National Academies Press: OpenBook

Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects (2020)

Chapter: Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies

« Previous: Chapter 5 - The e-Workforce Optimization Workbook
Page 24
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 24
Page 25
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 25
Page 26
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 26
Page 27
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 27
Page 28
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 28
Page 29
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 29
Page 30
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 30
Page 31
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 31
Page 32
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 32
Page 33
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 33
Page 34
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 34
Page 35
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 35
Page 36
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 36
Page 37
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 37
Page 38
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 38
Page 39
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 39
Page 40
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 40
Page 41
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 41
Page 42
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 42
Page 43
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 43
Page 44
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 44
Page 45
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 45
Page 46
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 46
Page 47
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 47
Page 48
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 48
Page 49
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 49
Page 50
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 50
Page 51
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 51
Page 52
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 52
Page 53
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 53
Page 54
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 54
Page 55
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 55
Page 56
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 56
Page 57
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 57
Page 58
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 58
Page 59
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 59
Page 60
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 60
Page 61
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 61
Page 62
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 62
Page 63
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 63
Page 64
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 64
Page 65
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 65
Page 66
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 66
Page 67
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 67
Page 68
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 68
Page 69
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 69
Page 70
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 70
Page 71
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 71
Page 72
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 72
Page 73
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 73
Page 74
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 74
Page 75
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 75
Page 76
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 76
Page 77
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 77
Page 78
Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Construction Staffing Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25720.
×
Page 78

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

24 A-1 Accelerated Construction What Is It? Accelerated construction involves a broad range of technologies (e.g., information tech- nology, automation, and materials), planning, contracting methods, and public involvement applied in a strategic approach to reduce the time required to complete construction. The use of accelerated construction strategies can be planned or be part of an emergency response. Successful accelerated construction projects typically include a strong sense of partnership and collaboration between a transportation agency and contractor to foster goal alignment and timely decisions. Why Use It? The reasons for using accelerating construction are often other factors outside of staff short- ages. In the past, projects have been accelerated to avoid congestion and delays to the traveling public or due to an emergency need. However, when a project is accelerated, it may reduce the required work hours in the field to complete a project, and with the right people it could allow a project to be completed with fewer staff. What Does It Do? Accelerated construction reduces the time required for field construction activities, although some strategies (e.g., modularization) may increase the duration of off-site activities to support acceleration. How to Use It There is no standardized approach or combination of techniques to accelerate construction since a project’s context and complexity drive the approach. A sample of successful techniques is included in Table A-1-1. When to Use It Outside of emergency situations, the use of accelerated construction can be based on an agency’s maximum allowable road user costs versus a project’s expected road user costs. Strategically, an agency’s decision to use accelerated construction can be triggered in cases where a project’s expected road user costs due to volume of congestion exceeds an agency’s maximum A P P E N D I X Construction Staffing Strategies

Construction Staffing Strategies 25 Category Examples Information technology Application of ITS: Freeway Management systems and work-zone traffic control Exploit web-based team collaboration and project management system: Common e-rooms and web-based central project databases Automation equipment/ construction Maturity testing Application of 3D machine automation on asphalt pavers technology Automated reflective pavement marker placing systems Robotic excavation and pipe-laying systems; computer-integrated road compactor systems Automated vibratory compaction using onboard compaction meters; compaction using automatic vibration control systems Innovative planning Programmatic (corridor) approach to planning, design, and construction Critical-path–method analysis reduction; standardization of design components Study optimal approaches to crew shifts and scheduling Tools and best practices for implementing multiple work shifts or night work Shorten construction time by full closure instead of partial closure of roadway Employ methods for continuous work zones Innovative contracting Design–build with bridging/turnkey/warranty/maintain/privatization approaches Formal partnering with design consultants, contractors, local authorities, and regulatory agencies A + B + C bidding with quality/life-cycle/safety/past performance; incentivize contractor work progress with a lane-rental approach Relocation of utilities Frequent coordination, cooperation, and communication between all parties to expedite utility relocation work Establish utility corridors and systematically locate facilities Avoid the need to relocate many utility lines by obtaining, early in the design phase, information using subsurface utility engineering Innovative materials Pavement type selection: using quick-curing concrete and in-place recycling Use geosynthetic-reinforced and pile-supported earth platforms for embankments, retaining walls, and storage tanks constructed on soft soils Public involvement Public input on phasing of construction Improve customer relationships and explore innovative agreement arrangements Communicate with the public before and during construction Work-zone traffic control Generate and evaluate multiple traffic-control plans Develop traffic control plans through partnering between department of transportation (DOT) design and field organizations Choosing the best traffic-control plan, implementing multiple work shifts or night work Improve traffic flow in work zone with aggressive use of law enforcement Table A-1-1. Sample of accelerated construction techniques. allowable road user costs. If it is used, it must be used in conjunction with the availability of experienced and knowledgeable staff with a level of authority to quickly make decisions in response to the accelerated nature of the project. Table A-1-2 summarizes how accelerated construction can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types.

26 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects Additional Resources Blanchard, B. A., Bohuslav, T. R., Schneider, C., Anderson, S., Schexnayder, C. J., DeWitt, S. D., Raymond, G., and Sheffield, R. NCHRP Project 20-68A, Scan 07-02, Best Practices in Accelerated Construction Techniques. Scan Team Report, 2009. Goodrum, P. and Wang, Y. A Decision-Making System for Accelerating Roadway Construction. J. of Engineering, Construction, and Architectural Management. Emerald Publishing, 16(2), 2008, pp. 116–135. A-2-1/I-2-1 Operations and Maintenance by Contractor What Is It? STAs have been exploring the option of contracting out routine operations and main- tenance activities to qualified contractors through public–private partnerships or stand-alone contracts. Why Use It? Using contractors for routine operations and maintenance activities alleviates staff shortages by reducing on-site state staff directly involved in carrying out operations and maintenance tasks, although supervision and administration from state employees are still required to ensure that contractors perform to standards. Some states have found that qualified contractors’ performance is at least on par with STA performance and can potentially result in cost savings. What Does It Do? This strategy allows qualified private contractors to carry out highway operations and maintenance activities. Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Superstructure ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Excavation /embankment ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pipe/drainage ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadway base ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Pavement base ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Substructure ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Temporary traffic control ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Structural foundation ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Strips/signs/signals ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadside ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Utilities (in contract relocations) ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadway lighting ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ITS ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table A-1-2. Uses of accelerated construction.

Construction Staffing Strategies 27 How to Use It Contractors must be qualified for one or more highway operations and maintenance–related types of work specified by the STA. Qualified contractors will bid on projects. Bids will be evaluated by the STA, and a contract (usually an asset management contract) will be awarded to the winner. The contractor then carries out operations and maintenance work. The performance of the contractor should be evaluated by the STA. When to Use It Table A-2-1-1 summarizes how operations and maintenance activities of a contractor can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types. Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Superstructure ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Excavation /embankment ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pipe/drainage ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadway base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pavement base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Substructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Temporary traffic control ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Structural foundation ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Strips/signs/signals ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadside ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Utilities (in contract relocations) X X X X X Roadway lighting ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ITS ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table A-2-1-1. Uses of operations and maintenance. Additional Resources Georgia Department of Transportation – Routine Maintenance Contractors. http://www.dot.ga.gov/PS/Business/ Prequalification/RoutineMaint. Ohio Department of Transportation, Task 3 – Operations and Maintenance Service Delivery Assessment. 2012. https://www.dot.state.oh.us/Divisions/InnovativeDelivery/Documents/20130809_OpandMaint_Service_ Delivery_Assessment-FINAL.PDF. A-2-2/I-2-2 Warranty What Is It? In accordance with NCHRP Synthesis 195, “warranty” is defined as a guarantee of the integrity of a product and the maker’s responsibility for the repair or replacement of the deficiencies (Hancher 1994). A warranty is used to specify the desired performance characteristics of a particular product over a specified period of time and to define who is responsible for the

28 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects product. Warranties are typically assigned to the prime contractor but may be passed down to the paving contractors as pass-thru warranties. Why Use It? The shift in responsibilities afforded by a warranty program has the potential to allow an agency to reallocate resources and personnel to the roles of product evaluation and acceptance. What Does It Do? There are no formal national definitions for the types of warranties, but generally two types of warranties are used in the highway industry: materials and workmanship warranties and performance warranties. How to Use It Warranties may be applicable to new construction, rehabilitation, and preventive mainte- nance type projects for both hot-mix asphalt (HMA) and Portland cement concrete (PCC) projects. Project selection criteria for pavement warranty projects should include the evaluation of the existing subgrade conditions, particularly when considering preventive maintenance projects. Warranties are not appropriate for additions to contracts after the fact, to address substandard materials, or for operations performed by the contractor. Warranties are intended to increase pavement performance by addressing quality during construction. When to Use It Table A-2-2-1 summarizes how warranties can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types. Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Superstructure ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Excavation /embankment ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pipe/drainage ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadway base ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Pavement base ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Substructure ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Temporary traffic control X X X X X Structural foundation ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Strips/signs/signals ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadside ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Utilities ( in contract relocations) X X X X X Roadway lighting ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ITS ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table A-2-2-1. Uses of warranties.

Construction Staffing Strategies 29 Additional Resources Federal Highway Administration. Background for Pavement Warranties. https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/ warranty/backgrnd.cfm. Hancher, D. NCHRP Synthesis of Highway Practice 195: Use of Warranties in Road Construction. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1994. A-2-3/I-2-3 Performance-Based Specifications What Is It? Performance-based specifications (PBSs) describe a desired performance level or perfor- mance target to be achieved but do not make specific demands on how that level/target is reached. Instead of prescribing the need in terms of inputs, it is described in terms of outputs. Why Use It? • Improved design-to-construction communication. PBSs could more directly connect design requirements with construction, ensuring that both parties communicate effectively. • Rational pay factors. Pay factors could be more accurate, rational, and defensible since they would be based more on processes and less on bartering. • Improved and focused testing. Testing would focus on those characteristics that relate to performance. • Improved tradeoff analyses. Performance, quality, and costs could be uniquely connected through modeling and life-cycle–cost analyses with a much better way to analyze tradeoffs. • Improved understanding of performance. PBSs could lead to a better understanding of those quality characteristics that relate more directly to product performance. • Improved quality focus. PBSs could lead to improvement in the overall quality of the product in areas that caused problems previously. • Clearer distinction in roles and responsibilities. PBSs could help clarify changes in roles and responsibilities between the transportation agency and the contractor, as well as define the levels of risk that each would carry. • More innovative environment. Because they are less prescriptive, PBSs could create an environment that encourages innovation. What Does It Do? PBSs focus on outcomes rather than methods, to motivate contractors to find new and better ways to accelerate project delivery, minimize disruption, and build a better project. How to Use It PBSs are often described in contrast to technical specifications, which are formulated based on the detailed characteristics of goods, services, or infrastructure being purchased or describe exactly how a contractor must perform a service or develop a product. When to Use It Table A-2-3-1 summarizes how PBSs can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types.

