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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 1: Guidance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25678.
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Page 142
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 1: Guidance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25678.
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Page 142
Page 143
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 1: Guidance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25678.
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Page 143
Page 144
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 1: Guidance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25678.
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Page 144

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R-1 References Avrenli, K., & Medina, J. (2012). LED Roadway Lighting Volume 1: Background Information. Bird, B., Branch, L., & Miller, D. (2004). Effects of coastal lighting on foraging behavior of beach mice. Conservation Biology, 18, 1435-1439. Borugain, M., RP, G., MC, F., TF, S., & KJ, A. (2005). Twenty-Four-Hour Light Exposure and Melatonin Levels Among Shift Workers. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 1268-1275. Boyce, P. (2009). Lighting for Driving: Roads, Vehicles, Signs, and Signals. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis Group. Cajochen, C., Frey, S., Spati, J., Bues, M., Pross, A., Mager, R., . . . Stefani, O. (2011). Evening exposure to a light-emitting diodes (LED)-backlit computer screen affects circadian physiology and cognitive performance. Journal of Applied Phsiology, 1432-1438. Chang, A.-M., Aeschbach, D., Duffy, J. F., & Czeisler, C. A. (2015). Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, (pp. 1232-1237). Cisse, Y., Peng, J., & Nelson, R. (2016). Dim light at night prior to adolescence increases adult anxiety- like behaviors. Chronobiology International, 1473-1480. Cisse, Y., Peng, J., & Nelson, R. (2017). Effects of Dim Light at Night on Food Intake and Body Mass in Developing Mice. Frontiers in Neuroscience. Cope, K., & Bugbee, B. (2013). Spectral Effects of Three Types of White Light-emitting Diodes on Plant Growth and DevelopmentL Absolute vs Relative Amounts of Blue Light. HortScience. Cree. (2014, March 26). Cree First to Break 300 Lumens-Per-Watt Barrier. Retrieved from Cree News: http://www.cree.com/news-media/news/article/cree-first-to-break-300-lumens-per-watt-barrier Dauchy, R., Xiang, S., Mao, L., Brimer, S., Wren, M., Yuan, L., . . . Hill, S. (2014). Circadian and Melatonin Disruption by Exposure to Light at Night Drives Intrinsic Resistance to Tamoxifen Therapy in Breast Cancer. Cancer Research, 4099-110. Dyble, M., Narendran, N., Bierman, A., & Klein, T. (2005). Impact of dimming white LEDs: Chromaticity shifts due to different dimming methods. Fifth International Conference on Solid State Lighting (pp. 291-299). Bellingham, WA: Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. Evans, D. L. (1997). High-Luminance LEDs replace incandescent lamps in new applications. Proceedings Volume 3002, Light-Emitting Diodes: Research, Manufacturing, and Applications. San Jose, CA: Photonics West '97. Figueiro, M. (2017). Disruption of Circadian Rhythms by Light During Day and Night. Current Sleep Medicine Reports, 76-84. Fonken, L., Aubrecht, T., Melendez-Fernandez, O., Weil, Z., & Nelson, R. (2013). Dim Light at Night Disrupts Molecular Circadian Rhythms and Increases Body Weight . Journal of Biological Rhythms, 262-271.

