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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 1: Guidance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25678.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 1: Guidance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25678.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 1: Guidance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25678.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 1: Guidance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25678.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 1: Guidance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25678.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 1: Guidance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25678.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 1: Guidance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25678.
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2020 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 940 Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Volume 1: Guidance Paul Lutkevich WSP Boston, MA Ronald Gibbons Rajaram Bhagavathula Virginia Tech TranSPorTaTion inSTiTuTe Blacksburg, VA Don McLean DMD anD aSSociaTeS LTD. Surrey, British Columbia, Canada Subscriber Categories Design • Maintenance and Preservation • Safety and Human Factors Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transporta- tion results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to high- way authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniques—the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation, under Agree- ment No. 693JJ31950003. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRB’s recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRB’s relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs iden- tified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the FHWA. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&I’s recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.nationalacademies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 940, VOLUME 1 Project 05-22 ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-48152-6 Library of Congress Control Number 2020937449 © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; the FHWA; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 940, VOLUME 1 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Edward T. Harrigan, Senior Program Officer Anthony P. Avery, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Janet M. McNaughton, Senior Editor NCHRP PROJECT 05-22 PANEL Field of Traffic—Area of Illumination and Visibility Sue M. Zarling, Minnesota DOT, Roseville, MN (Chair) Daryl R. St. Clair, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg, PA Anna D. Bosin, Alaska DOT, Anchorage, AK Robert L. Graham, Georgia DOT, Atlanta, GA James G. Jones, Texas DOT, Austin, TX Mark E. Seppelt, Consultant, Springfield, IL Joseph Cheung, FHWA Liaison

NCHRP Research Report 940: Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design presents guidelines for the use of solid-state lighting on roadways. Thus, the report will be of immediate interest to engineers in state and local transportation agencies with responsibility for the design, management, and maintenance of roadway lighting. The roadway lighting industry has changed dramatically over the past decade. Transpor- tation agencies have moved beyond the use of legacy high-intensity discharge, full-cutoff roadway luminaires by adopting solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaires. SSL luminaires employing light-emitting diode (LED) arrays provide the potential for lower energy usage, reduced maintenance, and improved color as well as a greater ability to control the distribu- tion of light on and off the roadway. Under NCHRP Project 05-22, “Guidelines for Solid-State Roadway Lighting,” WSP, in association with the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) and consultant Don McLean, was tasked with the development of comprehensive guidelines for the application of SSL roadway lighting and the identification of gaps in current knowledge where future research might enhance these guidelines. Their research included a comprehen- sive literature review and survey of the practices of state and local transportation agencies, which was followed by a field experiment at VTTI’s Virginia Smart Road. The Smart Road experiment was a series of driving tasks in the lighted test environment, where the ability of drivers to detect pedestrians and standard targets in and off the roadway was measured for SSL luminaires equipped with LED arrays of several correlated color temperatures and for high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps used as a control. The key outcome of this research is a proposed AASHTO guide on solid-state roadway lighting design intended to supplement the AASHTO Roadway Lighting Design Guide, 7th edition. This guide is presented as Volume 1: Guidance. Volume 2: Research Overview is the project final report, which provides experimental data and analysis supporting the contents of the guide. F O R E W O R D By Edward T. Harrigan Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 Research Objectives 1 Objectives of This Guide 2 Differences in Solid-State Technologies 7 Key Differences Between Solid-State and Traditional Light Sources 8 Chapter 2 Lighting Master Plan 8 Current Guide 8 Considerations for Solid-State Lighting 8 Standardization of Lighting Equipment 9 Expected Life 9 Adaptive Control Technologies 15 Control System Limiting Factors 15 Measuring Power Usage 16 Smart City Integration 16 Key Issues for Solid-State Lighting to Consider in a Lighting Master Plan 17 Chapter 3 Techniques of Lighting Design 17 Current Guide 17 Additional Considerations for Solid-State Lighting 17 Determining Levels for Use of Adaptive Lighting 18 Source Color Selection 21 Differences in Lighting Highways and Streets 23 Warranting Considerations 27 Considerations for High-Mast Lighting 28 Key Issues During Lighting Design 29 Chapter 4 Tunnels and Underpasses 29 Current Guide 29 Additional Considerations for Solid-State Lighting 31 Key Issues for LED in Tunnels 32 Chapter 5 Work Zone Lighting and Temporary Roadway Lighting 32 Current Guide 32 Additional Considerations for Using LED Sources 35 Key Issues for Work Zone Lighting with LED Light Fixtures 36 Chapter 6 Roundabouts, Interchanges, and Intersections 36 Current Guide 36 Additional Considerations When Using LED Sources 36 Key Issues for Roundabouts, Interchanges, and Intersections C O N T E N T S

37 Chapter 7 Electrical System Requirements 37 Current Guide 37 Additional Considerations for LED Sources 37 Starting Characteristics and Surge Suppression 38 Susceptibility to Faults 38 Voltage Drop Requirements 38 Power Factor 39 Control System Requirements 39 Key Issues for Electrical System Requirements 40 Chapter 8 Safety Rest Areas 40 Current Guide 40 Additional Considerations for LED Sources 40 Key Issues for Safety Rest Areas 41 Chapter 9 Roadway Sign Lighting 41 Current Guide 41 Additional Considerations for LED Sources 41 Key Issues for Roadway Sign Lighting 42 Chapter 10 Operations and Maintenance Considerations 42 Current Guide 42 Additional Considerations for LED Sources 42 Determination of Light Loss Factor 44 Asset Management 46 Comparing Lighting System Costs 54 Key Issues for Operations and Maintenance 55 Chapter 11 Potential Environmental Impacts 55 Current Guide 55 Additional Considerations for LED Sources 58 Key Issues for Potential Environmental Impacts 59 Abbreviations and Acronyms 61 Glossary 67 References 70 Annex A Design Examples 85 Annex B Solid-State Lighting Sample Specifications Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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The lighting industry has changed dramatically over the past decade. The optical system design of legacy high-intensity discharge (HID) luminaires was restricted to the lamp, refractor, and reflector design, which had limits in the distribution of the light, controls, and adaptability. Roadway luminaires have moved beyond this design methodology to include the vast possibilities presented by solid-state lighting (SSL). At present, in the form of light emitting diodes (LED), SSL uses lower energy, reduces maintenance, improves color, and can be easily dimmed and controlled.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Research Report 940: Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 1: Guidance develops more comprehensive guidelines in American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO)-standard format for the application of roadway lighting related to the widespread adoption of SSL, and identifies gaps in knowledge where possible future research will enhance these guidelines.

Also see this guide's accompanying report, NCHRP Research Report 940: Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 2: Research Overview.

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