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A Strategic Vision for Biological Threat Reduction: The U.S. Department of Defense and Beyond (2020)

Chapter: Appendix C: U.S. and International Agencies and Organizations Engaged in Global Health Security

« Previous: Appendix B: Congressionally-Appropriated Funding for the Biological Threat Reduction Program (2007-2020)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: U.S. and International Agencies and Organizations Engaged in Global Health Security." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Strategic Vision for Biological Threat Reduction: The U.S. Department of Defense and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25681.
×

C

U.S. and International Agencies and Organizations
Engaged in Global Health Security

U.S. GOVERNMENT AGENCIES

U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)

USAID is an international development agency and a catalytic actor driving development results. USAID works to help lift lives, build communities, and advance democracy. USAID’s work advances U.S. national security and economic prosperity; demonstrates American generosity; and promotes a path to recipient self-reliance and resilience. (USAID, 2020)

U.S. Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS)

For 50 years, AFRIMS has been working in tropical infectious disease research and development. It has acquired new disease research missions and has refocused many times to meet new challenges. It now has programs in enteric diseases (infectious causes of diarrhea), malaria vaccine and drug research, viral diseases (especially dengue fever and hepatitis), an Entomology department dedicated to the study of disease vectors, and a retrovirology department that has been organized to execute vaccine studies for the HIV/AIDS virus. A recently initiated program to monitor new, emerging disease threats as a part of a Global Emerging Diseases Surveillance system is now underway. (AFRIMS, 2020)

U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command (CCDC) Chemical Biological Center

The CCDC Chemical Biological Center is the primary Department of Defense (DOD) technical organization for non-medical chemical and biological defense. It fosters research, development, testing, and application of technologies for protecting warfighters, first responders,

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: U.S. and International Agencies and Organizations Engaged in Global Health Security." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Strategic Vision for Biological Threat Reduction: The U.S. Department of Defense and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25681.
×

and the nation from chemical and biological warfare agents. CCDC Chemical Biological Center is currently developing better ways to remotely detect these chemical and biological materials—before the warfighter or first responder ever enters the threat zone. CCDC Chemical Biological Center is also developing a new generation of technologies to counter everything from homemade explosives to biological aerosols to traditional and non-traditional chemical hazards. (CCDC, 2020)

U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command (USAMRDC)

The U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command is the Army’s medical materiel developer, with responsibility for medical research, development, and acquisition. The USAMRDC’s expertise in these critical areas helps establish and maintain the capabilities the Army needs to remain ready and lethal on the battlefield. (MRDC, 2020)

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

CDC works to protect America from health, safety, and security threats, both foreign and in the United States. Whether diseases start at home or abroad, are chronic or acute, curable or preventable, human error or deliberate attack, CDC fights disease and supports communities and citizens to do the same. CDC increases the health security of the United States. As the nation’s health protection agency, CDC saves lives and protects people from health threats. To accomplish its mission, CDC conducts critical science and provides health information that protects the nation against expensive and dangerous health threats, and responds when these arise. (CDC, 2020)

U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

USDA provides leadership on food, agriculture, natural resources, rural development, nutrition, and related issues based on public policy, the best available science, and effective management. Its vision is to provide economic opportunity through innovation, helping rural America to thrive; to promote agriculture production that better nourishes Americans while also helping feed others throughout the world; and to preserve the United States’ natural resources through conservation, restored forests, improved watersheds, and healthy private working lands. (USDA, 2020)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: U.S. and International Agencies and Organizations Engaged in Global Health Security." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Strategic Vision for Biological Threat Reduction: The U.S. Department of Defense and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25681.
×

U.S. Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (DASD) for Health Readiness Policy and Oversight (HRP&O)

The DASD for HRP&O is the principal staff assistant and advisor to the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs) for all medically related readiness DOD policies, programs, and activities. The office is responsible for force health protection, global health engagement, U.S. military assistance in global pandemic containment, international health agreements, deployment-related health policy, joint theater-of-operations information systems, humanitarian and health missions, and national disaster support. (MHS, 2020)

