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Suggested Citation:"Table of Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 1: Guidance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25678.
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Suggested Citation:"Table of Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 1: Guidance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25678.
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Page 6
Suggested Citation:"Table of Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 1: Guidance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25678.
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Page 6
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Suggested Citation:"Table of Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 1: Guidance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25678.
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ii Table of Contents Solid State Lighting Guide ............................................................................................................................. i Chapter 1 – Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 1 Research Objectives .................................................................................................................................. 1 Objectives of this Guide ............................................................................................................................ 1 Differences in Solid State Technologies ................................................................................................... 1 Key Differences Between Solid State and Traditional Light Sources ...................................................... 7 Chapter 2 – Lighting Master Plan ................................................................................................................. 8 Current Guide............................................................................................................................................ 8 Considerations for Solid State Lighting .................................................................................................... 8 Standardization of Lighting Equipment ................................................................................................ 8 Expected Life ........................................................................................................................................ 9 Adaptive Control Technologies ............................................................................................................ 9 Control System Limiting Factors ........................................................................................................ 15 Measuring Power Usage ..................................................................................................................... 15 Smart City Integration ......................................................................................................................... 16 Key Issues for SSL to Consider in a Lighting Master Plan .................................................................... 16 Chapter 3 – Techniques of Lighting Design ............................................................................................... 17 Current Guide.......................................................................................................................................... 17 Additional Considerations for Solid State Lighting ................................................................................ 17 Determining Levels for Use of Adaptive Lighting ............................................................................. 17 Source Color Selection........................................................................................................................ 20 Differences in Lighting Highways and Streets ................................................................................... 23 Warranting Considerations ................................................................................................................. 25 Consideration for High-Mast Lighting ................................................................................................... 29 Key Issues During Lighting Design ........................................................................................................ 30 Chapter 4 – Tunnels and Underpasses ........................................................................................................ 31 Current Guide.......................................................................................................................................... 31 Additional Considerations for Solid State Lighting ................................................................................ 31 Key Issues for LED in Tunnels ............................................................................................................... 34 Chapter 5 – Work Zone Lighting and Temporary Roadway Lighting ........................................................ 35 Current Guide.......................................................................................................................................... 35 Additional Considerations for Using LED Sources ................................................................................ 35

iii Key Issues for Work Zone Lighting with LED Light Fixtures ............................................................... 38 Chapter 6 – Roundabouts, Interchanges, and Intersections ........................................................................ 39 Current Guide.......................................................................................................................................... 39 Additional Considerations when Using LED Sources ............................................................................ 39 Key Issues ............................................................................................................................................... 39 Chapter 7 – Electrical System Requirements .............................................................................................. 40 Current Guide.......................................................................................................................................... 40 Additional Considerations for LED Sources .......................................................................................... 40 Starting Characteristics and Surge Suppression .................................................................................. 40 Susceptibility to Faults ........................................................................................................................ 41 Voltage Drop Requirements................................................................................................................ 41 Power Factor ....................................................................................................................................... 41 Control System Requirements ............................................................................................................ 42 Key Issues ............................................................................................................................................... 42 Chapter 8 – Safety Rest Areas .................................................................................................................... 43 Current Guide.......................................................................................................................................... 43 Additional Considerations for LED Sources .......................................................................................... 43 Key Issues ............................................................................................................................................... 43 Chapter 9 - Roadway Sign Lighting ........................................................................................................... 44 Current Guide.......................................................................................................................................... 44 Additional Considerations for LED Sources .......................................................................................... 44 Key Issues ............................................................................................................................................... 44 Chapter 10 – Operations and Maintenance Considerations ........................................................................ 45 Current Guide.......................................................................................................................................... 45 Additional Considerations for LED Sources .......................................................................................... 45 Determination of Light Loss Factor .................................................................................................... 45 Asset Management .............................................................................................................................. 46 Comparing Lighting System Costs ..................................................................................................... 48 Key Issues ............................................................................................................................................... 55 Chapter 11 – Potential Environmental Impacts .......................................................................................... 56 Current Guide.......................................................................................................................................... 56 Additional Considerations for LED Sources .......................................................................................... 56 Key Issues ............................................................................................................................................... 59 Annex A – Design Examples .................................................................................................................... A-1 Annex B – Solid State Lighting Sample Specifications............................................................................ B-1

