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Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports (2021)

Chapter: Chapter 6 - Monitoring and Outreach

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Page 64
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Monitoring and Outreach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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Page 64
Page 65
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Monitoring and Outreach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
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Page 65
Page 66
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Monitoring and Outreach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
×
Page 66
Page 67
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Monitoring and Outreach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
×
Page 67
Page 68
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Monitoring and Outreach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
×
Page 68
Page 69
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Monitoring and Outreach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
×
Page 69
Page 70
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Monitoring and Outreach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25677.
×
Page 70

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64 Monitoring and Outreach Once the roadmap is completed and publicly released, the core decision-making team dis- cussed in Chapter 2 needs to establish internal processes to ensure the roadmap can be main- tained over time. Additionally, the core decision-making team should have been coordinating with the airport’s public affairs office during the roadmap development to ensure an effective outreach program. These post-roadmap development items are the focus of Chapter 6 and are illustrated in Figure 20. C H A P T E R 6 Section 6.1: Develop Monitoring and Reporting Program Section 6.2: Identify Triggers for Re-Evaluation Section 6.3: Conduct Outreach Figure 20. Steps for monitoring and outreach. 6.1 Develop Monitoring and Reporting Program Developing a Monitoring Program Frequency of Assessment The first step in developing an effective GHG emissions monitoring program is to choose a consistent assessment frequency. GRI recommends annual reporting, as this allows for con- sistent and timely assessments of progress towards meeting an established emissions goal and developing emissions trends. Once a reporting frequency has been chosen, that same frequency should be used throughout the goal period. Figure 21 depicts a flowchart of an emissions monitoring program. Greenhouse Gas Inventory and Calculating Emissions When monitoring and reporting emissions for a reporting year, a GHG inventory should be conducted. Reporting year emissions should be reported separately by gas (in metric tons) and by carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) (in metric tons). Upon assessing reporting year emissions, the change in emissions since the start of the goal period should be calculated. Knowing the change in emissions can help airport staff understand the attainability of the emissions reduc- tion goals for the target year as well as showcase how far the airport has advanced, helping ensure

Monitoring and Outreach 65   that the airport remains on the right track for attaining its established goals. The following formula provides the change in emissions for a reporting year: ( ) ( ) ∆ − emissions since start of goal period = reporting year emissions t CO e baseline emissions t CO e 2 2 After calculating the change in emissions since the start of the goal period, the next step is calcu- lating additional emissions reductions that may be necessary to achieve the reporting year goal: reductions needed to achieve the goal (t CO e) = reporting year emissions (t CO e) – allowable emissions in target year (t CO e) 2 2 2 With the necessary data calculated for emissions in the reporting year, the airport should assess why emissions have changed since the start of the goal period. This assessment should determine whether emissions changed as a result of new technologies and policies, growth or decline in busi- ness, seasonal weather variations, or some combination. Each reporting year, the airport should take stock of every potential GHG emissions driver, in addition to sources established in the GHG inventory, and should collect data on how each driver has changed over the goal period. With this information, the airport can estimate the fraction of the total emissions changes that can be attributed to each driver (e.g., how much change results from more efficient shuttle buses versus how much results from a change in the number of shuttle bus miles traveled). After each reporting year, clear trends should emerge that show whether or not the airport heads in the right direction and remains on track to meet its target-year reduction goal. Estab- lishing these trends allow airports to pivot, change, or stop strategies, depending on how well they are working. Figure 21. Airport emissions monitoring program flowchart.