U.S. Department of Defense Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy

The mission of the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy is to consistently provide responsive, forward-thinking, and insightful policy advice and support to the Secretary of Defense, and the Department of Defense, in alignment with national security objectives. (U.S. DOD, 2020b)

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Office of Global Affairs (OGA)

Global health diplomacy—the intersection of public health and foreign policy—is the core of OGA’s work. Through relationships with multilateral organizations, foreign governments, ministries of health, civil society groups, and the private sector, OGA creates and maintains the pathways for HHS to apply its expertise globally, learn from our overseas counterparts, and advance policies that protect and promote health at home and worldwide. (U.S. HHS, 2020a)

U.S. Department of State Biosecurity Engagement Program (BEP)

BEP was first funded in FY 2006 and is part of the Nonproliferation, Anti-Terrorism, Demining and Related Programs Global Threat Reduction programs account managed and implemented by the U.S. Department of State Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation Office of Cooperative Threat Reduction (ISN/CTR). BEP’s mission is to engage life scientists and to combat biological threats worldwide by providing assistance to improve biosecurity, biosafety, pathogen surveillance, and infectious disease surveillance and response. (U.S. DOS, 2019)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: U.S. and International Agencies and Organizations Engaged in Global Health Security." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Strategic Vision for Biological Threat Reduction: The U.S. Department of Defense and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25681.
×

U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)

PEPFAR is the U.S. government’s response to the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and represents the largest commitment by any nation to address a single disease in history. Thanks to American leadership and generosity, alongside the work of many partners, PEPFAR has saved millions of lives, averted millions of infections, and changed the course of the epidemic. (U.S. HHS, 2020b)

INTERNATIONAL GOVERNMENTAL EFFORTS

Bureau of International Health Cooperation, Japan

The Bureau of International Health Cooperation provides various kinds of supports in order to improve healthcare in developing countries. It assists developing countries mainly in the fields of maternal and child health, infectious disease control, and health system strengthening in order to protect the people from life-threatening diseases. It dispatches experts to technical cooperation projects in developing countries, trains health personnel domestically and abroad, and conducts health research; and in addition, it dispatches medical relief teams in many parts of the world in response to natural disasters and epidemics of communicable diseases. (NCGM, 2020)

Centre for Biosecurity, Government of Canada

The Centre for Biosecurity (the Centre) comprises four different offices, which administer and enforce the Human Pathogens and Toxins Act, the Human Pathogen and Toxins Regulations, and certain sections of the Health of Animals Act and the Health of Animals Regulations. Each Office contributes to the Agency’s ongoing efforts to anticipate and respond to public health challenges and protect the health, safety, and security of the Canadian public against the risks posed by human pathogens and toxins. (Government of Canada, 2017)

Enabel, Belgium

Enabel is the Belgian development agency. Its mission is to implement and coordinate the Belgian international development policy. It seeks to develop an efficient and sustainable health system that ensures quality healthcare for all. (Enabel, 2020)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: U.S. and International Agencies and Organizations Engaged in Global Health Security." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Strategic Vision for Biological Threat Reduction: The U.S. Department of Defense and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25681.
×

Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA)

KOICA, established by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Korea, is mandated to contribute to the advancement of international cooperation through various projects that build friendly and collaborative relationships and mutual exchanges between Korea and developing countries and support the economic and social development in developing countries. KOICA established the Health Mid-Term Strategy (2016-2020) and is striving to provide quality healthcare services and to ensure universal health for residents in beneficiary countries. (KOICA, 2020)

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs sets Japanese health policy. Japan’s development assistance for health includes public and private sources of funding. (Llano et al., 2011; Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, 2019)

