National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Quadrennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative: Nanoscience, Applications, and Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25729.
×
Page R1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Quadrennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative: Nanoscience, Applications, and Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25729.
×
Page R2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Quadrennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative: Nanoscience, Applications, and Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25729.
×
Page R3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Quadrennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative: Nanoscience, Applications, and Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25729.
×
Page R4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Quadrennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative: Nanoscience, Applications, and Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25729.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Quadrennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative: Nanoscience, Applications, and Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25729.
×
Page R6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Quadrennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative: Nanoscience, Applications, and Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25729.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Quadrennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative: Nanoscience, Applications, and Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25729.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Quadrennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative: Nanoscience, Applications, and Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25729.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Quadrennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative: Nanoscience, Applications, and Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25729.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Quadrennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative: Nanoscience, Applications, and Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25729.
×
Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Quadrennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative: Nanoscience, Applications, and Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25729.
×
Page R12

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Prepublication Copy – Subject to Further Editorial Correction A Quadrennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative Nanoscience, Applications, and Commercialization Committee on National Nanotechnology Initiative: A Quadrennial Review National Materials and Manufacturing Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences A Consensus Study Report of PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This study is based on work supported by Award Number 1842482 with the National Science Foundation.. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication and do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25729 Cover: Strategies for developing timely and beneficial technologies using nanoscience to help society is as important as ever. This NNI review looks carefully at applications and commercialization of nanoscience and their strategies. In the game “Go,” where the strategy one employs is critical, the number of ways that the game can play out is extremely large—some even claim it is larger than the number of atoms in the universe. The cover depicts the first game won by a computer program over a 9 th dan−ranked human player. In the future, one can expect that an ever-increasing use of artificial intelligence will augment human efforts in moving all fields forward. Artist: Erik Svedberg. This publication is available in limited quantities from National Materials and Manufacturing Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 nmmb@nas.edu http://www.nationalacademies.edu/nmmb Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2020 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Quadrennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative: Nanoscience, Applications, and Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25729. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL NANOTECHNOLOGY INITIATIVE: A QUADRENNIAL REVIEW LIESL FOLKS, University of Arizona, Chair HAYDN WADLEY, University of Virginia, Vice Chair NICHOLAS L. ABBOTT, NAE,1 Cornell University OLIVER BRAND, Georgia Institute of Technology HAROLD CRAIGHAED, NAE, Cornell University MARIE D’IORIO, University of Ottawa TRAVIS EARLES, Lockheed Martin Corporation GRAHAM R. FLEMING, NAS,2 University of California, Berkeley TERI W. ODOM, Northwestern University RICARDO RUIZ, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory JO ANNE SHATKIN, Vireo Advisors MARK TUOMINEN, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Staff ERIK SVEDBERG, Study Director JAMES LANCASTER, Director, NMMB and BPA NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer AMISHA JINANDRA, Research Associate BETH DOLAN, Financial Associate JOE PALMER, Program Coordinator 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Member, National Academy of Sciences. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION v

NATIONAL MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING BOARD THERESA KOTANCHEK, Evolved Analytics, LLC, Chair KEVIN ANDERSON, NAE1 Brunswick Corporation CRAIG ARNOLD, Princeton University THERESA CLEMENT, Raytheon THOMAS M. DONNELLAN, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University STEPHEN FORREST, NAS2/NAE, University of Michigan JULIA GREER, California Institute of Technology DAVID C. LARBALESTIER, NAE, Florida State University JOHN KLIER, University of Massachusetts, Amherst MICK MAHER, Maher & Associates, LLC ROBERT MILLER, NAE, IBM Almaden Research Center GREGORY TASSEY, University of Washington STEVEN J. ZINKLE, NAE, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Staff JAMES LANCASTER, Director ERIK SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer AMISHA JINANDRA, Research Associate BETH DOLAN, Financial Associate JOSEPH PALMER, Senior Project Assistant 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Member, National Academy of Sciences. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vi