66 Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports Effective Reporting Having a concise and easy to understand mechanism for communicating progress on zero- or low-emissions planning is important for keeping internal and external stakeholders up to date and for holding the airport accountable. Many airports publish an annual sustainability report, which includes all efforts made on reducing emissions. Of these airports, some establish their own methods for organizing and structuring the reports. Recent trends in private sector reporting and disclosure have been adopted by the aviation industry, bringing consistency to airport annual reporting. Global Reporting Initiative Airports are encouraged to familiarize themselves with the Airport Operators Sector Supplement developed by GRI, as GRI collaborates with industry stakeholders to develop the most widely adopted global standards for sustainability reporting. GRI’s reporting framework is intended to provide a method for reporting on an organization’s economic, environmental, and social performance. GRI Standard 305 requires disclosures on Scope 1, Scope 2, and Scope 3 GHG emissions, GHG emissions intensity, and reduction of GHG emissions, in addition to ozone- depleting substances and other pollutants (GRI 2019). These seven standard disclosures are summarized in Table 17. Disclosure of GHG emissions reductions means publicly reporting on GHG emissions reduced as a direct result of reduction activities, as opposed to other drivers, the scopes in which reductions took place, and the methodologies and assumptions used. GRI guidance indicates that offsets can be included as part of reduction efforts, but these must be reported separately. Any additional details that airports provide regarding progress toward emissions goals (such as specific offsets purchased) increase transparency and provide stakeholders with a thorough record of airport emissions reduction activities. Airports such as San Diego International Airport, Toronto Pearson International Airport, and Amsterdam Airport Schiphol all prepare their annual reports in accordance with GRI Standards. In addition to preparing its annual reports in accordance with GRI Standards, Toronto Pearson International Airport has an active stakeholder engagement process. The airport undertakes a comprehensive materiality assessment every 5 years to ensure it is tracking and reporting on the elements most important to its stakeholders and publishes the results on its website. The airport gathers information from stakeholders more frequently as well as through industry committees, passenger surveys, employee forums, public meetings, customer and passenger feedback kiosks, a web portal, and social media channels as described in the airport’s Sustainability Management Approach and GRI Index. Standard Disclosure Topic 305-1 Direct (Scope 1) GHG emissions 305-2 Energy indirect (Scope 2) GHG emissions 305-3 Other indirect (Scope 3) GHG emissions 305-4 GHG emissions intensity 305-5 Reduction of GHG emissions 305-6 Emissions of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) 305-7 Nitrogen oxides (NOX), sulfur oxides (SOX), and other significant air emissions Table 17. Global Reporting Initiative 305 emissions disclosures.

Monitoring and Outreach 67   Integrated Reporting Integrated reporting is a concept developed by a coalition of corporate reporting entities to advance corporate reporting into areas focusing on value creation. According to the International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC), integrated reporting is “a process founded on integrated thinking that results in a periodic integrated report by an organization about value creation over time and related communications regarding aspects of value creation.” The integrated report resulting from this process “is a concise communication about how an organization’s strategy, governance, performance and prospects, in the context of its external environment, lead to the creation of value in the short, medium and long term (IIRC).” Amsterdam Airport Schiphol and Munich International Airport are examples of airports that both practice integrated reporting and follow GRI Standards. Zero- or low-emissions planning proves well-suited for inclusion within an airport’s integrated report as it touches on several opportunities the airport has to create value. Producing a report is just one way airports can showcase the progress and success of their emissions reduction efforts. Increasing public awareness of zero- or low-emissions planning at the airport can enhance the airport’s reputation, build goodwill, and potentially encourage additional stakeholders to become involved. Tactics for increasing awareness of zero- or low-emissions planning and related efforts include the following: • Integrating updates on zero- or low-emissions planning efforts across all communications channels (such as newsletters, email, and social media); • Participating in civic groups and business organizations, including business chambers and economic development/tourism offices; • Highlighting emissions planning and reduction efforts through speaking engagements and airport tours; • Highlighting emissions planning and reduction efforts via promi- nently displayed airport signage and posters in common areas; and • Hosting open houses and community meetings that highlight emis- sions reduction efforts. 6.2 Identify Triggers for Re-Evaluation A number of factors, internal and external, could result in an airport revising its GHG emis- sions reduction targets. External factors include new advances in technology (making more ambitious emissions reduction targets feasible over a shorter period of time). Regulation changes could require airports to adopt certain practices or technologies. Unexpected challenges, such as natural or man-made disasters, or anything that fundamentally changes an airport’s business model, may alter the cost-benefit calculus for emissions reduction. Internal factors that could cause revisions include the airport substantially missing a reporting year goal and no longer remaining on track to achieve allowable emissions by the target year. Continually accounting for advances in energy, building, and transportation technology, both on-site and off-site, as well as risks from disruptions or changing business trends, can help air- ports take full advantage of opportunities available to reduce emissions—and to revise targets, when appropriate. Technology and Policy Changes Though technology changes are usually adopted voluntarily, it may be useful for airports to set specific timelines on which to assess the state of emerging technologies and consider the Munich International Airport Pursues “Integrated Thinking” Approach Munich International Airport has been publishing integrated annual reports since 2011, providing updates on economic, environmental, and social aspects together. Guided by the framework developed by the International Integrated Reporting Council, Munich Airport conveys its activities that create short-, medium-, and long-term financial and non-financial value (Flughafen München GmbH, 2019).