30 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects Additional Resources SHRP 2 Project R07, “Performance Specifications for Rapid Renewal.” Performance-Based Specifications Promote Innovation and Accelerate Project Delivery (Informational brochure). http://shrp2.transportation.org/ Documents/SHRP2_R07_Renewal_Performance-Specifications.pdf. Turley, L., Silva, M. H., Benson, S., and Dominguez, C. Performance-Based Specifications: Exploring When They Work and Why. International Institute for Sustainable Development, 2014. http://www.iisd.org/sites/ default/files/publications/performance-based-speculations-exploring-when-they-work-and-why.pdf. A-3-1 Change Orders What Is It? The FHWA defines a “change” as “any alteration to the original construction contract” and change orders as “negotiated agreements with the contractor that affect the cost, schedule, design details or specification requirements, or any combination of these” (FHWA 2012). Other common terms used to describe change orders are “contract change order,” “supplemental agreement,” “contract modification,” “work order,” “time adjustment,” and “time extension.” Change orders require the change be routed through a documented approval process that includes internal and external project stakeholders, and this can tie up project personnel, delay project progress, and result in cost and time overruns. Electronic processing of change orders through connected software such as AASHTOWare Project Site Manager can streamline the change order review and approval process and improve the efficiency of project change management and documentation. Electronic change order processing is generally a subset of processes within a larger e-Construction system. The FHWA defines e-Construction as “a delivery process for construc- tion management that includes electronic submission of all construction documentation by all stakeholders, electronic document routing/approvals (e-signatures), and digital management Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Superstructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Excavation /embankment ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pipe/drainage ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pavement base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Substructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Temporary traffic control ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Structural foundation ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Strips/signs/signals ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadside ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Utilities (in contract relocations) ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway lighting ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ITS ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table A-2-3-1. How PBSs are used.

Construction Staffing Strategies 31 of all construction documentation in a secure, paperless environment. The process enables distribution and access to all project stakeholders through mobile devices” (FHWA 2017). Why Use It? Electronic processing of change orders reduces the time delays present in change order processing and approval through traditional paper-based approval processes. Michigan DOT estimates that its use of electronic processes of change orders reduces complex change order processing time from 30 days to 3 days (FHWA 2012). It also noted that construction inspectors are spending less time on paperwork. Electronic database systems also allow change-related information to be tracked and available to all project stakeholders, which can improve stakeholder engagement (FHWA 2017). What Does It Do? Electronic change order processing manages change orders through a multi-user electronic system. How to Use It Electronic change order processing requires the implementation of an e-Construction-type system that tracks change orders through development and approval. It also requires the approval of the agency for the use of electronic signatures for full benefits to be realized. When to Use It Electronic change order processing would be implemented across the agency and would be used on all projects. Table A-3-1-1 summarizes how electronic change order processing can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types. Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Superstructure ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Excavation/embankment ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Pipe/drainage ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadway base ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Pavement base ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Substructure ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Temporary traffic control ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Structural foundation ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Strips/signs/signals ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadside ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Utilities (in contract relocations) ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadway lighting ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ITS ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table A-3-1-1. Uses of electronic change order processing.

32 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects Additional Resources FHWA. Contract Administration – Change Orders. 2012, August. Retrieved from https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ federal-aidessentials/companionresources/04changeorders.pdf. FHWA. The Age of e-Construction. Public Roads. 2017, July. https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/ publicroads/17julaug/02.cfm. FHWA. e-Construction. Retrieved from Technologies and Innovations. 2019, November 18. https://www.fhwa. dot.gov/construction/econstruction/. A-3-2 Document Storage/Management/Work Flow What Is It? Document storage/management/workflow provides a streamlined process for storing and managing highway construction documents. In recent years, STAs have moved toward using integrated electronic document management systems to more effectively manage project documents from project inception to closeout. Why Use It? With the adoption of electronic document management (EDM) systems, various stake- holders can easily submit documents to the same platform, and other users involved with the project or a particular task can view the submitted documents and provide comments, concurrence, and approvals. Furthermore, certain engineering products, such as 3D models, must be delivered electroni- cally because they cannot be easily converted to hard copies. EDM systems eliminate the need for printing and shipping documents among various parties (Sulankivi et al. 2002). Moreover, the documents or models might be stored in the system as permanent records, if necessary, so that stakeholders can extract and use them in the future. What Does It Do? EDM facilitates faster, centralized communication between various stakeholders. For example, a designer can upload the project model and other documents to the EDM system, and contractors can download these documents and upload their documents using the same system. How to Use It Some agencies prefer to use commercially available products such as ProjectWise and SharePoint, while some use customized, in-house products. When to Use It Table A-3-2-1 summarizes how document storage/management/workflow can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types.

Construction Staffing Strategies 33 Additional Resources Caltrans Division of Research. Project Delivery Document Management Systems. 2016. http://www.dot.ca.gov/ research/researchreports/preliminary_investigations/docs/project_delivery_document_management_ systems_preliminary_investigation.pdf. Minnesota Department of Transportation. Modernizing Road Construction Plans and Documentation. 2016. http://www.dot.state.mn.us/research/TS/2016/201629.pdf. Sulankivi, K., Lakka, A. and Luedke, M. Project Management in the Concurrent Engineering Environment. VTT Building and Transport Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland. 2002. www.vtt.fi/inf/pdf/ publications/2002/P470.pdf. U.S. Department of Transportation. Records Management. 2019, November 29. Retrieved from Transportation. gov. https://www.transportation.gov/records. A-3-3 e-Signature What Is It? An e-signature is an electronic representation of a handwritten signature that can be used to verify document content. e-Signatures are considered different from digital signatures, which include digital encryption and often include the signer’s unique password and identity as well as the date and time. Different agencies have unique policies identifying when a document should be e-signed versus digitally signed. Why Use It? Digital signatures and e-signatures offer multiple benefits. They are: • Environmentally friendly. Michigan DOT reduced paper use by an estimate of 7.4 million pieces a year (Michigan DOT n.d.). Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Superstructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Excavation /embankment ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pipe/drainage ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pavement base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Substructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Temporary traffic control ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Structural foundation ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Strips/signs/signals ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadside ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Utilities (in contract relocations) ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway lighting ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ITS ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Bridge – New/ Replacement Table A-3-2-1. Use of document storage/management/workflow.

34 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects • Cost effective. Michigan DOT saved an estimated $2.2 million annually, eliminating the costs of long-term storage of paper documents (Michigan DOT n.d.). • Time saving. Documents may be sent by e-mail within seconds rather than regular mail that takes days; eliminates handling of documents, printing, mailing, scanning, and delivering of documents. What Does It Do? Digital signatures and e-signatures provide a verified signature system for documentation processes at STAs. By eliminating physical papers, STA and construction contractors are able to formally communicate more quickly and efficiently. How to Use It Use of digital signatures and e-signatures is performed using software that verifies the identity of the signee. Certificate providers should meet the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) level-3 criteria. When to Use It Table A-3-3-1 summarizes how e-signature and digital signatures can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types. Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Superstructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Excavation /embankment ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pipe/drainage ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pavement base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Substructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Temporary traffic control ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Structural foundation ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Strips/signs/signals ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadside ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Utilities (in contract relocations) ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway lighting ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ITS ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Table A-3-3-1. Use of e-signatures. Additional Resources Florida Department of Transportation. Digital Signatures. 2016. Retrieved from http://www.fdot.gov/construction/ eConstruction/DigitalSignatures.shtm Michigan Department of Transportation. Digital Signatures with MDOT. (n.d.) Retrieved from Michigan Department of Transportation: https://www.michigan.gov/mdot/0,4616,7-151-9625_78316—-,00.html.

Construction Staffing Strategies 35 A-3-4 Electronic RFIs What Is It? A request for information (RFI) is defined as “a formal written procedure initiated by the contractor seeking additional information or clarification for issues related to design, construc- tion, and other contract documents” (Hanna et al. 2012). Electronic RFIs are generated and process electronically. Why Use It? The electronic RFI process creates RFIs in a standardized format and could prevent important information from being missed while creating RFIs, and could also reduce processing time. What Does It Do? The electronic RFI process is usually part of a DOT’s electronic business processes. It creates and processes RFIs. How to Use It The electronic RFI process is usually incorporated in a DOT’s e-Construction tools. When to Use It Table A-3-4-1 summarizes how electronic RFI processes can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types. Project Types Road – Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Pavement surface ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Superstructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Excavation /embankment ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pipe/drainage ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pavement base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Substructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Temporary traffic control ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Structural foundation ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Strips/signs/signals ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadside ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Utilities (in contract relocations) ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway l ighting ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ITS ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table A-3-4-1. Use of electronic RFI processes.

36 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects Additional Resources FHWA. Addressing Challenges and Return on Investment (ROI) for Paperless Project Delivery (e-Construction). 2017. https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/construction/econstruction/hif17028.pdf. Hanna, A. S., Tadt, E. J., and Whited, G. C. Request for Information: Benchmarks and Metrics for Major Highway Projects. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 138(12), 2012, 1347–1352. Shim, E., Carter, B., and Kim, S. Request for Information (RFI) Management: a Case Study. 2016. http://ascpro0. ascweb.org/archives/cd/2016/paper/CPGT118002016.pdf. A-4/E-4/I-4 Electronic Field Books What Is It? Electronic field books refer to an array of handheld electronic devices that are self-contained and possess the ability to run multiple software applications as well as store and retrieve text and graphical data remotely. Electronic field books may be in the form of either laptop or tablet personal computers. The devices may either be connected to remote servers with the ability to continually access and retrieve data when needed or designed to synchronize their data when they come in range of a hotspot, such as through a smart phone or other signal type such as a Wi-Fi signal. Why Use It? The integration and automation of information systems improve the task productivity of construction staff, thereby allowing them to work across multiple projects over larger geo- graphical areas. The major benefits of electronic field books are an increase in the organization of field-generated data, a decrease in the cycle time of that data’s availability to other construction staff, and a decrease in the time required for contract administrative duties. What Does It Do? Electronic field books allow construction staff to complete their daily field reports remotely and also access project information to help provide more timely and accurate responses to con- tractor questions. How to Use It Electronic field books work in the same manner as any laptop or tablet personal computer. Their ability to effectively retrieve and upload data depends on data standards and connectivity between the electronic field books and server databases. Depending on the complexity of the interface, initial training may be needed to use electronic field books and to ensure that the entered data are provided in a standard format. Predetermined lists can help standardize data entry. When to Use It Electronic field books can help with data organization, data documentation, data exchange, and data access. Table A-4-1 summarizes how electronic field books can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types.

Construction Staffing Strategies 37 Additional Resources Hannon, J. J. NCHRP Synthesis of Highway Practice 372: Emerging Technologies for Construction Delivery. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2007. A-5 Geographic Information System What Is It? A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer-based system that provides a data-rich environment of the geographic information of assets. It also serves beneficial for inputting, storing, managing, and outputting of information. Why Use It? GISs may reduce the amount of manpower needed on projects due to their automated mapping and monitoring capabilities, thus reducing the number of people needed on-site, which helps when states are legally mandated to reduce the number of staff or when states have a limited number of staff or skills needed for the project. Time may be saved because of the many functionalities of GISs (e.g., utility location, detour planning, traffic control phasing). What Does It Do? Provides information for asset management, analysis, and checking project is up to specification. Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Superstructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Excavation /embankment ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Pipe/drainage ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadway base ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Pavement base ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Substructure ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Temporary traffic control ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Structural foundation ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Strips/signs/signals ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadside ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Utilities (in contract relocations) ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Roadway lighting ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ITS ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Table A-4-1. Use of electronic field books.