Preface The National Nanotechnology Coordination Office (NNCO) asked the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to form an ad hoc review committee to conduct a quadrennial review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) pursuant to the 2003 21st Century Nanotechnology Research and Development Act, Section 5 of Public Law 108-153.1, which authorized the NNI to coordinate the nanotechnology-related research and development (R&D) of 26 federal agencies. The research coordinated by the NNI is highly interdisciplinary, is conducted in an increasingly competitive global arena, and is making transformative impacts in fields as diverse as microelectronics and medicine. The translation of past NNI coordinated work is now making significant contributions to the nation’s high-technology economy, its security, and the health and prosperity of its citizens. The statement of task for the quadrennial review was to analyze the relative position of the U.S. nanotechnology program relative to the programs of other nations, determine whether NNI coordination should continue, and if it should, identify how to improve the NNI’s R&D strategy and R&D portfolio to further enhance the economic prosperity and national security of the United States. The report that follows shows that the United States maintains a strong nanoscience and technology R&D program. It argues that this program’s coordination is becoming more critical in the current era of intensifying global competition from developed nations such as Japan and those within the European Union, and from developing nations such as India, but especially from China. In the latter case, researchers are witnessing aggressive, and in many cases effective, planning of a national R&D strategy that seeks to harvest the economic, medical, and national security benefits of nanotechnology as quickly as possible. This, combined with very large investments in state-of-the-art facilities and the allocation of substantial resources for the education/training and attraction of top research international talent, is clearly intended to result in Chinese leadership of this critically important area of technology. This report identifies changes to the NNI to promote a resurgence of the nation’s nanotechnology program and enable it to respond to the dynamic changes of the new global research environment in which it functions. The committee thanks the review committee members for dedicating their remarkable technical expertise and experience to the task that was assigned to them. In executing its charge, the committee met five times between March 14, 2019, and November 7, 2019. The committee is also grateful to the many people and organizations that have provided the information needed to compile this report. The committee heard from a broad spectrum of speakers from government, industry, consultant organizations, nonprofit trade organizations, and academia. In particular, the committee thanks the following for their contributions to this study and participation in the committee’s meetings: Lisa Friedersdorf, NNCO; Lloyd Whitman, NIST; Mihail C. Roco, NSF; Stephanie Morris, NIH; Anil Patri, FDA; Michael A. Meador, NASA; Hongda Chen, USDA NIFA; Khershed Cooper, NSF; Paul Westerhoff, Arizona State University; Yan Borodovsky, retired; Hilary Godwin, University of Washington; Nathan S. Lewis, California Institute of Technology; Andre Nel, UCLA; Peter Dröll, Germany; Antti J. Makinen, CIV USN CNR; James Alexander Liddle, NIST; World Nieh, USDA; Alan Rudie, USDA; Samuel Brauer, Nanotech Plus, LLC; Celia Merzbacher, SRI; Treye A. Thomas, U.S. CPSC Office of Hazard Identification and Reduction; Peidong Yang, Berkeley; Matthew Hull, Virginia Tech; Chad Mirkin, Northwestern University; Matt Laudon, TechConnect; Orin Herskowitz, Columbia Technology Ventures; Waguih Ishak, Corning; and Emilie J. Siochi, NASA. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vii

The committee also thanks the director of the National Materials and Manufacturing Board, James Lancaster, and the study director, Erik Svedberg, for their help and guidance in performing this quadrennial review. We also express special appreciation to staff members Joe Palmer, Amisha Jinandra, and Neeraj Gorkhaly for assistance with meeting arrangements and all the daily tasks. Liesl Folks, Chair Haydn Wadley, Vice Chair PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION viii

Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Muhammad Alam, Purdue University, Jennifer Dionne, Stanford University, Michael Ettenberg, NAE,1 Dolce Technologies, Michael Liehr, SUNY Polytechnic Institute, Henke E. Riel, IBM Research, and Matthew Tirrell, NAS2/NAE, University of Chicago. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Martin A. Philbert, NAM,3 University of Michigan. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. Every member of the committee made heroic efforts to complete this task. Erik Svedberg provided guidance and management and we also appreciate such from Jim Lancaster. 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 3 Member, National Academy of Medicine. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION ix

Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 5 What Is “Nanotechnology” and Why Is It of Pervasive Interest?, 5 The NNI Framework, 7 The Evolving Global Environment, 11 2 THE U.S. NANOTECHNOLOGY R&D ECOSYSTEM 15 The NNI Program Component Areas, 15 Overall Assessment of Value of the PCAs, 34 Concluding Remarks on the U.S. Nanotechnology R&D Ecosystem, 41 3 A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE 43 The Global Nanotechnology R&D Ecosystem, 43 Concluding Remarks on the Global Nanotechnology R&D Ecosystem, 54 4 FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND IMPLEMENTATIONS 55 Strategic Alignment with National Priorities, 55 Commercialization of Nanotechnology, 60 Nanotechnology Infrastructure, 66 Workforce Development: Global View on Competitiveness, 71 Structure and Management, 74 APPENDIXES A Statement of Task 81 B Committee Biographical Information 82 C Acronyms 87 PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xi

Next: Summary »
A Quadrennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative: Nanoscience, Applications, and Commercialization Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $45.00
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Global advances in medicine, food, water, energy, microelectronics, communications, defense, and other important sectors of the economy are increasingly driven by discoveries in nanoscience and the development of nanotechnologies. Engaging the nanoscience and technology community in the crafting of national priorities, developing novel approaches for translating fundamental discovery to a technology readiness level appropriate for venture/industry funding, increasing domestic student interest in nanoscience to expand the workforce pipeline, and exploring new ways of coordinating the work of the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) are all imperatives if the United States is to fully reap the societal benefits of nanotechnology.

A Quadrennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative provides a framework for a redesign of the NNI and its coordination with the goal of achieving a U.S. resurgence in nanotechnology. This report makes recommendations to improve the value of the NNI's research and development strategy and portfolio to the economic prosperity and national security of the United States.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!