68 Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports readiness, benefits, and costs of adopting them. A period from every 3 to 5 years may be appro- priate, given the innovation pace for building and energy efficiency products. Policy changes can be anticipated or unanticipated. Changing political parties in local, state, and federal government, along with shifting public attitudes, can affect the tools airports can use to meet emissions reduction targets. Airports can anticipate policy changes by maintaining a dialogue with policy-makers regarding emissions reduction targets and emissions reduction strategies. Making a business case for continual emissions reduction (see Section 1.3) can aid in this effort. Disruptions and Business Cycles Unexpected shocks, such as natural disasters or business cycle shifts, could force airports to slow their expected emissions reduction targets (e.g., as they recover) or encourage them to accelerate investment (e.g., to become more resilient to the next disruption or downturn). Each airport will find itself in a different context. In the event of a disaster, an airport’s stakeholders may push for any renovation or rebuilding to take place in a manner which enables more ambitious reduction targets. However, a disaster that results in a large amount of damage may constrain resources to the extent that airports must forgo investments in emissions reduction technologies and practices for some period of time, as to focus resources on more immediate concerns. In an economy on the upswing, airline ridership will continually increase, fueling revenue for airports to invest more into emissions reduction strategies than initially anticipated. In a reces- sion, declining ridership and revenue may force airports to forgo expected emissions reduction strategies that require significant new capital. At the same time, decreasing utility energy can help enhance airports’ bottom lines in downturns. Table 18 describes potential changes that could trigger the need for re-evaluation of airport emissions reduction targets, broken down by emissions scope. 6.3 Conduct Outreach Conducting outreach entails engaging with external stakeholders, such as community mem- bers, vendors, and tenants. People living near a site and businesses that operate within and surrounding airports stand to benefit most from changes such as improved air quality. So outreach to these affected stakeholders remains crucial. Chapter 2 provides guidance on identi- fying an airport’s external stakeholders. Conducting outreach for emissions reporting and progress towards an emissions reduction goal provide results similar to initial outreach, performed for establishing goals and a roadmap. Rather than collaborating with stakeholders to create the goals and a roadmap to reach them, the airport has a chance to inform stakeholders on the progress they have made, the challenges they have encountered, and the areas that still have room for improvement. This external com- munication should include input from the airport’s marketing and communications teams. An airport’s emissions reduction progress outreach toolbox provides multiple tools: • Emissions reduction program fact sheet, • Customer emissions reduction program survey, • Stakeholder meetings, • Emissions reduction progress report open houses, • Social media, and • Internal marketing (e.g., airport advertising space and announcements).

