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Concrete Technology for Transportation Applications A Synthesis of Highway Practice Jamshid Armaghani Global SuStainable SolutionS, LLC Gainesville, FL Tara Cavalline univerSity of north Carolina at Charlotte Charlotte, NC 2020 Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration Subscriber Categories Highways â¢ Maintenance and Preservation N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP SYNTHESIS 544
Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP SYNTHESIS 544 Project 20-05, Topic 49-09 ISSN 0547-5570 ISBN 978-0-309-48101-4 Library of Congress Control Number 2019956812 Â© 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Cover photo caption: Select concrete technologies used in transportation projects. NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transporta- tion results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to high- way authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniquesâthe National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRBâs recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRBâs relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the Federal Highway Administration. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&Iâs recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP SYNTHESIS 544 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Velvet Basemera-Fitzpatrick, Senior Program Officer Demisha Williams, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications NCHRP PROJECT 20-05 PANEL Joyce N. Taylor, Maine DOT, Augusta, ME (Chair) Socorro âCocoâ Briseno, California DOT, Sacramento, CA Anita K. Bush, Nevada DOT, Carson City, NV Joseph D. Crabtree, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY Mostafa âMoeâ Jamshidi, Nebraska DOT, Lincoln, NE David M. Jared, Georgia DOT, Forest Park, GA Cynthia L. Jones, Ohio DOT, Columbus, OH Jessie X. Jones, Arkansas DOT, Little Rock, AR Brenda Moore, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh, NC Ben T. Orsbon, South Dakota DOT, Pierre, SD Randall R. âRandyâ Park, Avenue Consultants, Bluffdale, UT Jack Jernigan, FHWA Liaison Stephen F. Maher, TRB Liaison TOPIC 49-09 PANEL Norb Delatte, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK Daniel R. Dennis, New York State DOT, Albany, NY Paul D. Krauss, Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc., Falls Church, VA Andy Naranjo, Texas DOT, Austin, TX Lucy Priddy, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Pittsburgh, PA Tyson D. Rupnow, Louisiana DOTD, Baton Rouge, LA Julie M. Vandenbossche, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA Robert A. Younie, Iowa DOT, Ames, IA Ahmad A. Ardani, FHWA Liaison Michael Praul, FHWA Liaison Nelson H. Gibson, TRB Liaison Amir N. Hanna, TRB Liaison
ABOUT THE NCHRP SYNTHESIS PROGRAM Highway administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which information already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This infor- mation may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to highway administrators and engineers. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day- to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evalu ating such useful information and to make it available to the entire highway community, the American Association of State High- way and Transportation Officialsâthrough the mechanism of the National Cooperative Highway Research Programâauthorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, NCHRP Project 20-05, âSynthesis of Information Related to Highway Problems,â searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an NCHRP report series, Synthesis of Highway Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. FOREWORD By Velvet Basemera-Fitzpatrick Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This synthesis documents how state departments of transportation select and deploy concrete technologies in the construction of transportation facilities. It includes a review of domestic and international literature on concrete technology, survey responses from 40 states, and five state case examples illustrating the implementation and use. Information used in this study was gathered through a literature review, a survey of state depart- ments of transportation, and follow-up interviews with selected agencies, resulting in case examples of concrete technologies. The literature review included standard practices, reports, and technical papers. These represent, but are not limited to, the American Concrete Instituteâs standard practices, along with reports from the Federal Highway Administration, state departments of transportation, and industry, as well as research papers from domestic and international universities and research organizations. Jamshid Armaghani, of Global Sustainable Solutions, LLC, and Tara Cavalline, at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte collected and synthesized the information and wrote this report. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records practices that were acceptable within the limitations and available knowledge at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.
1 Summary 5 Chapter 1 Introduction 5 Background 6 Objectives and Focus 7 Scope of Work 9 Goal of the Synthesis Report 10 Chapter 2 Overview of Concrete Technologies 10 Introduction 11 High-Strength Concrete 17 Self-Consolidating Concrete 26 Internally Cured Concrete 35 Ultrahigh-Performance Concrete 41 Temperature Control of Mass Concrete 47 Precast Concrete Pavement 54 Roller-Compacted Concrete 61 Pervious Concrete 68 Recycled Concrete Aggregate 76 High Early Strength Concrete 81 Very High Early Strength Concrete Repair Materials and Alternative Cementitious Materials 87 Performance-Engineered Concrete Mixtures 92 Chapter 3 Survey of State Practices 92 Introduction 92 Responses to Survey Questionnaire 101 Lessons Learned from Survey Results 102 Chapter 4 Case Examples of State Practices 102 Florida Department of Transportation: Temperature Control of Mass Concrete 105 Illinois Department of Transportation: Reducing Concrete Shrinkage in Bridge Decks 107 Missouri Department of Transportation: Precast Concrete Pavement Demonstration Project on I-57âLessons Learned 109 New York State Department of Transportation: Implementation of Performance-Engineered Mixtures 111 Tennessee Department of Transportation: Barriers and Solutions to Concrete Technology Implementation 113 Chapter 5 Conclusions and Technology Information Gaps 113 Conclusions 114 Gaps in Concrete Technology Information C O N T E N T S
116 References 126 Appendix A Survey Questionnaire 145 Appendix B Responses to Survey Questionnaire 162 Appendix C State DOT Specifications/Special Provisions Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.