategies ................................................................................................ 37  Chapter 4.1: Identify Emissions Reduction Options ............................................................................... 37  Chapter 4.2: Prioritize Emissions Reduction Options ............................................................................. 49  Chapter 4.3: Consider Scope 3 Emissions ............................................................................................... 53  Chapter 5: Funding Opportunities and Mechanisms .................................................................................. 62  Chapter 5.1: Public Funding .................................................................................................................... 62  Chapter 5.2: Airport‐Based Funding ....................................................................................................... 65  Chapter 5.3: Third‐Party Funding ............................................................................................................ 68  Chapter 6: Monitoring and Outreach ......................................................................................................... 75  Chapter 6.1: Develop Monitoring and Reporting Program .................................................................... 75  Chapter 6.2: Identify Triggers for Re‐Evaluation .................................................................................... 78  Chapter 6.3: Conduct Outreach .............................................................................................................. 80 

ii  References .................................................................................................................................................. 82  Appendix A: Glossary of Terms ................................................................................................................. A‐1  Appendix B: Frequently Asked Questions about Emissions Planning ........................................................ B‐1  Appendix C: Recommended Additional Research ..................................................................................... C‐1  Appendix D: Examples of Emissions and Technology Roadmaps ............................................................. D‐1  Appendix E: Emissions Reduction and Reporting Programs ...................................................................... E‐1 

iii  Acronyms  AAHK  Airport Authority Hong Kong  ACA  Airport Carbon Accreditation  ACI  Airports Council International  ACRP  Airport Cooperative Research Program   AFV  Alternative Fuel Vehicle  AIP  Airport Improvement Program  APU  Auxiliary power unit  ASU  Aircraft start units  ATL  Hartsfield‐Jackson Atlanta International Airport  AUS  Austin‐Bergstrom International Airport  BCA  Benefit Cost Analysis  CAA  Clean Air Act  CAAFI  Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative  CAEP  Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection  CARB  California Air Resources Board  CCHP  Combined cooling, heat, and power  CDA  Chicago Department of Aviation  CDM  Clean Development Mechanism  CDP  Carbon Disclosure Project  CER  Certified Emissions Reduction  CHP  Combined heat and power  CLEEN  Continuous Lower Energy, Emissions, and Noise  COP  Conference of Parties  CNCA  Carbon Neutral Cities Alliance  CNG  Compressed natural gas  CORE  Carbon Offset Research and Education  CORSIA  Carbon Offsetting & Reduction Scheme for International Aviation  DFW  Dallas‐Fort Worth International Airport  DOAV  Department of Aviation, Virginia  eGSE  Electric ground support equipment  EPA  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency  ERU  Emissions Reduction Unit  ESCO  Energy service company  EU ETS  European Union Emissions Trading Scheme  EUA  European Union Allowance  EV  Electric vehicle  FAA  Federal Aviation Authority  FDOT  Florida Department of Transportation  FTA  Federal Transit Administration  

iv  GAV  Ground access vehicle  GHG  Greenhouse gas  GHGP  Greenhouse Gas Protocol  GPU  Ground power units  GRF  Green revolving fund  GRI  Global Reporting Initiative  GSE  Ground support equipment  GWP  Global warming potential  HEFA  Hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids  HFCs  Hydrofluorocarbons  Hz  Hertz   IATA  International Air Transport Association  ICAO  International Civil Aviation Organization   ICCT  International Council on Clean Transportation  IIRC  Integrated Reporting Council  IPCC  Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change  JFK  John F. Kennedy International Airport  KPI  Key performance indicators  LaaS  Lighting as a service  LAWA  Los Angeles World Airports  LAX  Los Angeles International Airport  LDC  Least developed countries  LEED  Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design  LLDC  Landlocked developing countries  LTO  Landing and takeoff cycle  MaaS  Mobility ‐as‐a‐service  MassDOT  Massachusetts Department of Transportation  MBM  Market‐based measure  MSP  Minneapolis‐St. Paul International Airport  MW  Megawatt  NAAQS  National Ambient Air Quality Standards  NAS  National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine  NREL  National Renewable Energy Laboratory  OMP  O’Hare Modernization Program  P3  Public‐private partnership  PCA  Pre‐conditioned air  PFC  Passenger facility charges  PFCs  Perfluorocarbons  PHL  Philadelphia International Airport  PM  Particulate matter 