38 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects How to Use It Since GISs have many applications, ranging from ITSs (traffic monitoring) to ensuring that drainage systems are in accordance to specifications, there are many different types of GIS software that can accommodate the specific needs of a project. It is important to download the software that is appropriate for the project. When to Use It Table A-5-1 summarizes how GISs can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types. Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Superstructure ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Excavation /embankment ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pipe/drainage ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadway base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pavement base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Substructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Temporary traffic control X X X X X Structural foundation ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Strips/signs/signals ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadside ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Utilities (in contract relocations) ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadway lighting ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ITS ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table A-5-1. Use of GISs. Additional Resources FHWA. GIS in Transportation. (n.d.) Retrieved from Federal Highway Administration. https://www.gis.fhwa. dot.gov/default.asp. FHWA. Best Practices in Geographic Information Systems-Based Transportation Asset Management. 2012, January. Retrieved from Federal Highway Administration, Office of Planning. https://www.gis.fhwa.dot.gov/ documents/GIS_AssetMgmt.pdf. E-1 3D Engineered Models for Construction What Is It? 3D engineered models involve points, lines, and surfaces that depict a highway project and relevant associated aspects of the project environment in three dimensions. This technology is recommended by FHWA’s Every Day Counts program (rounds two and three) for its potential to accelerate highway construction, improve communication of design information, and enhance

Construction Staffing Strategies 39 constructability. 3D engineered models can also be expanded to 4D and 5D with the incorporation of project schedule/time and cost data. Why Use It? The strategic use of 3D engineered models can enhance communication, constructability, and production on highway construction projects. 3D engineered models are a core building block necessary for incorporating other project-enhancing technologies such as automated machine control, clash detection, measurement, and quantity verification, which can signifi- cantly affect construction staffing requirements. Project inspection staff can be supported by many of these technologies, but 3D engineered models can reduce the staff burden associated with surveying and checking grades, cross sections, and other quantities or project element locations. Important benefits as relayed from an FHWA Techbrief: 3D, 4D, and 5D Engineered Models for Construction (Schneider 2013) include: • “Improved project delivery by accelerating construction progress, making construction more accurate and cost effective, and increasing safety on the job site.” • “Improved communication between key stakeholder communities (e.g., owner, public, consultants, contractor, utility companies, prefabricators, and material suppliers).” • “Enhanced clash detection and identification of possible errors and inconsistencies in design before construction.” • “Improved visualization of subgrade features and potential utility conflicts.” • “For owners: Random grade checks instead of at specified cross-section distances. Material cost savings. Ease of finding locations for quality assurance tests.” • “For contractors: Labor cost savings (reduced need for setting string lines for paving and stakes for grading), increased productivity, increased efficiency. Fewer conflicts and changes during construction.” • “For consultants: Early identification of constructability issues, improved design accuracy, ease of visual verification for quality control.” • “Once built, the model can be utilized throughout the full life cycle of a facility and by various agencies, for example during infrastructure maintenance, operations, and asset management work.” • “66% savings for grade checking, up to 85% for reduction of stakes, 3% to 6% by volume for improved material yields, and 30% to 50% for uninterrupted earthmoving production. These results can equate to a savings of 4% to 6% of total project costs by using 3D models. Contractors often claim 15% to 25% increased efficiency in earthmoving alone” (Schneider 2013). What Does It Do? 3D models illustrate highway projects in X, Y, and Z dimensions and can be tilted, rotated, and manipulated as desired for improved visualization and communication and can even provide data for automation of construction activities (e.g., automated machine control). The enhanced communication and data provided by representing the project in three dimensions create better translation of information between the designer and constructor and provide opportunities for implementation of other project-enhancing technologies. How to Use It The implementation of 3D engineered models will vary by STA. Many STAs have adopted some level of 3D model development, but often the construction staff do not have the software,

40 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects training, and equipment (surveying equipment) available to realize the benefits of these models. Additionally, the contractor and construction staff need a level of confidence in the accuracy of the 3D model as designed. For successful implementation, an STA needs to foster a partnership between design and construction staff, consultants, and contractors. The 3D models need to maintain a high level of accuracy, and the software, training, and equipment need to be available to the relevant parties. When to Use It The return on investment for use of 3D engineered models will vary by project size and complexity; further information on these returns is provided in the Additional Resources section. Further, while efficiencies and savings can be realized on individual projects by using 3D engineered models, FHWA guidance suggests larger returns result from a programmatic approach, with increasing returns occurring when the process is applied to multiple projects and over longer periods of time. That said, pilot projects with opportunities for earthwork quantity verification, automated machine control, utility or project element clash potential, complex project phasing, and urbanized major projects may have the most potential for illustrating the benefits of 3D engineered models to achieve buy-in. Table E-1-1 summarizes how 3D engineered models can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types. Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Superstructure ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Excavation /embankment ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Pipe/drainage ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadway base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pavement base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Substructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Temporary traffic control ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Structural foundation ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Strips/signs/signals ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadside ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Utilities ( in contract relocations) ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadway lighting ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ITS ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table E-1-1. Use of 3D engineered models. Additional Resources FHWA. Website for 3D Engineered Models (multiple resources, case studies, technical briefs, webinars, and training), https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/construction/3d/.

Construction Staffing Strategies 41 O’Brien, W. J., B. Sankaran, F. L. Leite, N. Khwaja, P. Goodrum, K. Molenaar, G. Nevett, and J. Johnson. NCHRP Report 831: Civil Integrated Management (CIM) for Departments of Transportation, Volume 1: Guidebook. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2016. Schneider, C. FHWA Techbrief, 3D, 4D, and 5D Engineered Models for Construction. Federal Highway Administration, 2013. E-2 Automated Machine Guidance What Is It? Automated machine guidance (AMG) involves the connection of 3D engineered models and GPS/Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) construction equipment in order to enable greater precision from machinery (e.g., bulldozers, excavators, and graders) and operators when building a project. Using AMG enhances highway construction through reducing the need for skilled manual controls, guesswork, and amount of labor required. The increased accuracy and production reduces the workload for construction management and inspection staff and often results in better roadway subgrades and bases. Why Use It? The use of AMG reduces the staking activities [FHWA reports a 75% reduction (FHWA 2013)] needed for construction products, thereby reducing labor needs and increasing safety by having fewer workers in hazardous locations on construction sites. The models used for AMG better com- municate a project’s designed intent, improving workflow and reducing rework. The process also functions as a data collection mechanism, providing information useful for future projects and downstream inspections and quality control. The speed, quality, and built accuracy of highway proj- ects are enhanced through the use of AMG. The savings are realized in direct project dollars and construction management and inspection staff required, while a maintained, if not improved, level of quality can be realized. STAs can get a better product, using fewer resources with a shorter duration. What Does It Do? The typical applications for AMG involve earthwork and paving operations. Other applica- tions of AMG include motor grades, pipe installation, dozers, excavators, scrapers, compactors, pavers, slip-form machines (curb, median, sidewalk, etc.), and milling machines. The 3D engineered model is communicated to the computer controller on the equipment. This model, along with the equipment’s GPS/GNSS system and additional connections to project surveying equipment (such as robotic total stations or lasers), increases the vertical position accuracy and informs the operator of the required work, such as yardage to remove or roller pattern needed. Often the equip- ment will automatically adjust settings such as blade angle or paver gate widths. These adjustments are precise enough to be more accurate than the traditional operator-controlled adjustments. AMG can inform or control various aspects of the equipment for improved production and accuracy. How to Use It The use of AMG does require a substantial investment in training and equipment, typically from the highway contractor. The STA will need to make specification changes, train staff, and change inspection processes to facilitate understanding of AMG and the reduction of staking requirements, and will need to accommodate the new quality assurance practices. Multiple sources are available to assist in implementing the use of AMG (see Additional Resources section). Some aspects of project development will also be necessary to accommodate AMG, such as the development and availability of accurate 3D engineering models.

42 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects When to Use It The use of AMG is not universally applicable. The California Department of Transportation (n.d.) lists the following project characteristics necessary for AMG project candidates: • Large amounts of earthwork or paving, • New alignments, • Good environment of access to the GNSS or enough line of sight for successfully using total station controlled systems, and • A design based on an accurate digital terrain model (DTM). It also lists limiting conditions of using AMG as: • Widening with narrow strip additions; • Designs, such as overlays, that are not based on an existing DTM; overlays with new profiles or cross-slope construction benefit from AMG; • Designs that do not exist in a 3D digital environment (note that all jobs are capable of being modeled); • Structures; • Projects that are under a tree canopy, in narrow canyons, or next to tall buildings that interfere with GNSS signals (note that robotic total stations or traditional methods are viable solutions); • Design difficulties that would prevent the creation of an accurate and complete DTM (if a surface model can be prepared in difficult situations, it saves on rework); • Lack of training on AMG; • Construction specifications that do not allow the use of AMG; and • Lack of equipment for DOT construction management staff to perform quality assurance. Table E-2-1 summarizes how AMG can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types. Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Superstructure X X X X X Excavation /embankment ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Pipe/drainage ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway base ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Pavement base ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Substructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Temporary traffic control X X X X X Structural foundation ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Strips/signs/signals X X X X X Roadside X X X X X Utilities (in contract relocations) ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway lighting X X X X X ITS X X X X X Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table E-2-1. Uses of AMG.

Construction Staffing Strategies 43 Additional Resources AASHTO. AASHTO Innovation Initiative. Automated Machine Guidance. http://aii.transportation.org/Pages/ AutomatedMachineGuidance.aspx. California Department of Transportation. Guidelines for Implementing Automated Machine Guidance. (n.d.) http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/construc/CPDirectives/cpd13-10.pdf. CalTrans. Survey Manuals. 2012, November. Retrieved from https://dot.ca.gov/-/media/dot-media/programs/ right-of-way/documents/ls-manual/12-surveys-a11y.pdf. FHWA. Techbrief, Executive Summary. Automated Machine Guidance with Use of 3D Models, 2013. https:// www.fhwa.dot.gov/construction/pubs/hif13054.pdf. FHWA. Techbrief, Case Study, Automated Machine Guidance with Use of 3D Models, 2014. https://www.fhwa. dot.gov/construction/3d/amg/pubs/hif14009.pdf. Vonderohe, A. and Hintz, C. 3D Design Terrain Models for Construction Plans and GPS Control of Highway Construction Equipment. CFIRE Report 02–05, 2010. https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/25336. E-3 Digital Terrain Models What Is It? Digital terrain modeling, sometimes referred to as digital elevation modeling, is the devel- opment of a digital surface representation of bare-ground topography and terrain for an area. DTMs should not be confused with digital surface models, which may include objects on the ground’s surface. DTMs are produced via multiple methods but often through remote sensing modes, such as photogrammetry, in lieu of traditional surveying methods. Why Use It? DTMs have a host of uses; they are an integral part of using automated machine guidance when incorporating 3D engineered models. In addition to the ability to better communicate features of the ground surface such as drainage, DTMs provide enhanced abilities to deter- mine earthwork quantities over the traditional cross-section average-end method. When using advanced surveying equipment, the incorporation of DTMs and 3D engineered models can reduce the surveying workload substantially. Some states have completely eliminated the need to quantify earthwork by paying plan quantities due to the accuracy provided in DTMs. Beyond construction, DTMs provide transportation agencies improved accuracy for element location, geographic information systems, and system planning. What Does It Do? DTMs provide digital surface elevation and locations in a model produced by a number of known points connected in surfaces defined by varying geometries. The density of known points is an indication of the accuracy level of the DTM. These models provide an accurate representa- tion of the earth’s surface in a digital environment capable of being manipulated and analyzed in many ways. Because DTMs represent the ground surface and not features on it, they typically are accurate for longer periods of time than other models. The digital model of the ground surface and terrain provides the transportation agency a powerful tool for purposes of planning, design, construction, and asset management. How to Use It There are many ways in which DTMs can be used. In relation to design and construction, they can provide an accurate in-situ digital model of the project that can be used for earth- work calculations and analysis of project design. They also provide an efficient platform for