R-2 Fusheng Li, D. C. (2009). LEDs: A Promising Energy-Saving Light Source for Road Lighting. Shanghai, China: Fudan University. Gaston, K. J., Davis, T. W., Bennie, J., & Hopkins, J. (2012). REVIEW: Reducing the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution: options and developments. Journal of Applied Ecology, 49(6), 1256-1266. Gibbons, R. B., Li, Y., & Meyer, J. (2015). Assessment of the Performance of Light-Emitting Diode Roadway Lighting Technology. Charlottesville, VA: Virginia Transportation Research Council. Gibbons, R., Edwards, C., Bhagavathula, R., Carlson, P., & Owens, D. (2012). Development of Visual Model for Exploring Relationship Between Nighttime Driving Behavior and Roadway Visibility Features. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2298. doi:10.3141/2298-11 Gibbons, R., Guo, F., Median, A., Terry, T., Du, J., Lukevich, P., . . . Vetere, P. (2014). Guidelines for the Implementation of Reduce Lighting on Roadways. McLean, VA: Federal Highway Administration FHWA-HRT-14-050. Gibbons, R., Meyer, J., Terry, T., Bhagavathula, R., Lewis, A., Flanagan, M., & Connell, C. (2015). Evaluation of the Impact of Spectral Power Distribution on Driver Performance. Washington, DC: FHWA, Publication No. FHWA-HRT-15-047. Gil-de-Castro, A., Moreno-Munoz, A., & Rosa, J. d. (2013). LED street lighting: A power quality comparison among street light technologies. Lighting Research & Technology, 45(6). Goldstein, B. (2010). Sensation and Perception (8th ed). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Hurley, S., Goldberg, D., Nelson, D., Hertz, A., PL, H.-R., Bernstein, L., & Reynolds, P. (2014). Light at Night and Breast Cancer Risk Among California . Epidemiology, 697-706. IES. (2015). Measuring Luminous Flux and Color Maintenance of LED Packages, Arrays and Modules. IES. (2018). ANSI/IES RP-8-18. Jin, H., Jin, S., Chen, L., Cen, S., & Yuan, K. (2015). Research on the Lighting Performance of LED Street LIghts with Different Color Temperatures. IEEE Photonics Journal, 7(6). Josefowicz, D. J. (2012). Electronics Reliability Prediction Methodology for LED Outdoor Lighting. LEDs Magazine, 11. Kinzey, B. (2016). The Nighttime Blue in Contexy - A "Get the Facts" Webinar Hosted by the UD Department of Energy Solid-State Lighting Program. UD Department of Energy. Kinzey, B., Perrin, T. E., Miller, N. J., Kocifaj, M., Aube, M., & Lamphar, H. S. (2017). An Investigation of LED Street Lighting's Impact on Sky Glow. Portland, OR: US Department of Energy. Kloog, I., Haim, A., Stevens, R., Barchana, M., & Portnov, B. (2008). Light at Night Co‐distributes with Incident Breast but not Lung Cancer in the Female Population of Israel. Chronobiology International, 65-81. Kloog, I., Stevens, R., Haim, A., & Portnov, B. (2010). Nighttime light level co-distributes with breast cancer incidence worldwide. Cancer Causes & Control, 2059-2068.

R-3 Kraus, L. J. (2016). Human and Environmental Effects of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Community Lighting. American Medical Association. Lerhl, A., Schindler, C., Eichhorn, K., F, K., & Erren, T. (2009). Indirect blue light does not suppress nocturnal salivary melatonin in humans in an automobile setting. Journal of Pineal Research, 143-146. Lewy, A., Wehr, T., FK, G., DA, N., & SP, M. (1980). Light suppresses melatonin secretion in humans. Science, 1267-1269. Lighting Research Center. (2016). Effect of White Light on Melatonin Supression. Troy, NY: Lighting Research Center. Liu, S., & Luo, X. (2011). LED Packaging for Lighting Applications. John Wiley & Sons. Lucas, R., Peirson, S., Berson, D., Brown, T., Cooper, H., Czeizler, C., . . . Brainard, G. (2014). Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age. Trends in Neurosciences, 1-9. Luginbuhl, C., Duriscoe, D., Moore, C., Richman, A., Lockwood, G. W., & Davis, D. (2009). From the Ground Up II: Sky Glow and Near-Ground Artificial Light Propagation in Flagstaff, Arizona. Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 121, 204-212. Lutkevich, P., McLean, D., & Cheung, J. (2012). FHWA Lighting Handbook. Washington DC: Federal Highway Administration. McLean, D. (2016). Review of LED Health Issues. Surrey, BC: DMD & Associates Ltd. Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance. (2014). Seattle LED Adaptive Lighting Study. Seattle. Palmer, M., Gibbons, R., & Bhagavathula, R. (2017). Roadway Lighting's Impact on Altering Soybean Growth: Volume 1; FHWA-ICT-17-010. Illinois Center for Transportation. Peters, A., & Verhoeven, K. (1994). Impact of Artificial Lightingon the Seaward Orientation of Hatchling Loggerhead Turtles. Journal of Herpetology, 28(1), 112-114. Portnov, B., Stevens, R., Samociuk, H., Wakefield, D., & Gregorio, D. (2016). Light at night and breast cancer incidence in Connecticut: An ecological study of age group effects. The Science of Total Environment, 1020-1024. Rea. (2017). Beyond Illuminance and CCT: How Do We Measure the Health Impacts of Roadway Lighting? 2017 TRB Annual Meeting. Washington, DC: NAS. Rea, M., & Bierman, A. (2014). Spectral considerations for outdoor lighting: Consequences for sky glow. Lighting Research & Technology, 920-930. Rea, M., & Figueiro, M. (2016). Response to the 2016 AMA Report on LED Lighting . Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Rea, M., Brons, J., & Figueiro, M. (2011). Measurements of light at night (LAN) for a sample of female school teachers. Chronobilogy International, 673-680. Rea, M., Figueiro, M., Bullough, J., & Bierman, A. (2005). A model of phototransduction by the human circadian system. Brain Research Reviews, 213-228.