National Institute of Health, Italy

The institute plans, implements, and evaluates training activities designed to address the needs of the National Health Service. The topics addressed include health service management and evaluation, epidemiology and biostatistics, training methods, laboratory techniques, diseases control and priority public health issues, and health promotion. The institute also plans international health projects. It actively promotes cooperation at three different levels of involvement: scientific partnerships with industrialized countries; scientific and development projects in partnership with economies in transition; and development partnerships in Africa and countries in turmoil, where humanitarian and technical assistance is provided to monitor the National Health Service and safeguard the nation’s health. (IANPHI, 2020; ISS, 2020)

Department of Health, Australian Government

The objectives that frame the Department of Health’s international engagement are viewed by the Department as inter-linked. None can be achieved in isolation. Collectively, they position the Department to align domestic and international agendas, address shared challenges with valued partners, and provide Australian leadership where appropriate. Its objectives are: (1) protect the health of Australians; (2) keep Australia’s health system at the forefront of international best practice; (3) promote evidence-based international norms and standards to support robust health systems and better health in Australia and internationally; and (4)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: U.S. and International Agencies and Organizations Engaged in Global Health Security." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Strategic Vision for Biological Threat Reduction: The U.S. Department of Defense and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25681.
×

contribute to Australia’s foreign, development, trade, and economic policy goals. (Australian Government, 2020)

U.K. Department for International Development

The Department for International Development leads the United Kingdom’s work to end extreme poverty. It tackles the global challenges of our time including poverty and disease, mass migration, insecurity, and conflict. It works to build a safer, healthier, more prosperous world for people in developing countries, and in the United Kingdom as well. (Government of the United Kingdom, 2020)

U.S. ORGANIZATIONS AND IMPLEMENTORS

Emory University’s Environmental Health and Safety Office (EHSO)

The mission of EHSO is to provide and support comprehensive environmental, health, and safety programs and services in support of the University’s mission to create, preserve, teach and apply knowledge in the service of humanity. (Emory University, 2019)

MRIGlobal

MRIGlobal is a world leader in technology and science. Formerly known as Midwest Research Institute, MRIGlobal has a vast history of working with government agencies, commercial businesses, and academic institutions every year to help further unbiased research and innovative development. (MRIGlobal, 2020)

Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI)

NTI | bio is working with stakeholders around the world to mitigate the misuse of tools and technologies to carry out biological attacks and to reduce the risk of a laboratory accident that could result in a high-consequence or catastrophic biological event. (NTI, 2020a)

Navy Medical Research and Development Laboratories

The Navy’s Medical Research and Development Laboratories are engaged in a broad spectrum of activity from basic science in the laboratory to field studies at sites in remote areas of the world to operational environments. The capabilities and the geographical locations of the laboratories reflect

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: U.S. and International Agencies and Organizations Engaged in Global Health Security." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Strategic Vision for Biological Threat Reduction: The U.S. Department of Defense and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25681.
×

the broad mission of Navy Medicine’s Research and Development Enterprise. (U.S. Navy, 2020b)

Sandia National Laboratories

For more than 70 years, Sandia has delivered essential science and technology to resolve the nation’s most challenging security issues. Sandia National Laboratories operates as a contractor for the U.S. Department of State’s Bioengagement Program and supports numerous federal, state, and local government agencies, companies, and organizations. (Sandia National Laboratories, 2020)

Center for Global Health Engagement (CGHE)

The CGHE’s mission is to provide operational support to DOD’s Global Health Engagement enterprise to meet national security objectives. (Uniformed Services University, 2020)

INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) Implementation Support Unit (ISU)

BWC ISU provides: administrative support and assistance; national implementation support and assistance; support and assistance for confidence-building measures; support and assistance for obtaining universality; administers the database for assistance requests and offers and facilitates associated exchanges of information; and supports States Parties’ efforts to implement the decisions and recommendations of the review conference. (UN, 2020d)