44 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects incorporating changes. Transcribing the project design model allows sophisticated software the ability to automatically calculate quantities and presents users with the means to review potential issues not easily found in 2D plans. Coupled with other technologies, DTMs provide the opportunity to use automated machine guidance and assist construction inspection staff in using GPS or other advanced surveying technology to efficiently reference field conditions and check as-built grades. When to Use It DTMs are the cornerstone to moving into digital construction management and 3D engineered models. They have applications across sectors of transportation agencies, from planning to asset management. Many transportation agencies incorporate DTM usage as standard practice since they can provide benefits in many areas. In regard to construction and surveying, DTMs can help reduce the staffing needs for surveying and earthwork quantity verification. Table E-3-1 summarizes how DTMs can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types. Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Superstructure X X X X X Excavation /embankment ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Pipe/drainage ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway base ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Pavement base ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Substructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Temporary traffic control X X X X X Structural foundation ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Strips/signs/signals X X X X X Roadside ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Utilities (in contract relocations) ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway lighting X X X X X ITS X X X X X Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table E-3-1. Uses of DTMs. Additional Resources Li, Z., Zhu, Q., and Gold, C. Digital Terrain Modeling: Principles and Methodology. CRC Press, 2005. https:// nguyenduyliemgis.files.wordpress.com/2014/11/digital-terrain-modeling-principles-and-methodology_ 2005.pdf. Reeder, G. and Nelson, G. 3D Engineered Models for Highway Construction: The Iowa Experience. National Concrete Pavement Technology Center, InTrans Report 14–489, 2015. http://publications.iowa.gov/20318/1/ IADOT_InTrans_RB33_014_Reeder_Implementation_Manual_3D_Engineered_Models_Highway_ Const_2015_Final.pdf. Vonderohe, A. Status and Plans for Implementing 3D Technologies for Design and Construction in the Wisconsin Department of Transportation. CFIRE Report 02–11, 2009. http://www.wistrans.org/cfire/documents/ FR_CFIRE0211.pdf.

Construction Staffing Strategies 45 E-5/I-5 Ground-Penetrating Radar What Is It? The use of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a nondestructive measurement technique. GPR uses electromagnetic (EM) waves to locate targets or interfaces buried within a visually opaque substance or earth material (Daniels 2005). Why Use It? Determining the thickness of concrete pavement is an important consideration for construction quality assurance of new pavements and structural capacity estimation of existing pavements. This information is essential for pavement management systems in order to maintain the safety, serviceability, and durability of pavement networks. Traditionally, the thickness of concrete pavement has been measured using drilled cores and steel measuring devices. Pavement cores are extracted at a certain distance from the pavement and taken to the lab to determine the compliance of concrete construction with design specifications. Although this procedure results in relatively accurate thickness measure- ments, it provides local information and is therefore limited. In addition, core extraction is a time-consuming, laborious, and destructive process. Moreover, the integrity of the pavement is already obstructed with the drilling and filling process. What Does It Do? The GPR transmitter antenna radiates the EM wave into the subsurface structure under test. The EM wave traveling velocity in the structure is determined primarily by the permittivity or dielectric constant of the subsurface material. When the EM wave hits features or objects that have electrical properties differing from the surrounding medium, it will be reflected and received by the receiver antennas. The dependence of signal traveling velocity and amplitude on the material electrical properties will result in different reflection waveforms. By performing data analysis of the reflection signals, the subsurface structural features can be effectively characterized. How to Use It Several techniques are available to estimate pavement thickness using GPR. Antennas can be used in two ways: air coupled and ground coupled. An air-coupled antenna unit can be mounted to the back of a moving vehicle and travel at high speeds with the antenna between 6 and 20 inches above the pavement, which does reduce the depth of penetration. A ground-coupled system antenna rests completely on the ground and reduces the reflection from the top of the concrete, thereby increasing the depth of penetration but reducing the speed of collection. When to Use It Table E-5-1 summarizes how GPR can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types.

46 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects Additional Resources Daniels, D. J. Ground Penetrating Radar. Encyclopedia of RF and Microwave Engineering, 2005. Morcous, G. and Erdogmus, E. Use of Ground Penetrating Radar for Construction Quality Assurance of Concrete Pavement. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3bea/b3650d1009b87ac3b615e4cb832979eaf299.pdf. Xia, T. and Huston, D. High Speed Ground Penetrating Radar for Road Pavement and Bridge Structural Inspection and Maintenance. No. SPR-RSCH017-738. University of Vermont, 2016. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ 1760/701c1a13be47bee80ec8f948a450a3cfd95e.pdf. E-6/I-6 Global Navigation Satellite System What Is It? The GNSS is a satellite system that provides geospatial positioning anywhere on earth. Examples of GNSS are the United States’ GPS and the Russian Federation’s Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS). Why Use It? Significant research and development have enabled GNSS measurements to produce survey- grade results in real-time or with post-processing techniques. GNSS surveys are particularly useful for surveys over large extents (several miles), where error propagation would be signifi- cant for most traditional surveying techniques. This enables information to be presented in context with its surroundings. It also enables data to be acquired at remote sites. What Does It Do? GNSS has become a mainstream geospatial technology, enabling data to be linked together into a common coordinate system and provided in context with surroundings. Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Superstructure X X X X X Excavation /embankment ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pipe/drainage ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pavement base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Substructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Temporary traffic control X X X X X Structural foundation ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Strips/signs/signals X X X X X Roadside X X X X X Utilities (in contract relocations) ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway lighting X X X X X ITS X X X X X Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table E-5-1. GPR uses.

Construction Staffing Strategies 47 How to Use It GNSS is often integrated with other technologies and techniques whenever georeferenced positioning is essential. When to Use It Table E-6-1 summarizes how GNSS can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types. Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Superstructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Excavation /embankment ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Pipe/drainage ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadway base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pavement base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Substructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Temporary traffic control ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Structural foundation ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Strips/signs/signals ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadside ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Utilities (in contract relocations) ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway lighting ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ITS ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table E-6-1. Uses of GNSS. Additional Resources Daniels, D. J. 2005. Ground Penetrating Radar. Encyclopedia of RF and Microwave Engineering Morcous, G. and Erdogmus. E. Use of Ground Penetrating Radar for Construction Quality Assurance of Concrete Pavement. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3bea/b3650d1009b87ac3b615e4cb832979eaf299.pdf. Xia, T. and Huston, D. High Speed Ground Penetrating Radar for Road Pavement and Bridge Structural Inspection and Maintenance. No. SPR-RSCH017-738. University of Vermont, 2016. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ 1760/701c1a13be47bee80ec8f948a450a3cfd95e.pdf. E-7 Light Detection and Ranging What Is It? Light detection and ranging (LiDAR), also known as 3D laser scanning, is a relatively recent geospatial technology that can be used to acquire critical geometric information efficiently and with exceptional detail.

48 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects Why Use It? Compared to conventional surveying, using LiDAR is a time-efficient way to collect the geometric data of a highway construction site with comparable accuracy. It requires fewer hours from highway agency staff, allows accelerated construction schedules, and enhances safety by reducing the amount of time surveying crews are exposed to traffic. What Does It Do? Scanners emit pulses of light (at speeds ranging from thousands to millions of points per second) to acquire X, Y, Z (3D) positions of points within an area of interest, producing a point cloud. The powerful, high-resolution 3D point cloud provides a digital representation of the physical world that engineers, inspectors, asset managers, and others can repeatedly explore, query, and analyze to mine important information. In addition to images, LiDAR provides a measurement of the return signal strength for each pulse, which is termed “intensity.” The primary benefit of LiDAR intensity is that it is representative of the object’s surface reflectance and other surface characteristics, which can be useful to distinguish between material types. How to Use It LiDAR can be statically mounted on a tripod, can be handheld, or can be mounted on moving vehicle or an aerial system. When to Use It Table E-7-1 summarizes how LiDAR can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types. Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Superstructure ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Excavation /embankment ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pipe/drainage ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pavement base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Substructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Temporary traffic control ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Structural foundation ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Strips/signs/signals X X X X X Roadside ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Utilities (in contract relocations) ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadway lighting ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ITS ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table E-7-1. Uses of LiDAR.

Construction Staffing Strategies 49 Additional Resources Federal Highway Administration. Effective Use of Geospatial Tools in Highway Construction, 2017. https:// research.transportation.org/wp-content/plugins/AASHTO_RAC/download_file.php?fileid=571. Florida Department of Transportation. LiDAR in Roadway Design & Construction, 2013. http://www.fdot.gov/ design/Training/DesignExpo/2013/Presentations/KnaakTed-LidarInRoadwayDesignConstruction.pdf. E-8/R-3 Resource Allocation/Leveling What Is It? Resource allocation is used when projects have limited resources, and resource leveling is used when projects have a set project duration. Resource allocation and leveling may be used at the district and project level. Project phasing and shifting letting days are some of the methods that can be used to resource allocate and level. Why Use It? Resource allocation may be used to alleviate general staff shortages or staff shortages due to legal mandates, as well as for shortages in the skills needed to complete a project, by shifting the project’s activities to create a more uniform use of limited resources. Resource leveling may be used to adhere to the time constraints of a project by adding more resources or shifting activities to accommodate the time constraint. What Does It Do? Resource allocation and leveling provide a schedule that is less resource-demanding by shift- ing resources to decrease the number of day-to-day fluctuations and shifting activities to adhere to the time constraints of a project. How to Use It Resource allocation and leveling should be used during the planning phases of a project to gain the most reward. Primavera P6 and Microsoft Project are two commercial scheduling pack- ages that support resource allocation. Resource allocation and leveling may be used on the dis- trict and project level. The district level deals with the number of projects and resources needed, while the project level deals with the finer details of the project itself. If the project is resource limited, then resource allocation should be implemented by using either a series or parallel method. The series method assumes that activities cannot be interrupted, and the parallel method allows interruptions in activities. Resource leveling may be used on activities where there is positive free float to try and minimize the day-to-day fluctuation of resources. Resource leveling assumes that activities cannot be interrupted once started. Another method of resource allocation and leveling is shifting letting days. Shifting letting days is a method that can be used at the district level to strategically decrease the workload of the DOT when resources are exhausted and time is not critical. Project phasing is when certain project phases (or activities) are delayed to accommodate for resource or time constraints. When to Use It Table E-8-1 summarizes how resource allocation/leveling can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types.