R-4 Rodrigues, C. R., Almeida, P. S., Soares, G. M., Jorge, J. M., Pinto, D. P., & Braga, H. A. (2010). An Experimental Comparison Between Different Technologies Arising for Public Lighting: LED Luminaires Replacing High Pressure Sodium Lamps. 9th IEEE/IAS International Conference on Industry Applications, INDUSCON. Rydell, J. (1991). Seasonal use of illuminated areas by foraging northern bats Eptesicus nilssoni. Holarctic Ecology, 14, 203-207. Schernhammer, E., F, L., FE, S., WC, W., DJ, H., Kawachi, I., . . . GA, C. (2003). Night-Shift Work and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Nurses’ Health Study. Jounral of the National Cancer Institute, 825-828. Stouch, J. (2016, February 18). LED Versus High Pressure Sodium (HPS) and Low Pressure Sodium (LPS). Retrieved October 29, 2017, from Stouch Lighting LED Lighting Solutions: http://www.stouchlighting.com/blog/led-vs-hps-lps-high-and-low-pressure-sodium TAC. (2006). TAC Roadway Lighting Handbook. Terry, T. (2011). Comparing LED Lighting Systems in the Detection and Color Recognition of Roadway Objects. Blacksburg, VA: Virginia Tech. Tetra Tech EM Inc. (2010). Final Report: Technology Assessment of Light Emitting Diodes (LED) for Street and Parking Lot Lighting Applications. San Diego, CA: Tetra Tech EM, Inc. Timinger, A., & Ries, H. (2008). Street-lighting with LEDs. Proceedings Volume 7103, Optical Systems Design. Glasgow, Scotland, UK: Illumination Optics. Wang, K., & Liu, S. (2007). A Sensor Integrated Ultra-Long Span LED Street Lamp System. Electronic Packaging Technology, ICEPT 8th International Conference. Shanghai, China: IEEE. West, K. E., Jablonksi, M. R., B, W., Cecil, K. S., M, J., Ayers, M. A., . . . Brainard, G. C. (2011). Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 619-626.

Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 1: Guidance Get This Book
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The lighting industry has changed dramatically over the past decade. The optical system design of legacy high-intensity discharge (HID) luminaires was restricted to the lamp, refractor, and reflector design, which had limits in the distribution of the light, controls, and adaptability. Roadway luminaires have moved beyond this design methodology to include the vast possibilities presented by solid-state lighting (SSL). At present, in the form of light emitting diodes (LED), SSL uses lower energy, reduces maintenance, improves color, and can be easily dimmed and controlled.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's pre-publication draft of NCHRP Research Report 940: Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 1: Guidance develops more comprehensive guidelines in American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO)-standard format for the application of roadway lighting related to the widespread adoption of SSL, and identifies gaps in knowledge where possible future research will enhance these guidelines.

Also see this guide's accompanying pre-publication draft, NCHRP Research Report 940: Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 2: Research Overview.

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