CEPI

CEPI is an innovative partnership between public, private, philanthropic, and civil organisations launched to develop vaccines to stop future epidemics. (CEPI, 2019)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: U.S. and International Agencies and Organizations Engaged in Global Health Security." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Strategic Vision for Biological Threat Reduction: The U.S. Department of Defense and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25681.
×

European Union (EU) Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Risk Mitigation (CBRN) Centres of Excellence

The EU CBRN CoE was launched in response to the need to strengthen the institutional capacity of countries outside the European Union to mitigate CBRN risks. (European Union, 2020)

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

FAO is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. Its goal is to achieve food security for all and make sure that people have regular access to enough high-quality food to lead active, healthy lives. With more than 194 member states, FAO works in more than 130 countries worldwide. (FAO, 2020a)

Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA)

GHSA is a group of countries, international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and private sector companies that have come together to advance a world safe and secure from infectious disease threats. Under GHSA, nations from all over the world make new, concrete commitments, and elevate global health security as a national leaders-level priority. (GHSA, 2020)

Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction

The Global Partnership is an international forum for coordination of projects to prevent CBRN terrorism and proliferation. (GPWMD, 2020)

Institut Pasteur International Network

The Institut Pasteur Department of International Affairs is responsible for animating and developing the Institut Pasteur International Network, particularly by coordinating major programs that meet current global health challenges. It is also in charge of developing new corporate and scientific partnerships to boost the worldwide presence of the Institut Pasteur and help to address human health challenges. (Institut Pasteur, 2020)

International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC)

IPPC is an intergovernmental treaty signed by more than 180 countries, aiming to protect the world’s plant resources from the spread and

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: U.S. and International Agencies and Organizations Engaged in Global Health Security." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Strategic Vision for Biological Threat Reduction: The U.S. Department of Defense and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25681.
×

introduction of pests, and promoting safe trade. The Convention introduced International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures as its main tool to achieve its goals, making it the sole global standard setting organization for plant health. IPPC is one of the “Three Sisters” recognized by the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Agreement, along with the Codex Alimentarius Commission for food safety standards, and the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) for animal health standards. (FAO, 2020b)

Middle East Consortium on Infectious Disease Surveillance (MECIDS)

MECIDS seeks to advance the capabilities of early infectious disease detection, control, and response between its member countries of Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinian Territory, with plans to expand the network to all countries in the region. Its primary health concerns are food-borne illnesses, avian influenza, and Leishmaniasis, a disabling and disfiguring disease. (Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance, 2020)

Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)

OIC endeavors to safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world in the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony among various people of the world. The domain of health is an important sector among the various areas identified for joint Islamic action in the Ten Year Programme of Action (TYPOA). The TYPOA, Islamic Summit Conferences, Islamic Conferences of Health Ministers, and the Council of Foreign Ministers, place special emphasis on programs and activities, with the involvement of WHO and relevant international organizations, for combating diseases and epidemics, strengthening child health, and eradication of polio. (Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, 2020)

United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA)

UNODA supports multilateral efforts aimed at achieving the ultimate goal of general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control. The mandate for the program is derived from the priorities established in relevant General Assembly resolutions and decisions in the field of disarmament. Weapons of mass destruction continue to be of primary concern owing to their destructive power and the threat that they pose to humanity. The Office also works to address the

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: U.S. and International Agencies and Organizations Engaged in Global Health Security." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Strategic Vision for Biological Threat Reduction: The U.S. Department of Defense and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25681.
×

humanitarian impact of major conventional weapons and emerging weapon technologies. (UN, 2020b)

United Nations Office of Counter-Terrorism (UNOCT)

UNOCT provides UN Member States with necessary policy support, and provides in-depth knowledge of the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy, and wherever necessary, expedites delivery of technical assistance across four pillars. (UN, 2020e)

