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2019 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 916 Sustainable Highway Construction Guidebook Stephen T. Muench Giovanni Migliaccio Jessica Kaminsky Milad Zokaei Ashtiani University of Washington Seattle, WA Amlan Mukherjee Chaitanya G. Bhat Michigan technological University Houghton, MI Jeralee Anderson greenroads international Seattle, WA Subscriber Categories Construction â¢ Environment Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transporta- tion results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to high- way authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniquesâthe National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRBâs recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRBâs relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the Federal Highway Administration. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&Iâs recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 916 Project 10-91A ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-48095-6 Library of Congress Control Number 2019953850 Â© 2019 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This guidebook was created through research performed under NCHRP Project 10-91A by the Univer- sity of Washington, Michigan Technological University, and Greenroads International. Additionally, this guidebook represents the collective knowledge and insight of many people in the highway construction industry beyond the research team. There were 367 survey responders, 26 interview participants, and 18 workshop attendees who volunteered their time and contributed to the outcome of this work. CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 916 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Ann M. Hartell, Senior Program Officer Jarrel McAfee, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Sreyashi Roy, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 10-91A PANEL Field of Materials and ConstructionâArea of Specifications, Procedures, and Practices Jeff Grossklaus, Michigan DOT, Southfield, MI (Chair) Heather Catron, HDR Engineering, Inc., Portland, OR Shongtao Dai, Minnesota DOT, Maplewood, MN Michael S. Fleming, Washington State DOT, Olympia, WA Kurtis Jeffrey Harris, Arizona DOT, Globe, AZ Shannon Sweitzer, S&ME, Inc., Raleigh, NC Leif Wathne, American Concrete Pavement Association, Washington, DC Katherine A. Petros, FHWA Liaison Nancy M. Whiting, TRB Liaison
NCHRP Research Report 916 provides practitioner-ready guidance on how to identify and implement practices that advance sustainability during the construction phase of a highway project. The guidance includes information about practices that go beyond regulatory compliance in addressing the environmental, economic, and social dimensions of sustainability. The guidebook is relevant for practitioners in transportation agencies as well as those in the private sector. Those who are responsible for enterprise-level sustain- ability initiatives in their agency or firm will find information on how to broaden and deepen these initiatives. Practitioners advancing sustainability in highway construction will find information about specific construction practices, as well as how to implement these practices by specifying them in procurement and contracting. Transportation agencies, private firms, and industry groups are exploring how best to integrate the principles of sustainabilityâmeeting human needs for the present and future while preserving and restoring environmental and ecological systems, fostering community health and vitality, promoting economic development and prosperity, and ensuring equity between and among population groups and over generationsâinto their missions and operations. Sustainability is often an element that informs decisions made during the planning, programming, and design phases of highway construction projects. However, the con- struction phase of a highway project is also an opportunity to advance sustainability. NCHRP Research Report 916 provides clear and practical information on what constitutes sustainability in the context of highway construction and how to evaluate any proposed construction practice for its sustainability potential. To support ready implementation, the sustainable construction practices are organized thematically so users can readily iden- tify specific practices related to various components of sustainability. The guidebook also includes information about the level of effort needed to implement the practices compared with their sustainability impacts. Notably, the practices included rely on currently available technologies, so they can be implemented today. The guidebook supports implementation by describing ways to explicitly advance sustainability in procurement and contracting and how to develop a sustainability management plan for the construction phase. The research was conducted by the University of Washington in partnership with Michigan Technological University and Greenroads International. The research effort included a review of published literature, an industry survey, focused interviews, and a one-day workshop where participants from the private sector and public agencies provided input on the concepts and content of the guidebook. F O R E W O R D By Ann M. Hartell Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
The guidebook is accompanied by NCHRP Web-Only Document 262: Sustainable Highway Construction, which details the research activities and methods. Microsoft PowerPoint presentation slides summarizing the guidebook and the web-only document are available on the TRB website and can be found by searching for âNCHRP Research Report 916.â
1 Summary P A R T 1 Sustainable Highway Construction Guidance 5 Chapter 1 Introduction 5 1.1 Audience and Purpose 6 1.2 Scope 7 1.3 Organization 7 1.4 How to Use the Guidebook 8 1.5 Origins of the Guidebook 9 Chapter 2 Background 9 2.1 Sustainability Defined 12 2.2 Highway Construction Sustainability Trends 15 Chapter 3 Sustainable Highway Construction Practices 15 3.1 Organization 18 3.2 Identification of Sustainable Construction Practices 20 Chapter 4 Using Sustainability as a Criterion to Evaluate Highway Construction Practices 20 4.1 Evaluation Process 21 4.2 Customizing the Evaluation Process 23 Chapter 5 Procuring Sustainability 23 5.1 Best-Value Procurement 24 5.2 Alternative Technical Concepts 24 5.3 Sustainable Procurement 26 Chapter 6 Contracting Sustainability 26 6.1 Allowing Sustainability 26 6.2 Requiring Sustainability 27 6.3 Incentivizing Sustainability 27 6.4 Pricing Sustainability 27 6.5 Sustainability Risks 27 6.6 Sustainability Management Plans 33 References 34 Glossary C O N T E N T S
P A R T 2 Sustainable Highway Construction Practices 43 Chapter 7 Construction and Sustainability Framework 43 7.1 Highway Construction Framework 43 7.2 Sustainability Framework 43 7.3 Relating the Construction and Sustainability Frameworks 46 Chapter 8 How to Read Chapter 9 46 8.1 How to Read a Highway Construction Category Page 47 8.2 How to Read a Sustainable Construction Practice Page 47 8.3 Motivations Described 47 8.4 SCP Ratings Described 50 Chapter 9 Sustainable Construction Practices 50 9.1 Project Delivery Method 53 9.2 Financing 55 9.3 Procurement 59 9.4 Contracting 63 9.5 Scheduling 67 9.6 Estimating 70 9.7 Project Controls/Administration 73 9.8 Drainage/Sewer/Water 74 9.9 Earthwork 77 9.10 Aesthetics 80 9.11 Walls 81 9.12 Bridges 85 9.13 Pavement 96 9.14 Work Zone Traffic Control 101 9.15 Materials 109 9.16 Safety 113 9.17 Employment 116 9.18 Training 118 9.19 Community Outreach 120 9.20 Noise 124 9.21 Lighting 127 9.22 Constructability/Deconstruction 131 9.23 Quality 133 9.24 Equipment 137 9.25 Utilities 139 9.26 Landscaping Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.