50 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects Additional Resources Hinze, J. Construction Planning and Scheduling. Boston: Pearson Education, 2012. E-9/I-14 Robotic Total Stations What Is It? A robotic total station (RTS) is an enhanced total station allowing a single operator to conduct site layout measurements. The RTS can conduct typical horizontal and vertical measurements like most total stations, yet the RTS will automatically track the operator with the prism or can be remotely controlled by the operator. Additionally, the use of RTS supports e-Construction and paperless data collection. RTSs typically can entail surveying directly from the 2D or 3D models uploaded into the RTS. Why Use It? Using RTSs provides instantaneous field-surveying efficiency and dramatic increases in productivity for surveying activities. The ability to upload 2D/3D plans enables efficient, more accurate, and easy project layout. Projected locations provided by RTSs are according to the as-designed plans, which means fewer opportunities for mistakes. The system provides paper- less access and data recording for documentation such as producing as-built plans. RTSs are instrumental to agencies moving toward e-Construction and civil integrated management (CIM) processes. Labor requirements are drastically reduced due to single-operator capability, Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Superstructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Excavation /embankment ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pipe/drainage ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pavement base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Substructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Temporary traffic control ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Structural foundation ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Strips/signs/signals ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadside ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Utilities (in contract relocations) ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway lighting ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ITS ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table E-8-1. Uses of resource allocation/leveling.

Construction Staffing Strategies 51 and the efficiencies accumulated through the automatic location of the prism can realize increases in productivity of 500% to 600%. What Does It Do Total stations in general are an optical electronic instrument with onboard electronic distance measurement. They include onboard computing and data storage capabilities such that they can communicate surveying calculations to the user instantaneously or provide for facility layout from input location points. The data storage allows for surveying data collection for electronic field books, development of as-built plans, and asset management, among other applications. Point measurement and layout are based on the positioning and setup of the total station instru- ment and its communication with a reflective prism target. Total stations are capable of distance measurement, angle measurement, coordinate measurement, and data processing. RTSs allow all of this functionality with improved efficiency and automatic location of the prism and opera- tion by a single surveyor. How to Use It The use of RTSs does require a substantial investment in training and equipment, but returns on investment can be substantial. Contractors may see the greatest advantage from using RTSs, but STAs can obtain a significant advantage from having single-operator survey crews. At times, staffing resource constraints may limit surveying capabilities, but the RTS approach cuts resource needs in half and increases productivity. Additionally, most RTS systems require minimal training and can simplify the surveying process. Prior to investment, STAs should consider price, range, battery life, stability and ruggedness, accuracy, and training needs. Several STAs have guidance on use of total stations and RTSs that may be consulted before investing. The North Dakota DOT is one example and is referenced in the Additional Resources section. When to Use It RTSs can easily be used in any situation that would typically involve a conventional total station. The use of RTSs in lieu of a conventional total station provides benefits in times when resources constrain the workload needs of surveying operations. The use of RTSs should be considered as a replacement option for conventional total stations since the investment in these instruments can be large and there is no need to replicate the functionality. The enhanced production of the RTS systems can often provide a return justifying their purchase. Table E-9-1 summarizes how RTSs can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types.

52 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects Additional Resources Crumal, Z. What Is a Robotic Total Station? Here’s Everything You Need to Know. 2019, September 13. Retrieved from Connect & Construct: https://connect.bim360.autodesk.com/what-is-a-robotic-total-station. North Dakota Department of Transportation. 2007, January. Training Manual for Robotic and Conventional Total Stations. https://www.dot.nd.gov/manuals/design/surveymanual/total-station.pdf. Parker, M., Merkel, H., and Armstrong, M. 2014, September 8. Improving Performance With the Robotic Total Station. Retrieved from NABHOLZ: https://www.nabholz.com/improving-performance-with-the-robotic- total-station/. E-10/I-15 Project Inspection Test Plans (Milestone Inspections, Witness Points, and Hold Points) What Is It? A project inspection test plan (ITP) details the quality control and, more specifically, the quality assurance or independent verification and validation process and protocol for state agency involvement in project inspection. One approach to planned inspection activities is the use of milestone inspections where state agency inspections are coordinated with key phases or milestones of the project. Beyond the milestone inspection approach, state agencies could use two specific action items for their involvement: witness points and hold points. These also occur at predefined milestones according to the project inspection test plan. A hold point is a point of mandatory verification or testing where state agency forces must verify quality or compliance to specifications before work can continue on a project. A witness point occurs with state agency forces overseeing the construction methods, place- ment of materials, or other inspections, although work may continue. Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Superstructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Excavation /embankment ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pipe/drainage ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pavement base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Substructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Temporary traffic control X X X X X Structural foundation ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Strips/signs/signals ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadside ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Utilities (in contract relocations) ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway lighting ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ITS ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table E-9-1. Uses of RTSs.

Construction Staffing Strategies 53 Why Use It? A state agency might consider using a project ITP inclusive of milestone inspections, witness points, and hold points, or some combination thereof, if inspection resources and staff are limited such that full-time inspection is not possible. It can also be an effective approach to limit inspection costs in lieu of full-time inspection. With this approach, critical items of inspection can be identified and scheduled as coordinated with the contractor. This approach does place significant responsibility of quality and conformance on the contractor. The state agency can still have verification of compliance to specification and quality for the items identified as requiring direct inspection or oversight. What Does It Do? The use of a project ITP inclusive of milestone inspections, witness points, and hold points, or some combination thereof, allows state agencies the opportunity to more effectively plan and allocate their inspection resources and staff. The state agency can schedule staff according to the identified testing or oversight required for the project. This approach limits downturns that might be associated with full project oversight yet may entail more staff travel time and could cause contractor delays at hold points. The contractor is required to take more responsibility for quality and conformance as well as to notify the state agency when verification oversight or testing is required. There is a need for trust, partnering, and strong communication between the state agency and contractor. How to Use It The project ITP method of inspection requires careful planning, communication, and coordination with the construction contractor. Several state agencies provide guidance and example ITPs for use on highway projects. Some examples are provided in the Addi- tional Resources section. The ITP should be initiated with the contract documents, with the execution of the ITP beginning with preconstruction coordination with the construction contractor. When to Use It Some state agencies only use the ITP approach for design–build projects, yet the process can be adapted to traditional delivery methods and others. The ITP approach can allow for appropriate yet perhaps not ideal inspection when adequate inspection staff or resources are not available to meet workload demands. It may be an approach that is especially beneficial for accomplishing adequate inspection through previously known workload peaks that are temporary. As an example, an ITP may be an approach to inspect a major project that is beyond the normal workload for a particular office. While an ITP could be an approach for long-term inspection resource shortages, state agencies are predominantly using it to address distinct short-term shortages. Table E-10-1 summarizes how project ITPs can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types.

54 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects Additional Resources General Resources Mades, N. What Is Witness Point & Hold Point. 2014, January 29. Retrieved from Quality Assurance & Quality Control in Construction by Noel Mades: https://www.qualityengineersguide.com/what-is-witness-point- hold-point. Quality Systems Toolbox. Inspection and Test Plans. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.qualitysystems.com/ support/learning/inspection-and-test-plans ITP Examples and Guidance Interstate 595 Express, LLC. Witness & Hold Inspection Plan for I-595 Corridor Roadway Improvement Projects. 2013, March. Retrieved from http://595express.info/documents/OtherProjectDocuments/Revised%20 CQP07%20Witness%20Hold%20Inspection%20Procedure%20-%20Revision%206.pdf. Texas Department of Transportation. 2011. TxDOT Design Build Quality Assurance Program Implementation Guide. Texas Department of Transportation. 2011. https://ftp.txdot.gov/pub/txdot-info/cst/db_qap_guide.pdf. Virginia Department of Transportation. 2008. Minimum Requirement for Quality Assurance & Quality Control on Design Build & Public-Private Transportation Act Projects. Virginia Department of Transportation. 2008. http://www.virginiadot.org/business/resources/PPTA/ApprovedQA-QCGuide4DBP-rev1.pdf. I-1 Concrete Maturity Meters What Is It? Concrete maturity meters measure temperature and time to help determine concrete strength and curing time. The maturity concept uses the principle that concrete strength (as well as other properties) is directly related to the concrete’s age and temperature history. Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Superstructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Excavation/embankment ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pipe/drainage ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pavement base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Substructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Temporary traffic control X X X X X Structural foundation ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Strips/signs/signals ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadside ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Utilities (in contract relocations) ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway lighting ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ITS ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table E-10-1. Uses of project ITPs.

Construction Staffing Strategies 55 Why Use It? Maturity methods are used in lieu of testing field-cured cylinders since they are a more reliable indicator of the in-place strength of concrete during construction. The traditional approach of measuring the strength of field-cure cylinders, cured in the same conditions as the structure, is used to schedule construction activities such as removal of forms or reshoring, backfilling walls, pre-stressing and post-tensioning operations, opening pavements or bridges to traffic, and sawing joints, and for determining when protection measures can be terminated in cold weather. Maturity methods use the fundamental concept that concrete properties develop with time as the cement hydrates and releases heat. The rate of strength development in the early ages is related to the rate of hydration of cement. Heat generated from the hydration reaction will be recorded as temperature rise in the concrete. The main advantage of the maturity method is that it uses the actual temperature profile of the concrete in the structure to estimate its in-place strength. The traditional approach of using field-cured cylinders does not replicate the same temperature profile of the in-place concrete and likely does not estimate its in-place strength as accurately. With maturity methods, strength information is provided in real time since maturity measurements are made on-site at any time. As a result, construction workflow is optimized, and construction activity timing can be based on more accurate in-place strength information. What Does It Do? Maturity methods provide a relatively simple approach for reliably estimating the in-place, early-age compressive (and flexural) strength of concrete (14 days or less) during construction. The maturity concept assumes that samples of a concrete mixture of the same maturity will have similar strength, regardless of the combination of time and temperature yielding maturity. The measured maturity index of in-place concrete, a function of temperature history and age, is used to estimate its strength development based on a predetermined calibration of the time–temperature–strength relationship developed from laboratory tests for that mixture. How to Use It The procedure for estimating concrete strength using maturity concepts is described in ASTM C1074, Standard Practice for Estimating Concrete Strength by the Maturity Method. As soon as is practical after concrete placement, maturity sensors are placed in the fresh concrete. The sensors should be installed at locations in the structure that are critical in terms of exposure conditions and structural requirements. The sensors are connected to maturity meters after placement. When a strength estimate is desired, the maturity index from the maturity meter is recorded. Using the maturity index and the previously established maturity–strength relation- ship, in-place compressive strength at the locations of the sensors is estimated. When to Use It Table I-1-1 summarizes how concrete maturity meters can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types.

56 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects Additional Resources National Ready Mixed Concrete Association, CIP-39 Maturity Methods to Estimate Concrete Strength. https://www.nrmca.org/aboutconcrete/cips/39p.pdf. I-3 e-Construction What Is It? e-Construction is a delivery process for construction management that includes electronic submission of all construction documentation by all project stakeholders, electronic document routing/approvals (e-signatures), and digital management of all construction documentation in a secure, paperless environment. e-Construction enables distribution and access to all project stakeholders through mobile devices. The systems employ a number of tools, technologies, and processes, such as mobile devices, software for field data collection, data hosting services, and communication systems (e.g., desktop sharing applications). Why Use It? When successfully implemented, e-Construction inspection can yield the following benefits, among others: reduction in paper use, secured data, ease of access to information, real-time document access, standardization of reports or forms, faster approval, ability to sign documents remotely, and integration with other systems (e.g., accounting and design). Field trials with e-Construction systems have shown a reduction in the number of work hours to complete field tasks as a result of easier access to precise information. Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Superstructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Excavation /embankment X X X X X Pipe/drainage ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway base X X X X X Pavement base X X X X X Substructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Temporary traffic control X X X X X Structural foundation ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Strips/signs/signals X X X X X Roadside X X X X X Utilities (in contract relocations) X X X X X Roadway lighting X X X X X ITS X X X X X Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table I-1-1. Use of concrete maturity meters.