United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1540 Committee

Resolution 1540 (2004) imposes binding obligations on all States to adopt legislation to prevent the proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons, and their means of delivery, and establish appropriate domestic controls over related materials to prevent their illicit trafficking. It also encourages enhanced international cooperation in this regard. (UN, 2020a)

Virtual Biosecurity Center (VBC)

The VBC, founded in 2011, is a global multi-organizational initiative spearheaded by the Federation of American Scientists committed to countering the threat posed by the development or use of biological weapons and the responsible use of science and technology. The VBC is the “one stop shop” for biosecurity information, education, best practices, and collaboration. (VBC, 2020)

World Health Organization (WHO)

WHO works worldwide to promote health, keep the world safe, and serve the vulnerable. Its goal is to ensure that a billion more people have universal health coverage, to protect a billion more people from health emergencies, and provide a further billion people with better health and well-being. (WHO, 2020c)

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)

OIE is the intergovernmental organization responsible for improving animal health worldwide. It is recognized as a reference organization by the WTO and in 2018 had a total of 182 member countries. The OIE maintains permanent relations with nearly 75 other international and

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: U.S. and International Agencies and Organizations Engaged in Global Health Security." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Strategic Vision for Biological Threat Reduction: The U.S. Department of Defense and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25681.
×

regional organizations, and has regional and sub-regional offices on every continent (OIE, 2020a).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: U.S. and International Agencies and Organizations Engaged in Global Health Security." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Strategic Vision for Biological Threat Reduction: The U.S. Department of Defense and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25681.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: U.S. and International Agencies and Organizations Engaged in Global Health Security." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Strategic Vision for Biological Threat Reduction: The U.S. Department of Defense and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25681.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: U.S. and International Agencies and Organizations Engaged in Global Health Security." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Strategic Vision for Biological Threat Reduction: The U.S. Department of Defense and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25681.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: U.S. and International Agencies and Organizations Engaged in Global Health Security." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Strategic Vision for Biological Threat Reduction: The U.S. Department of Defense and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25681.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: U.S. and International Agencies and Organizations Engaged in Global Health Security." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Strategic Vision for Biological Threat Reduction: The U.S. Department of Defense and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25681.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: U.S. and International Agencies and Organizations Engaged in Global Health Security." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Strategic Vision for Biological Threat Reduction: The U.S. Department of Defense and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25681.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: U.S. and International Agencies and Organizations Engaged in Global Health Security." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Strategic Vision for Biological Threat Reduction: The U.S. Department of Defense and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25681.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: U.S. and International Agencies and Organizations Engaged in Global Health Security." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Strategic Vision for Biological Threat Reduction: The U.S. Department of Defense and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25681.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: U.S. and International Agencies and Organizations Engaged in Global Health Security." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Strategic Vision for Biological Threat Reduction: The U.S. Department of Defense and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25681.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: U.S. and International Agencies and Organizations Engaged in Global Health Security." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Strategic Vision for Biological Threat Reduction: The U.S. Department of Defense and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25681.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: U.S. and International Agencies and Organizations Engaged in Global Health Security." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Strategic Vision for Biological Threat Reduction: The U.S. Department of Defense and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25681.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: U.S. and International Agencies and Organizations Engaged in Global Health Security." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Strategic Vision for Biological Threat Reduction: The U.S. Department of Defense and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25681.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: U.S. and International Agencies and Organizations Engaged in Global Health Security." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Strategic Vision for Biological Threat Reduction: The U.S. Department of Defense and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25681.
×
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The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was asked to articulate a 5-year strategic vision for international health security programs and provide findings and recommendations on how to optimize the impact of the Department of Defense (DOD) Biological Threat Reduction Program (BTRP) in fulfilling its biosafety and biosecurity mission. Because BTRP is just one of several U.S. government programs conducting international health security engagement, both the strategic vision and the success of the program rely on coordinating actions with the U.S. government as a whole and with its international partners. This report provides several recommendations for optimizing BTRP success in its current mission and the wider-looking strategic vision it proposes.

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