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Suggested Citation:"Appendix J - Cost-Benefit Analysis Data Sources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Incorporating the Costs and Benefits of Adaptation Measures in Preparation for Extreme Weather Events and Climate Change—Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25744.
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Page 162
Page 163
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J - Cost-Benefit Analysis Data Sources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Incorporating the Costs and Benefits of Adaptation Measures in Preparation for Extreme Weather Events and Climate Change—Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25744.
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Page 164
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J - Cost-Benefit Analysis Data Sources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Incorporating the Costs and Benefits of Adaptation Measures in Preparation for Extreme Weather Events and Climate Change—Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25744.
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Page 164

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162 HAZUS Hazus is FEMA’s methodology for estimating potential losses from earthquakes, floods, and hurricanes. Potential loss estimates analyzed in Hazus include • Physical damage to residential and commercial buildings, schools, critical facilities, and infrastructures; • Economic losses from lost jobs, business interruptions, and repair and reconstruction costs; and • Social impacts related to sheltering requirements, displaced households, and population exposed to scenario floods, earthquakes, and hurricanes. Hazus can be downloaded from FEMA’s Flood Map Service Center Hazus download page: https://msc.fema.gov/portal/resources/hazus. USACE Depth-Damage Curves USACE published a catalog of residential depth-damage functions in 1992 (http://www.iwr. usace.army.mil/Portals/70/docs/iwrreports/92-R-3.pdf). It issued updated guidance on the use of generic depth-damage functions for residential structures with basements in 2003 (https:// planning.erdc.dren.mil/toolbox/library/EGMs/egm04-01.pdf). USACE’s HEC-FDA software incorporates depth-damage functions to allow users to perform an integrated hydrologic engi- neering and economic analysis for flood risk management plans (http://www.hec.usace.army.mil/ software/hec-fda/). Other Methodologies and Data Sources Other methodologies and sources of data are found in Tables J-1 through J-3. A P P E N D I X J Cost-Benefit Analysis Data Sources

Cost-Benefit Analysis Data Sources 163 Economic Valuation and Supporting Data Basis Source Value of Statistical Life (VSL) U.S. DOT, Guidance on Treatment of the Economic Value of a Statistical Life in U.S. Department of Transportation Analyses (2013) https://www.transportation.gov/sites/dot.gov/files/docs/VSL_Guidance_2014.pdf VSL upper and lower bound as per DOT guidance Knieser and Viscusi, “Policy Relevant Heterogeneity in the Value of Statistical Life: New Evidence from Panel Data Quantile Regressions” (2009) http://surface.syr.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1047&context=cpr Value of Injuries Fraction of VSL U.S. DOT, Guidance on Treatment of the Economic Value of a Statistical Life in U.S. Department of Transportation Analyses (2013) Truck Emissions HC, volatile organic compounds, CO, NOx, etc. EPA MOVES Emissions for eGrid Subregions NOx, SO2, CO2, CH4, N2O EPA https://www.epa.gov/energy/egrid-summary-tables sisylanAcimonocEniemiTlevarTfonoitaulaVrofecnadiuGlatnemtrapeDTOD.S.UecnadiuGemiTfoeulaV Value of Time Median Household Income 2009 American Community Survey, 1-year estimates Value of Time Median Wage, Employer Costs wages, Employer costs benefits Bureau of Labor Statistics Vehicle-Operating Cost FHWA, AAA report Inflation Rates U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics (2013). Consumer Price Index.Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/cpi/Monthly Table J-1. Economic valuation methodologies. Demographic-Transportation Data Basis Source Unemployment Rate Statewide Bureau of Labor Statistics Property Value Statewide; Property Taxes, Home Value U.S. Census Bureau; Tax Foundation calculations Means of Transportation By Poverty Status/Mode of Transport and Travel Time, All US Metro- and Micropolitan Areas 2013 American Community Survey, 5 Year Average Population and Population Density egarevAraeY-5yevruSytinummoCnaciremA3102ytiCyB Vehicles per Household By City 2013 American Community Survey 5-Year Average Table J-2. Demographic-transportation data.

164 Incorporating the Costs and Benefits of Adaptation Measures in Preparation for Extreme Weather Events and Climate Change—Guidebook Category Inputs Representative Available Data Sources Transportation-Focused Right-of-way acquisition Rate of depreciation Rate of deterioration Project life-cycle costs Traffic characteristics Detour cost Safety statistics Value of travel time Price of fuel Emissions Fuel tax Project operations and maintenance costs DOT records (e.g., ADT, accidents, maintenance records, passenger travel times, travel characteristics, historical project records, etc.) Depreciation schedules Bureau of Labor Statistics American Petroleum Institute (fuel tax rates, price of fuel) EPA (emissions) FEMA BCA Guidance (value of travel time, depreciation) FHWA website AASHTO website, portals TRB publications Resilience-Focused Hazard type Hazard recurrence interval Infrastructure criticality to network Proposed mitigation Loss of function cost Estimated damages Climate scenarios State and local hazard mitigation plans (hazard types, recurrence interval) FEMA BCA Guidance (recurrence intervals) FIRMs (recurrence intervals) IPCC (climate change scenarios) FHWA website AASHTO website, portals TRB publications DOT Vulnerability Assessment (criticality) DOT Asset Management Plan (criticality) State Climatologist (climate data) Universities (climate data) Common to both Discount rate Infrastructure facility type and design characteristics Planned project construction start date Planned project construction duration OMB Circular A-94 Project design documents Project construction schedule FHWA Primer GASB 34 FHWA Financial Planning for Transportation Asset Management: An Overview Table J-3. Representative transportation- and resilience-focused data sources.

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Extreme weather events and a changing climate increasingly boost costs to transportation agencies and to the traveling public. While Departments of Transportation (DOTs) are taking into account changing climate and extreme weather when making infrastructure decisions, they typically are not using a formal set of tools or cost-benefit analyses (CBAs) to address climate resilience because they may be too time-consuming and expensive to conduct routinely.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Research Report 938: Incorporating the Costs and Benefits of Adaptation Measures in Preparation for Extreme Weather Events and Climate Change—Guidebook was developed to try to fill the gaps identified by DOTs. It is intended to provide a consolidated resource for transportation practitioners to be able to more readily consider CBAs as a tool in their investment-decision making processes when considering different climate and extreme weather adaptation alternatives.

This report has additional resources, including a web-only document NCHRP Web-Only Document 271: Guidelines to Incorporate the Costs andBenefits of Adaptation Measures in Preparation for Extreme Weather Events and Climate Change, a Power Point presentation that describes the research and the results, a spreadsheet tool that provides an approximate test to see if it would be cost-effective to upgrade assets to the future conditions posed by climate change, and a spreadsheet tool that uses existing conditions without climate change only to calculate the new return period for future conditions with climate change.

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