Construction Staffing Strategies 57 Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Superstructure ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Excavation /embankment ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Pipe/drainage ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadway base ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Pavement base ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Substructure ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Temporary traffic control ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Structural foundation ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Strips/signs/signals ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadside ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Utilities (in contract relocations) ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadway lighting ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ITS ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table I-3-1. Uses of e-Construction. What Does It Do? The system employs a number of tools, technologies, and processes, such as mobile devices, software for field data collection, data hosting services, and communication systems (e.g., desktop sharing applications). Practices include the transfer of electronic plans and elec- tronic contract specifications and special provisions, electronic review, and digital approvals. How to Use It e-Construction requires infrastructure such as hardware and software systems. From an inspection perspective, the user interface can be any mobile or tablet device. When to Use It e-Construction supports field tasks related to inspection, quality assurance, asset manage- ment, and engineering. Table I-3-1 summarizes how e-Construction can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types. Additional Resources Yamaura, J., White, G., Katara, S., Willoughby, K., Gacia, R., and Beer, M. 2015. Project Inspection Using Mobile Technology – Phase II: Assessing the Impacts of Mobile Technology on Project Inspection. WSDOT Research Report WA-RD 840.2.

58 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects I-7 Infrared Temp. Systems (Pave-IR) What Is It? Pave-IR is an infrared system that is composed of infrared sensor bars for thermal imaging of pavements. Why Use It? The Pave-IR system helps improve quality control during asphalt paving operations. In addi- tion, the profile of the pavement surface is stored with the GPS position data and transferred to a USB stick. Using software, the contractor can evaluate and document the data in the office and can use it for planning subsequent work and to document the quality of their work. At the same time, this analysis can be used to better understand the whole process of road construction and to improve quality in the long term. What Does It Do? The system allows the paver operator to see the temperature gradient across the mat and identify any cold spots that may cause further trouble. Areas falling in temperature can also be compacted first, so as to ensure that they are rolled out while still in the workable heat zone. Problems with the mat can also be identified and dealt with early on. The system uses an intelligent temperature scanner over the entire paving width. The temperature profile is shown in real time on a display. As a result, the operator can react at any time if irregularities occur. How to Use It The system can be mounted on a paver and scans back and forth across the paving mat immediately behind the machine’s screed. Data on the thermal image of the mat are then displayed on a screen for the operator to see and are recorded for documentation purposes and later analysis if desired. When to Use It Table I-7-1 summarizes how Pave-IR can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types.

Construction Staffing Strategies 59 Additional Resources Sebesta, S., Liu, W., and Scullion, T. PAVE-IR Operator’s Manual Version 1.3. College Station: Texas Transportation Institute. 2009. https://static.tti.tamu.edu/tti.tamu.edu/documents/5-4577-03-P1.pdf. I-8 Intelligent Compaction What Is It? Intelligent compaction (IC) refers to an improved compaction process using rollers equipped with an integrated measurement system that consists of a highly accurate GPS, accelerometers, an onboard computer reporting system, and infrared thermometers for HMA/warm-mix asphalt (WMA) feedback control. Why Use It? For roadway construction, IC techniques provide a number of benefits over conventional compaction processes. In addition to reducing the compaction variability of road building materials, these benefits include: • Optimized labor deployment and construction time. Contractors can roll the material with the right amount of compactive effort on each pass to help ensure that the proper stiffness is achieved. Underrolling and over-rolling can both lead to poor performance. • Reduced material variability. IC equipment allows contractors to more closely monitor the stiffness of the material so that there is less variability in the end. Over the long run, lower variability will result in better pavement performance and reduced maintenance and repair costs. Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Superstructure X X X X X Excavation /embankment X X X X X Pipe/drainage X X X X X Roadway base X X X X X Pavement base X X X X X Substructure X X X X X Temporary traffic control X X X X X Structural foundation X X X X X Strips/signs/signals X X X X X Roadside X X X X X Utilities (in contract relocations) X X X X X Roadway lighting X X X X X ITS X X X X X Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table I-7-1. Uses of Pave-IR.

60 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects • Reduced compaction and maintenance requirements. The flexibility to make fewer passes to achieve the correct compaction level minimizes fuel use and equipment wear and tear. • Identification of non-compactable areas. Areas that fail to reach the target compaction level can be identified as potential areas for reworking the defective material or removing and replacing it. • Ability to make midcourse corrections. The ability to correct compaction problems in a subsurface layer (before additional layers are placed) ensures that subsurface problems do not affect the entire road surface. • Ability to maintain construction records. Data from IC operation, along with GPS coor- dinates of compaction activity, can be downloaded into construction quality databases and stored electronically by the contractor for future reference. • Ability to generate an IC base map. Contractors are able to identify weak spots (typically used in pavement rehabilitation projects such as mill and fill). • Ability to retrofit existing equipment. Most existing rollers can be easily converted to an IC roller using a retrofit kit. What Does It Do? IC allows for real-time monitoring and corrections in the compaction process by integrating measurement, documentation, and control systems. How to Use It The rollers used for IC are basically the same as their conventional counterparts. The primary difference between IC equipment and conventional equipment is the instrumentation added to identify roller location, measure/control the process, and display and document the level of compaction. With some differences to account for the type of material being compacted, this instrumentation is basically the same for rollers that are designed to compact unbound/ subsurface materials (subgrade soil, subbase, and base) and the pavement surface layers (HMA/WMA binder and wearing courses). When to Use It Table I-8-1 summarizes how intelligent compaction can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types.

Construction Staffing Strategies 61 Additional Resources Chang, G., Xu, Q., Rutledge, J., Horan, B., Michael, L., White, D., and Vennapusa, P. Accelerated Implementation of Intelligent Compaction Technology for Embankment Subgrade Soils, Aggregated Base, and Asphalt Pavement Materials. Federal Highway Administration. 2011. Retrieved from http://www.intelligentcompaction.com/ downloads/Reports/FHWA-TPF_IC_Final_Report.pdf. FHWA. Intelligent Compaction. 2013. Retrieved from https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/construction/pubs/hif13051.pdf. FHWA. Intelligent Compaction. 2018. Retrieved from https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/ic/. I-9 QC/QA/IA What Is It? QC/QA/IA is the process where the contractor’s personnel ensure quality on a project and the data are independently verified by the owner. Specifically, QC is the function to assess and adjust design, production, and construction processes so as to control the level of quality being produced by the project. QA is performed independently of the construction contractor for the purpose of determining the conformance of the work by examining the QC data and providing objective evidence to verify the contractor’s QC sampling and testing. Independent assurance (IA) is inspection performed by the STA (or its agent) to satisfy the STA and FHWA’s requirements for documenting that proper QC and QA are being performed. Why Use It? QC/QA/IA can free construction staff from testing and allow them to do other critical delivery item work such as design, other inspection, or project management tasks. However, STAs need to have staff in place to monitor testing, conduct additional testing, and do oversight of contractors for QC/QA/IA to be effective. Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface X X X X X Superstructure X X X X X Excavation /embankment ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pipe/drainage X X X X X Roadway base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pavement base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Substructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Temporary traffic control X X X X X Structural foundation ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Strips/signs/signals X X X X X Roadside X X X X X Utilities (in contract relocations) X X X X X Roadway lighting X X X X X ITS X X X X X Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table I-8-1. Uses of IC.

62 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects What Does It Do? QC/QA/IA is intended to transfer more of the testing responsibility from the STA to the contractor. How to Use It The FHWA has developed a number of rules and reviews related to the process, including specific use of contractor test results and the associated risks. Please see the Additional Resources section. When to Use It QA/QC/IA is intended to be used during construction when inspection is needed. Table I-9-1 summarizes how QA/QC/IA can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types. Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Superstructure ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Excavation /embankment ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Pipe/drainage ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadway base ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Pavement base ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Substructure ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Temporary traffic control ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Structural foundation ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Strips/signs/signals ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadside ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Utilities (in contract relocations) ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadway lighting ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ITS ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table I-9-1. Use of QA/QC/IA. Additional Resources Federal Highway Administration. Use of Contractor Test Results in the Acceptance Decision, Recommended Quality Measures, and the Identification of Contractor/Department Risks. 2004, August 9. Retrieved from https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/construction/t61203.cfm.

Construction Staffing Strategies 63 Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Superstructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Excavation /embankment ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pipe/drainage ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pavement base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Substructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Temporary traffic control X X X X X Structural foundation ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Strips/signs/signals X X X X X Roadside ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Utilities (in contract relocations) ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway lighting X X X X X ITS X X X X X Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table I-10-1. Use of remote equipment monitoring. I-10 Remote Equipment Monitoring What Is It? Remote equipment monitoring uses web-based technology to keep track of the real-time location of a fleet of construction equipment as well as provide detailed information on how the equipment is working. Why Use It? Real-time equipment condition information provides the possibility of reduced on-site monitoring and rapid repairs. Technicians can evaluate how the equipment is working and prevent costly and lengthy breakdowns. What Does It Do? Telematics packages collect real-time equipment condition data and send them for evaluation. Data analysts monitor and analyze machine health in real time. The system then provides the dealer and customer with details of the alert and exactly what actions are necessary to address the issue before significant downtime or catastrophic failure occurs. How to Use It Several equipment vendors can provide machine monitoring services. When to Use It Table I-10-1 summarizes how remote equipment monitoring can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types.

64 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects Additional Resources Autodesk Fusion Connect. Machine 2 Machine: How Smart Apps Monitor Construction Site and Equipment for Better Project Margins. https://autodeskfusionconnect.com/machine-2-machine-how-smart-apps- monitor-construction-site-and-equipment-for-better-project-margins/. Highways Today. Remote Control Decreases Downtime on Florida’s Interstate 4 Project. https://www.highways. today/2017/11/22/remote-control-florida-interstate/. I-11 Mobile Road-Quality Monitoring Devices What Is It? Mobile road-quality monitoring devices are a new type of remote sensing equipment that takes advantage of the extensive use of internet mobile devices for the purpose of automated pavement condition assessment. Why Use It? Data collected through the mobile devices can be used by maintenance and operations staff to prioritize repairs of pavement anomalies. Mounting the mobile device on the dashboard of a moving vehicle allows for speedy data collection and fast responses, and can help reduce costly repairs that demand more human resources. What Does It Do? Mobile systems are based on the use of smartphones and employ two main sensors piggy- backed on mobile devices: a GPS receiver for vehicle localization and a three-axis accelerometer to collect acceleration data from vehicle motion on road anomalies. The information collected during a trip is transferred in real time to a central server, where data are processed using automated algorithms for signal analysis. In particular, high-energy events are identified by monitoring and measuring the vertical acceleration impulse. How to Use It Mobile phones need to be mounted securely on the dashboard of a moving vehicle. When to Use It Table I-11-1 summarizes how mobile road-quality monitoring devices can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types.