  v    PPA  Power purchase agreement  RaaS  Resilience as a service  RACI  Responsible, accountable, consulted, and informed  RAM  Responsibility Assignment Matrix  REC  Renewable Energy Credit  RGGI  Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative  RMI  Rocky Mountain Institute  RPS  Renewable portfolio standard  RTK  Revenue ton‐kilometer  SAF  Sustainable aviation fuel  SAGA  Sustainable Aviation Guidance Alliance  SAN  San Diego International Airport  SBT  Science‐based targets  SBTi  Science‐based target Initiative  SDG  Sustainable Development Goals  SFO  San Francisco International Airport  SIDS  Small island developing states  SWOT  Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats  TCR  The Climate Registry  TNC  Transportation network company  ULSD  Ultra‐low sulfur diesel  UN  United Nations  UNFCCC  United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change  UNGC  Unite Nations Global Compact  VALE  Voluntary Airport Lower Emissions  VER  Verified Emissions Reduction  VPPA  Virtual power purchase agreement  WBCSD  World Business Council for Sustainable Development  WRI  World Resources Institute  WWF  World‐Wildlife Fund for Nature  ZEB  Zero emission bus       

  vi    Acknowledgments  This publication would not have been possible without the considerable contributions from the  following individuals: Sarah Duffy, Cadmus; Damon Fordham, Cadmus; Elise Emil, Cadmus; Oana Leahu‐ Aluas, Cadmus; Mia Stephens, Cadmus; Rahi Patel, Volpe; Janice Shiu, Volpe; Connor Farnham, Volpe.  The authors sincerely appreciate the valuable input and review provided by the project panel members.  We also thank the following individuals for providing input during phone interviews:   Zach Baumer; Climate Program Manager, Office of Sustainability, Austin, TX (U.S.);   Marina Bylinsky, Head of Environmental Strategy and Inter‐modality, Airports Council  International‐Europe;   Erin Cooke, Director of Sustainability, San Francisco International Airport (U.S.);   Steve Csonka, Executive Director, Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative;    John Galloway, Carbon Neutral Airport Program Manager, San Francisco International Airport  (U.S.);   Jane Hupe, Chief of the Environment, International Civil Aviation Organization;   Noah J. Karberg, Environmental Coordinator, Nantucket Memorial Airport (U.S.);   Mike Kilburn, Assistant General Manager for the Environment, Airport Authority Hong Kong  (China);   Muthukrishnan M., Ahmed Rekibuddin, Senior Env. Planners, Indira Ghandi International Airport  (India);   Damien Meadows, Adviser on European and Int’l Carbon Markets, European Commission;   Lyne Michaud, Director, Sustainability and Environment, Montréal–Pierre Elliott Trudeau  International Airport (Canada);   Steve Muzzy, Climate Programs Senior Manager, Second Nature/ Climate Leadership Network;   Denise Pronk, Program Manager, Corporate Responsibility, Amsterdam Airport Schiphol  (Netherlands);   Brendan Reed, Director of Planning & Env. Affairs, San Diego International Airport (U.S.);   Chad Reese, Environmental Affairs Manager, San Diego International Airport (U.S.);   Miles Thomas, Environment Manager, TAG London Farnborough Airport (U.K.);   Steven Thomas, Todd Ernst, Environmental Program Managers, Toronto Pearson International  Airport (Canada);   Adam Walters, Manager of Environmental Services, Southwest Airlines;   Lena Wennberg, Sustainability and Environmental Program Manager, Swedavia (Sweden); and   Michelle Zilinskas, Policy Associate, The Climate Registry.

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Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports Get This Book
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Airports worldwide are setting aggressive zero- or low-emissions targets. To meet these targets, airports are deploying new strategies, adopting innovative financing mechanisms, and harnessing the collective influence of voluntary emissions and reporting programs. In tandem, new and affordable zero- or low-emissions technologies are rapidly becoming available at airports.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's pre-publicaton draft of ACRP Research Report 220: Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports covers all steps of roadmap development, from start to finish, using conceptual diagrams, examples, best practices, and links to external tools and resources. While the main focus of this Guidebook is airport‐controlled greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, it provides discussion about airport‐influenced emissions from airlines, concessionaires, and passengers.

Whereas other guidebooks and reference material provide airports with information on emissions mitigation and management (for example, the Federal Aviation Administration’s Airport Carbon Emissions Reduction, ACRP Report 11: Guidebook on Preparing Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories, and the Airport Council International’s Guidance Manual: Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Management), this Guidebook articulates steps for creating an airport‐specific emissions roadmap.

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