Monitoring and Outreach 69   If an airport has the resources to support a dedicated marketing or communications team, outreach should fall within their skill set. Smaller airports may have to rely on other team mem- bers for outreach duties. For resources on conducting surveys, hosting meetings, and other communication tools, see Chapter 2. Diverse engagement avenues are key to successful outreach. Whether social media, an open house, or a survey, some key questions should be asked of participants to inform future commu- nications on emissions reduction progress—and potentially the emissions reduction strategies themselves: • Have you heard about the airport’s GHG reduction program? • Why is it important to you that the airport reaches its GHG reduction goals? • What do you think the airport is doing well in meeting its GHG reduction goals? • What do you think the airport could do better in meeting its GHG reduction goals? • How could progress be better conveyed? Questions should be tailored for before and after the release of public progress to gauge public interest and to receive comprehensive feedback. Community members can often offer a unique perspective, and they may think of something overlooked by the airport team. Ensuring a cyclical process of receiving feedback, incorporating feedback, and asking for more feedback in each reporting year will lead to a stronger emissions reduction plan. This also poses an ideal opportunity to showcase how customers’ and tenants’ dollars are spent to further sustainability efforts. Scope 1 Scope 2 Scope 3 Te ch no lo gy New classes of HVAC equipment become available New renewable energy generation technology Mass adoption of electric vehicles (used by employees and passengers) Addition of on-site renewable energy technology (e.g., solar panels) New renewable energy storage technology New sustainable aviation fuel technology becomes available Alteration/expansion of airport facilities (e.g., renovation of terminal increases insulation) New transportation options to airport (e.g., new rapid transit system, fuel efficient buses, new routes) Po lic y Regulation requires airports to adopt specific on-site technology or to limit on-site emissions Regulation requires airports to purchase specific amount of energy produced by renewables Policy incentivizes airport employee commuting or passenger arrival via new method (e.g., shared vehicles replace single-occupancy cars) Regulation requires airports to adopt specific emissions target Di sa st er Natural or man-made disaster forces airport to defer investment in emissions reduction strategies to focus on immediate concerns Bu si ne ss C yc le Revenue reductions force deferment of capital-intensive, on-site, renewable energy generation technology or electrification (e.g. , solar panels) Price of fossil fuels dramatically falls, reducing benefit-cost of purchasing green energy Budget cuts reduce public funding for sustainable transportation to airport Price of renewable energy dramatically falls, incentivizing greater purchase of green energy Price of gasoline falls, encouraging employees and passengers to arrive to airport by single-occupancy vehicle In te rn al Internal emissions reduction target is missed within a given year Internal emissions reduction target is exceeded within a given year Table 18. Potential triggers for re-evaluation of airport emissions reduction targets.

70 Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports Metropolitan Airports Commission Airport Sustainability Outreach and Engagement The Metropolitan Airports Commission (MAC) owns and operates Minneapolis–St. Paul International Airport (MSP) and six reliever airports. In 2013, MAC developed a sustainability management plan, which was updated in 2019. As part of the refresh effort, MAC conducted outreach across the organization and developed four sustainability goals to achieve by 2030, including a goal to reduce GHG emissions by 80% by 2030 from the 2014/2015 baseline. The other three key goals were reducing water use per passenger by 15%; reducing, reusing, or recy- cling 75% of solid waste; and involving MAC employees on implementing sustainability ini- tiatives and achieving an engagement score of 85. MAC employees responded to surveys that sustainability matters to the organization and is the right thing to do. The engagement score measures how aware employees are of MAC sustainability efforts, how knowledgeable they are of how to contribute, and, more critically, what areas employees feel are most important for MAC to focus its efforts. MAC provides information on its progress to date on each of the goals and actions it is taking to meet the goals through a regularly updated web dashboard. Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Climate Educational Tool The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (Port Authority) has numerous sustain- ability goals and initiatives across its portfolio of assets, including ACA participation by all five of its airports (JFK, LaGuardia, Teterboro, Newark Liberty, and Stewart). In 2020, the Port Authority launched an interactive educational resource for local residents, parents, educators and students titled “Fighting Climate Change” for Earth Day. The resource provides informa- tion on the carbon cycle, GHGs, the human impact on the environment, as well as the contribu- tion of the transportation sector, including Port Authority operations, to climate change. The resource also outlines the actions that the Port Authority is taking to combat climate change, such as their commitment to reduce GHG emissions by 35% by 2025 and by 80% by 2050.

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Airports worldwide are setting aggressive zero- or low-emissions targets. To meet these targets, airports are deploying new strategies, adopting innovative financing mechanisms, and harnessing the collective influence of voluntary emissions and reporting programs. In tandem, new and affordable zero- or low-emissions technologies are rapidly becoming available at airports.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's pre-publication draft of ACRP Research Report 220: Guidebook for Developing a Zero- or Low-Emissions Roadmap at Airports covers all steps of roadmap development, from start to finish, using conceptual diagrams, examples, best practices, and links to external tools and resources. While the main focus of this Guidebook is airport‐controlled greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, it provides discussion about airport‐influenced emissions from airlines, concessionaires, and passengers.

Whereas other guidebooks and reference material provide airports with information on emissions mitigation and management (for example, the Federal Aviation Administration’s Airport Carbon Emissions Reduction, ACRP Report 11: Guidebook on Preparing Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories, and the Airport Council International’s Guidance Manual: Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Management), this Guidebook articulates steps for creating an airport‐specific emissions roadmap.

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