Construction Staffing Strategies 65 Additional Resources Vittorio, Astarita, Vaiana Rosolino, Iuele Teresa, Caruso Maria Vittoria, and P. Giofrè Vincenzo. Automated Sensing System for Monitoring of Road Surface Quality by Mobile Devices. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 111 (2014): 242–251. I-12 Remote Video Monitoring What Is It? Remote video monitoring provides remote monitoring of construction project site conditions, work progress, security, and safety. Why Use It? Remote video monitoring systems help to minimize the number of on-site visits by project management personnel who are located away from the construction jobsites. Remote video monitoring systems make available live or recorded video status records of the project’s progress to stakeholders such as company executives; subcontractors; local, state, and federal agencies; and the public at large. Remote video monitoring systems help reduce transportation costs and maximize response time to any events by proving real-time video surveillance of the construction sites. What Does It Do? Remote video monitoring systems use cameras that are based on Internet protocol (IP) as well as video management software that project managers, engineers, executives, and security Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Superstructure X X X X X Excavation /embankment ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pipe/drainage X X X X X Roadway base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pavement base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Substructure X X X X X Temporary traffic control X X X X X Structural foundation X X X X X Strips/signs/signals ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadside X X X X X Utilities (in contract relocations) X X X X X Roadway lighting X X X X X ITS X X X X X Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table I-11-1. Uses of mobile road-quality monitoring devices.

66 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects personnel may use to monitor jobs remotely. Cameras are connected to a subscriber unit that uplinks the IP video to its corresponding access point located at the on-site offices. Real-time videos are then relayed through the Internet to the clients’ devices. How to Use It It may be necessary to request department approval for providers of remote video monitoring. The provider usually assumes installation responsibility. When to Use It Table I-12-1 summarizes how remote video monitoring can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types. Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Superstructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Excavation /embankment ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pipe/drainage ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pavement base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Substructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Temporary traffic control ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Structural foundation ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Strips/signs/signals ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadside ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Utilities (in contract relocations) ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway lighting ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ITS ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table I-12-1. Uses of remote video monitoring. Additional Resources True Look. Construction Cameras. (n.d.) Retrieved from https://www.truelook.com/. I-13 Risk-Based Inspection What Is It? Risk-based inspection allows state DOTs to prioritize resources required for construction inspection based on recognized risk level.

Construction Staffing Strategies 67 Why Use It? State DOTs are facing the challenge of an ever-growing gap between the demand for inspec- tion and available resources. Resource allocation strategies are needed to assign inspection staff to the most critical inspection items. What Does It Do? Risk-based inspection assigns inspection resources to items based on the item’s risk level. How to Use It Different state DOTs may have different methods for classifying each item’s risk level, but the following considerations are common when prioritizing inspection resources (Oechler 2016): • Material variability and level of control required for materials to meet specifications (e.g., prefabricated products or structural elements are less variable and typically require less field control than pavement materials or soils); • Criticality of specific materials or products from the perspective of difficulty to repair or replace, safety, maintenance cost, and cost of rework; and • Project characteristics, such as type, size, and complexity. When to Use It Table I-13-1 summarizes how risk-based inspection can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types. Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Superstructure ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Excavation /embankment ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Pipe/drainage ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadway base ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Pavement base ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Substructure ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Temporary traffic control ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Structural foundation ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Strips/signs/signals ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadside ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Utilities (in contract relocations) ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadway lighting ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ITS ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table I-13-1. Uses of risk-based inspection.

68 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects Additional Resources Oechler, Erick F. Quality Assurance Risk-Based Optimization for Departments of Transportation. PhD dis- sertation, University of Colorado at Boulder, 2016. https://scholar.colorado.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article= 1061&context=cven_gradetds. Yuan, C., Park, J., Xu, X., Cai, H., Abraham, D. M., and Bowman, M. D. Risk-Based Prioritization of Construc- tion Inspection. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2672. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2018, pp. 96–105. I-16 Unmanned Aerial Systems What Is It? An unmanned aerial system (UAS) consists of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), also referred to as a drone, its control system, ground and satellite communications, and an opera- tor. This is a relatively new technology that has rapidly grown in popularity and has a host of uses and potential uses. UAS technology is relatively inexpensive. Only recent FAA limitations and requirements have curbed the rapid rate of their implementation into recrea tional and commer- cial use. These limitations and requirements were necessary to provide safety mechanisms for the public and aircraft. Software and applications beyond those fundamental to the operation of the UAS may provide for advanced uses of the data collected by the UAS, such as software capable of producing 3D models from aerial photography and data captured in flights. Why Use It? UAS usage has grown drastically in recent history, with a reported 33 STAs investigating their use according to a 2016 AASHTO survey (AASHTO 2016). While multiple uses exist, aerial photography and videography tend to be the primary uses. These uses can expand into aerial mapping, surveying, and photogrammetry. UASs can also be used for remote visual inspection or inspection of areas unsafe or impractical for in-person inspection. Their inspection use can also simply provide for reduced in-person inspection needs by highlighting the areas in most need. The mapping and photogrammetry can produce 3D models that provide for a realm of possible construction applications, from producing as-built models to calculations of earthwork or other quantities. UAS use can be extremely beneficial in fast and efficient operations with reductions in impacts to traffic. An AASHTO report indicated savings for particular inspections could be as much as 95% (AASHTO 2016). What Does It Do? There are numerous out-of-the-box UAS solutions available as well as options for develop- ing customized solutions. The basis for most UAS configurations is an aerial craft equipped with navigable controls, GPS capability, and photography or videography capabilities. The aerial vehicles may be rotorcraft or fixed wing, typically depending on their intended uses and desired flight times for a given battery life. UASs are also capable of integrating various remote sensing technologies, such as LiDAR sensors, thermal imaging cameras, and digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras, at a range of costs. These varying setups can provide a host of functions for state agencies and contractors alike. There are several resources that present varying applications in the highway construction sector, but the most popular are: • Aerial photography and videography, • Photogrammetry and 3D modeling, • Remote inspection (landslides, structures, confined spaces, etc.), • Surveying, quantity estimates, measurement, and calculations (volumes, areas, etc.), • Collection of as-built information (photo, video, and models),

Construction Staffing Strategies 69 Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Superstructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Excavation /embankment ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pipe/drainage ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pavement base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Substructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Temporary traffic control ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Structural foundation ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Strips/signs/signals ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadside ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Utilities (in contract relocations) ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway lighting ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ITS ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table I-16-1. Uses of UAS. • Traffic volume and flow monitoring, and • Forensic investigation (thermal imaging, LiDAR, etc.). How to Use It The use of UAS does entail some research, investment, training, and liability. Most off-the- shelf UASs provide plenty of functionality at relatively low price. Registration, training, and certification in compliance to FAA requirements also come at a fiscally low cost but require significant time to navigate the process. The STA will also want to research the type and brand of UAS/UAV for purchase based on the desired functionality and uses. From a construction staff production and efficiency standpoint, UASs can be used to reduce resource needs for surveying, certain inspection items, and documentation. There are a host of ways the technology can be used to reduce demand on construction staff, and more opportunities will likely present themselves as the technology advances. When to Use It The UAS technology will likely become commonplace for supporting the efficiency and produc- tion of construction field staff, much in the same way as digital cameras, mobile phones, and tablets. Currently, UAS use may be considered where construction inspection staff could benefit from alternative methods for surveying, visual data capture, and remote inspection. The most success- ful implementations of this technology will occur where there is an advanced technology culture within the agency and where construction staff have willingly adopted other mobile technologies for supporting their workload. The technology is advancing quickly and requires a significant time commitment to make full use of it during implementation. Another way to implement the technology is to hire UAS consultant contractors to capture the desired information for the agency. Table I-16-1 summarizes how UASs can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types.

70 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects Additional Resources AASHTO. AASHTO Transportation TV Special Report. Survey Finds a Growing Number of State DOTs Are Using Drones to Improve Safety and Collect Data Faster and Better: Saving Time and Money. 2016. https://indd.adobe.com/view/78d3b1d3-13c3-42c0-8bf2-75ea8c534d1a Accompanying Video: https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=ppvL5CZqumM. California Department of Transportation. Preliminary Investigation. The Use of Unmanned Aerial Systems for Steep Terrain Investigation. August 14, 2014. http://www.dot.ca.gov/newtech/researchreports/preliminary_ investigations/docs/unmanned_aerial_systems_preliminary_investigation_rev8-14-14.pdf. Dadi, G. B., Sturgill, R. E., Jr., and Wang, X. NCHRP Synthesis 491: Uses of Mobile Information Technology Devices in the Field for Design, Construction, and Asset Management. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2016. Kokosing Construction Company, Inc. How Can Drones Stop My Projects from Going Late and Over-budget? 2017. Retrieved from Identified Technologies: https://www.identifiedtech.com/wp-content/uploads/ 2017/04/Identified-Technologies-Kokosing-Case-Study.pdf. Tatum, M. and Liu, J. Unmanned Aircraft System Applications in Construction. Procedia Engineering, Volume 196, 2017, Pages 167–175, ISSN 1877-7058, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.07.187. Wang, X., Al-Shabbani, Z., Sturgill, R., Kirk, A., and Dadi, G. Estimating Earthwork Volumes Through Use of Unmanned Aerial Systems. In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2630. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. 2017. http://trrjournalonline.trb.org/doi/pdf/ 10.3141/2630-01. R-1 CEI Consultants What Is It? Construction, engineering, and inspection consultants are industry professionals who can help DOTs on projects that need specialized expertise, have limited manpower, and have tight time schedules. Why Use It? The research team conducted interviews with personnel from seven STAs on the use of CEI consultants. With the exception of the Colorado DOT, all the STAs stated that staff shortages were the main reason to outsource; the Colorado DOT attributed project complexity as the main reason to outsource. The North Dakota, Michigan, North Carolina, and Utah DOTs stated that time constraints were another reason to outsource. The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) outsourced all inspection services because of legal mandates that required a 25% staff reduction. What Does It Do? In general, construction staffing requirements can be divided into four broad categories: (1) construction administration, (2) construction engineering, (3) inspection, and (4) human resources. Table R-1-1 shows the functions and a sample of tasks outsourced to CEI consultants by STAs. How to Use It CEI functions within the areas described in Table R-1-1 are used to varying extents in phases of preconstruction, construction, maintenance, and retirement of infrastructure projects. All of the STAs interviewed outsourced a combination of construction administra- tion, inspection, and engineering services, with the exception of Virginia, which used 80% of its outsourcing on inspection due to the lack of qualified inspectors and the remaining 20% on construction administration and engineering services. The STAs reached a consensus

Construction Staffing Strategies 71 Job Function Category Sample CEI Tasks Construction Administration Liaison Ensure all project parties stay informed of project status Work with all necessary parties to meet contract and project requirements Provide timely answers and resolutions Budget Monitor, recommend, and manage budget Meetings Set, attend, assist, or conduct preconstruction conference and other meetings Record prep/ maintenance Maintain records and prepare required reports of contractor activities Maintain accurate record of communication between parties Change orders Review, estimate, prepare, and manage change orders Work orders Prepare and review work orders Documentation Manage contractor RFIs Track and update changes to construction documents Review and track approval of plans, shop drawings, and product information Prepare project and closeout documentation Analyze and interpret contract documents Prepare and distribute correspondence Review and submit contractor construction plan Application for payment Review and submit contractor applications for payments Field measure quantities for payment purposes Submit final as-built plans Revise and submit final estimate Authorize monthly payments to contractor Post- construction support Monitor and document claims Prepare claim analysis support documentation Assist with, analyze, or settle claims Prepare and process closeout claim documentation Assist with preparation of arbitration hearings or litigation Engineering Survey control Survey preparation, control, and verification Assist in survey work Supply survey crew or licensed surveyor Utilities Coordinate utility work or relocation Monitor, inspect, and document work or relocation Schedule Verify conformance with contract documents Monitor and review or coordinate schedule Review accuracy of schedule logic Table R-1-1. STA’s use of CEI functions and tasks. (continued on next page)

72 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects that the least outsourced service was human relations. The North Carolina and Utah DOTs mentioned that although they do not outsource human relations, they do outsource public relations on occasion. When to Use It Table R-1-2 summarizes how CEI consultants can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types. Job Function Category Sample CEI Tasks Inspection Construction monitoring Monitor contract activities for compliance with plans and specifications Perform final inspection and coordinate parties’ attendance Report and recommend on design of field construction issues Coordinate inspection assignments Review constructability, bid-ability, and other preconstruction issues Geotechnical Perform required tests and inspections Monitor progress and quality of work Review and make recommendations on contractor installation plans Material sampling and testing Perform sampling and testing of component materials and completed work Arrange and transport sample for testing to appropriate location Verify materials and applicable documents to ensure testing was performed Supervise material sampling and testing Quality management Provide or revise and submit quality assurance plan Perform quality assurance testing Perform quality control of contractor activities Human Resources Personnel Provide, supervise, and manage personnel Review compliance with equal employment opportunity (EEO), wage rates, and labor policies Provide vehicles, equipment, and supplies as required by contract Project staffing Make recommendations or submit plan on project staffing Coordinate staffing needs and inspector assignments Public relations Keep community aware of status and traffic impacts Provide current and accurate information through website linked to STA Table R-1-1. (Continued).