iv Glossary .................................................................................................................................................... G-1 References ................................................................................................................................................. R-1 List of Figures Figure 1. Spectral Power Distribution of Overhead-Lighting Types (Gibbons, Meyer, Terry, Bhagavathula, Lewis, Flanagan, & Connell, 2015) ............................................................... 3 Figure 2. Mean Detection Distance Differences for Various Sources (Clanton & Associates Inc., 2014) ...................................................................................................................................... 4 Figure 3. TM-21 Inputs for Predicting Lumen Maintenance ................................................................ 5 Figure 4. Example of Driver Life Determined by MTBF Analysis (Tcase is the temperature of the case of the driver) ................................................................................................................... 6 Figure 5. Comparisons of HPS and LED luminaires using Standardized Distribution Ratings ........... 7 Figure 6. Comparison of Similarly Classified Luminaires .................................................................... 9 Figure 7. Major Components of a Wireless Outdoor Lighting Control............................................... 12 Figure 8. Network Topologies ............................................................................................................. 13 Figure 9. Network Security Levels ...................................................................................................... 13 Figure 10. Powerline Communications ................................................................................................. 14 Figure 11. Excerpt from RP-8-18 showing Roadway and Street Lighting Levels ................................ 18 Figure 12. Excerpt from FHWA Adaptive Lighting Report - Classification Method for Streets (S class = 6- weighting factors) ......................................................................................................... 19 Figure 13. Excerpt from FHWA Adaptive Lighting Report - Classification Method for Highways (S class = 5- weighting factors) ................................................................................................ 20 Figure 14. Comparison of Different CCT Streets .................................................................................. 21 Figure 15. Effect of Light Type on the Driver Detection of Pedestrians or Wildlife (based on the results of this study NCHRP 5-22) ....................................................................................... 22 Figure 16. Effect of Light Type on the Driver Detection of Objects in the Roadway (based on the results of this study NCHRP 5-22) ....................................................................................... 22 Figure 17. Street and Roadway Differences .......................................................................................... 23 Figure 18. High and Low Surround Ratio ............................................................................................. 23 Figure 19. Excerpt from CIE 115 Table 2 ............................................................................................. 24 Figure 20. Example Diagram for Applying Surround Ratio (SR= Average Illumination in Shoulder Area S / Average illumination in Travel Way T) ................................................................. 25 Figure 21. Crash Modification Factors .................................................................................................. 26 Figure 22. Transportation Association of Canada’s Warrants for Arterial, Collector and Local Roads27 Figure 23. Transportation Association of Canada’s Warrants for Freeways ......................................... 28 Figure 24. High-Mast Lighting Light Trespass ..................................................................................... 29 Figure 25. LED Lighting System with Adaptive Controls .................................................................... 31 Figure 26. Differences in Step Switching vs an Adaptive System ........................................................ 33 Figure 27. LED Lighting System with Mixed CCT Sources................................................................. 34 Figure 28. Recommended Orientations for Portable Light Towers....................................................... 36 Figure 29. Height for Light Meter Inside the Vehicle ........................................................................... 37 Figure 30. Mounting of Light Meter Inside Vehicle ............................................................................. 37 Figure 31. Distances for Vertical Illuminance Readings ....................................................................... 37

v Figure 32. TM-21 Worksheet ................................................................................................................ 46 Figure 33. Map Example ....................................................................................................................... 47 Figure 34. Energy Usage Example ........................................................................................................ 48 Figure 35. Example Life Cycle Cost Calculation, High-mast Lighting, TAC ...................................... 50 Figure 36. Example Life Cycle Cost Calculation, Davit Style Lighting, TAC ..................................... 51 Figure 37. Energy Usage Calculation .................................................................................................... 53 Figure 38. Melatonin Impact Threshold of Typical Lighting Levels adapted from (Based on a model in Figueiro, 2006) and (Kinzey, 2016) ..................................................................................... 57

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Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 1: Guidance Get This Book
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The lighting industry has changed dramatically over the past decade. The optical system design of legacy high-intensity discharge (HID) luminaires was restricted to the lamp, refractor, and reflector design, which had limits in the distribution of the light, controls, and adaptability. Roadway luminaires have moved beyond this design methodology to include the vast possibilities presented by solid-state lighting (SSL). At present, in the form of light emitting diodes (LED), SSL uses lower energy, reduces maintenance, improves color, and can be easily dimmed and controlled.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's pre-publication draft of NCHRP Research Report 940: Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 1: Guidance develops more comprehensive guidelines in American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO)-standard format for the application of roadway lighting related to the widespread adoption of SSL, and identifies gaps in knowledge where possible future research will enhance these guidelines.

Also see this guide's accompanying pre-publication draft, NCHRP Research Report 940: Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 2: Research Overview.

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