Construction Staffing Strategies 73 Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Superstructure ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Excavation /embankment ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Pipe/drainage ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadway base ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Pavement base ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Substructure ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Temporary traffic control ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Structural foundation ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Strips/signs/signals ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadside ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Utilities (in contract relocations) ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Roadway lighting ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ITS ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ ✓✓ Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table R-1-2. Uses of CEI consultants. Additional Resources Minnesota Department of Transportation. Professional Technical Consultant Services. (n.d.) Retrieved from https://www.dot.state.mn.us/consult/index.html New Hampshire Department of Transportation. Information for Engineers and Consultants. (n.d.) Retrieved from https://www.nh.gov/dot/business/engineers.htm New York State Department of Transportation. Doing Business with NYSDOT. (n.d.) Retrieved from https:// www.dot.ny.gov/doing-business Torres, V. C., Bonham, D. R., Minooei, F., Goodrum, P. M., Molenaar, K. R., and Uddin, M. M. Construction Engineering Inspections Services Guidebook for State Transportation Agencies. University of Colorado Boulder. 2015. https://www.colorado.edu/tcm/sites/default/files/attached-files/cei_guide-v.4-05122015.pdf. R-2 Educational/Community Outreach What Is It? Educational/community outreach involves STAs engaging with their communities through various channels to attract new entrants into the transportation workforce. It also allows STAs the opportunity to give back to their communities through participation in the primary and secondary education process, charity organizations, and community improvement efforts. Why Use It? Many industries in the United States are facing workforce shortages across all levels of orga- nizations. As demographics in the United States change, employers are looking to expand the pool of potential employees that can serve within their organization. Estimates vary, but more than 50% of the transportation workforce is expected to be retirement eligible within the next 10 years (Martin 2015). Exposing young people and traditionally underrepresented groups to the careers available in the transportation industry can help address this workforce challenge.

74 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects What Does It Do? Educational/community outreach allows STAs and their employees the opportunity to volunteer in educational and community outreach events. How to Use It Educational and community outreach can be accomplished through a variety of methods and in a variety of situations. The basic principle is to step up and take advantage of needs within the local community. One example of a formal outreach program focused on engineering is the Kentucky Engineering Exposure Network (KEEN) within the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC). KEEN provides KYTC employees the opportunity to participate in school events (e.g., high school presentation, engineering day events) and to be compensated for their time. KEEN has representatives in each transportation district; this provides a grassroots approach for responding to local needs. KEEN has also developed engineering educational materials that are available to K–12 teachers. One resource available to help STAs with outreach to local communities is the National Network for the Transportation Workforce, which has established five regional transportation workforce centers to improve efficiencies in transportation workforce development. These centers develop resources to assist in transportation workforce development. The Southeast Transportation Workforce Center worked with the Shelby County Schools to develop the Transportation-STEM Academy at East High School. The curriculum at this high school focuses on training students within the context of transportation and includes a range of programs, from certified diesel mechanics to engineering. The academy provides opportunities for industry engagement within the execution of the curriculum. When to Use It? Educational/community outreach represents an ongoing effort across STAs. While much of the grassroots effort will take place at district and regional offices, the outreach requires support from upper levels of management to be successful. Table R-2-1 summarizes how educational/community outreach can be used to alleviate staff- ing shortages for various work and project types.

Construction Staffing Strategies 75 Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation / Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Superstructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Excavation /embankment ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pipe/drainage ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pavement base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Substructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Temporary traffic control ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Structural foundation ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Strips/signs/signals ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadside ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Utilities (in contract relocations) ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway lighting ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ITS ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table R-2-1. Uses of educational/community outreach. Additional Resources Kentucky Transportation Cabinet. Kentucky Engineering Exposure Network. https://transportation.ky.gov/ Education/Pages/KEEN.aspx. Martin, C. Connecting the Employment Dots. Public Roads, 79(3), 2015. Retrieved from https://www.fhwa.dot. gov/publications/publicroads/15novdec/04.cfm. National Network for the Transportation Workforce. http://nntw.org/. T-Stem Academy. https://www.memphiststemacademy.org/. R-4 Shifts and Overtime (Alternative Work Schedules) What Is It? Alternative work schedules adjust regular STA work schedules to accommodate construction project needs. Alternative work schedules can include alternative work shifts (working outside traditional 8:00 a.m.–4:00 p.m. work hours, including overnight shifts) and overtime (working additional hours beyond a traditional 8-hour work day). Why Use It? Alternative work schedules allow flexibility in achieving project objectives such as accelerated completion or working during times when disruptions to the work zone can be minimized. Traditional daytime construction operations can be negatively affected by increased traffic volume, which can reduce construction productivity (e.g., through material delivery delays and reduced lane closure allowances). Working during off-peak hours at night or on weekends can reduce negative impacts to the traveling public and mitigate decreases in construction productivity associated with congested work zones. Overtime can allow additional work to be completed during a project work shift and can reduce the calendar-day project completion.

76 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects What Does It Do? Shift work and overtime adjust the amount and timing of the application of FTE staff to projects. Overtime increases the amount of FTE staff applied to a project in a given 24-hour period. Shift work adjusts the timing of the application of FTE staff to a project. These alternative schedules would be coordinated with construction work scheduling to achieve optimal construction productivity. How to Use It NCHRP Report 726: A Guidebook for Nighttime Construction: Impacts on Safety, Quality, and Productivity (Shane et al. 2012) provides guidance for managing nighttime construction oper- ations for state transportation agencies. TRB’s SHRP 2 Report S2-R03-RW-1: Identifying and Reducing Workforce Fatigue in Rapid Renewal Projects (Sanquist et al. 2014) provides guidance for using overtime in the execution of highway transportation projects. When to Use It The decision to use alternative work schedules should be made on a project-by-project basis. It should also be understood that alternative work schedules can place additional stress on agency personnel and should be implemented based on guidance such as that provided in NCHRP Report 726, SHRP 2 Report S2-R03-RW-1, and individual STA policies and procedures. Table R-4-1 summarizes how alternative work schedules can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types. Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Superstructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Excavation /embankment ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pipe/drainage ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pavement base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Substructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Temporary traffic control ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Structural foundation ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Strips/signs/signals ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadside ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Utilities (in contract relocations) ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway lighting ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ITS ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table R-4-1. Uses of alternative work schedules.

Construction Staffing Strategies 77 Additional Resources Sanquist, T., Jackson, J. E., Campbell, J. L., McCallum, M. C., Lee, E. B., Van Dongen, H. P. A ., McCauley, P., and Minor, H. SHRP 2 Report S2-R03-RW-1: Identifying and Reducing Workforce Fatigue in Rapid Renewal Projects. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2014. Shane, J. S., Kandil, A., and Schexnayder, C. J. NCHRP Report 726: A Guidebook for Nighttime Construction: Impacts on Safety, Quality, and Productivity. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2012. http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/167702.aspx. R-5 Recruitment, Training, and Retention Programs What Is It? Recruitment is the process of attracting degreed individuals, primarily engineers and technicians, into employment with STAs. Training programs refer to internships, co-ops, and apprenticeship programs within STAs for secondary and post-secondary students. Employee retention programs help protect an organization’s human assets by reducing turnover rate. Why Use It? Estimates vary, but more than 50% of the transportation workforce is expected to be retire- ment eligible within the next 10 years (Martin 2015). This future exodus of human capital cuts across the positions of engineers, technicians, and maintenance staff and represents the potential for a significant loss of institutional knowledge. Most STAs hire new engineers and technicians out of educational institutions rather than from other industries. This makes university recruitment a critical component of maintaining human capital. Recent research related to construction workforce development found that recruitment and retention among new entrants to the industry increased significantly after a year of industry experience (e.g., internships, co-ops, pre-apprenticeships) (Construction Industry Institute 2018). What Does It Do? Recruitment, training, and retention programs provide STAs a formal process to recruit new hires and cultivate potential new hires through pre-graduation training programs. How to Use It NCHRP Report 685: Strategies to Attract and Retain a Capable Transportation Workforce provides a framework for developing recruitment and retention policies (Cronin et al. 2011). Chapter 4 of the guidebook provides strategies for recruiting and training programs to increase the available pool of applicants for positions within state transportation agencies. When to Use It Recruiting and training initiatives should be ongoing across STAs. Table R-5-1 summarizes how recruiting and training initiatives can be used to alleviate staffing shortages for various work and project types.

78 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects Additional Resources Construction Industry Institute. Improving the U.S. Workforce Development System. Austin: Construction Industry Institute. 2018. https://www.construction-institute.org/resources/knowledgebase/knowledge-areas/ improving-the-u-s-workforce-development-system/topics/rt-335/pubs/fr-335. Cronin, B., Anderson, L. Heinen, B., Blair Cronin, C., Fien-Helfman, D., and Venner, M. NCHRP Report 685: Strategies to Attract and Retain a Capable Transportation Workforce. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2011. http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/164747.aspx. Martin, C. Connecting the Employment Dots. Public Roads, 79(3), 2015. Retrieved from https://www.fhwa.dot. gov/publications/publicroads/15novdec/04.cfm. Project Types Road – New Construction/ Expansion Road – Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge – New/ Replacement Bridge Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Superstructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Excavation /embankment ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pipe/drainage ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Pavement base ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Substructure ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Temporary traffic control ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Structural foundation ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Strips/signs/signals ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadside ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Utilities (in contract relocations) ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Roadway lighting ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ITS ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Notes: ✓✓ Directly applicable (There has been documented application for this strategy specifically for this work type.) ✓ Indirectly applicable X Not applicable Table R-5-1. Uses of recruiting and training.

Next: References »
Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects Get This Book
×
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

State transportation agencies are increasingly tasked with doing more with less in managing highway transportation networks.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Research Report 923: Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects provides state transportation agencies with guidance to identify their construction staffing needs and how to best allocate their state or consultant engineering and inspection staff and consultant resources to highway construction projects. The guidance provides 35 specific staffing strategies that may help alleviate construction staff challenges.

There are also an associated e-Workforce Optimization Workbook (e-WOW) spreadsheet and a User Guide.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!