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Evaluating the Effects of Recycling Agents on Asphalt Mixtures with High RAS and RAP Binder Ratios (2020)

Chapter: Appendix G - Recycling Agent Characterization Data

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G - Recycling Agent Characterization Data." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evaluating the Effects of Recycling Agents on Asphalt Mixtures with High RAS and RAP Binder Ratios. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25749.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G - Recycling Agent Characterization Data." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evaluating the Effects of Recycling Agents on Asphalt Mixtures with High RAS and RAP Binder Ratios. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25749.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G - Recycling Agent Characterization Data." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evaluating the Effects of Recycling Agents on Asphalt Mixtures with High RAS and RAP Binder Ratios. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25749.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G - Recycling Agent Characterization Data." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evaluating the Effects of Recycling Agents on Asphalt Mixtures with High RAS and RAP Binder Ratios. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25749.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G - Recycling Agent Characterization Data." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evaluating the Effects of Recycling Agents on Asphalt Mixtures with High RAS and RAP Binder Ratios. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25749.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G - Recycling Agent Characterization Data." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evaluating the Effects of Recycling Agents on Asphalt Mixtures with High RAS and RAP Binder Ratios. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25749.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G - Recycling Agent Characterization Data." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evaluating the Effects of Recycling Agents on Asphalt Mixtures with High RAS and RAP Binder Ratios. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25749.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G - Recycling Agent Characterization Data." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evaluating the Effects of Recycling Agents on Asphalt Mixtures with High RAS and RAP Binder Ratios. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25749.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G - Recycling Agent Characterization Data." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evaluating the Effects of Recycling Agents on Asphalt Mixtures with High RAS and RAP Binder Ratios. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25749.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G - Recycling Agent Characterization Data." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evaluating the Effects of Recycling Agents on Asphalt Mixtures with High RAS and RAP Binder Ratios. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25749.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G - Recycling Agent Characterization Data." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evaluating the Effects of Recycling Agents on Asphalt Mixtures with High RAS and RAP Binder Ratios. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25749.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G - Recycling Agent Characterization Data." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evaluating the Effects of Recycling Agents on Asphalt Mixtures with High RAS and RAP Binder Ratios. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25749.
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G-1 A P P E N D I X G Recycling Agent Characterization Data Table G.1. G-R Data for Different Blends. Blends Aging G* (kPa) δ (°) G-R (kPa) Base Binder (PG 64-28) RTFOT 96.351 68 15 PAV 20 268.931 60 78 PAV 40 580.183 56 225 Recycled 0.5 RBR RTFOT 740.232 57 265 PAV 20 1891.077 49 1053 PAV 40 2506.389 45 1741 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (13.5%) A1 RTFOT 21.313 70 3 PAV 20 92.319 62 22 PAV 40 162.432 58 54 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8%) B1 RTFOT 14.807 72 1 PAV 20 65.647 65 13 PAV 40 147.702 60 43 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (10.5%) B2 RTFOT 14.211 70 2 PAV 20 60.880 64 14 PAV 40 131.380 58 42 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (11%) P RTFOT 21.972 63 5 PAV 20 119.892 53 53 PAV 40 308.093 47 197 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8.5%) T1 RTFOT 12.298 72 1 PAV 20 77.302 64 16 PAV 40 262.047 58 84 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (9%) V2 RTFOT 12.525 69 2 PAV 20 46.241 62 11 PAV 40 124.445 57 43 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8%) V3 RTFOT 13.131 68 2 PAV 20 64.689 62 16 PAV 40 132.498 58 45

G-2 Evaluating the Effects of Recycling Agents on Asphalt Mixtures with High RAS and RAP Binder Ratios Figure G.1. FTIR Spectra for Base Binder at Different Aging Levels. Figure G.2. FTIR Spectra for Recycled 0.5 RBR at Different Aging Levels. 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 600100014001800 A bs or ba nc e (a .u .) Wave Number (cm-1) Base Binder (PG 64-28) Unaged Base Binder (PG 64-28) RTFO Base Binder (PG 64-28) PAV20 Base Binder (PG 64-28) PAV40 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 600100014001800 A bs or ba nc e (a .u .) Wave Number (cm-1) Recycled 0.5 RBR Unaged Recycled 0.5 RBR RTFO Recycled 0.5 RBR PAV20 Recycled 0.5 RBR PAV40

Recycling Agent Characterization Data G-3 Figure G.3. FTIR Spectra for Recycled 0.5 RBR (13.5%) A1 at Different Aging Levels. Figure G.4. FTIR Spectra for Recycled 0.5 RBR (8%) B1 at Different Aging Levels. 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 600100014001800 A bs or ba nc e (a .u .) Wave Number (cm-1) Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (13.5%) A1 Unaged Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (13.5%) A1 RTFO Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (13.5%) A1 PAV20 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (13.5%) A1 PAV40 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 600100014001800 A bs or ba nc e (a .u .) Wave Number (cm-1) Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8%) B1 Unaged Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8%) B1 RTFO Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8%) B1 PAV20 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8%) B1 PAV40

G-4 Evaluating the Effects of Recycling Agents on Asphalt Mixtures with High RAS and RAP Binder Ratios Figure G.5. FTIR Spectra for Recycled 0.5 RBR (10.5%) B2 at Different Aging Levels. Figure G.6. FTIR Spectra for Recycled 0.5 RBR (11%) P at Different Aging Levels. 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 600100014001800 A bs or ba nc e (a .u .) Wave Number (cm-1) Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (10.5%) B2 Unaged Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (10.5%) B2 RTFO Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (10.5%) B2 PAV20 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (10.5%) B2 PAV40 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 600100014001800 A bs or ba nc e (a .u .) Wave Number (cm-1) Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (11%) P Unaged Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (11%) P RTFO Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (11%) P PAV20 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (11%) P PAV40

Recycling Agent Characterization Data G-5 Figure G.7. FTIR Spectra for Recycled 0.5 RBR (8.5%) T1 at Different Aging Levels. Figure G.8. FTIR Spectra for Recycled 0.5 RBR (9%) V2 at Different Aging Levels. 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 600100014001800 A bs or ba nc e (a .u .) Wave Number (cm-1) Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8.5%) T1 Unaged Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8.5%) T1 RTFO Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8.5%) T1 PAV20 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8.5%) T1 PAV40 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 600100014001800 A bs or ba nc e (a .u .) Wave Number (cm-1) Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (9%) V2 Unaged Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (9%) V2 RTFO Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (9%) V2 PAV20 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (9%) V2 PAV40

G-6 Evaluating the Effects of Recycling Agents on Asphalt Mixtures with High RAS and RAP Binder Ratios Figure G.9. FTIR Spectra for Recycled 0.5 RBR (8%) V3 at Different Aging Levels. Figure G.10. FTIR Spectra for Different Blends at RTFO Aging. 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 600100014001800 A bs or ba nc e (a .u .) Wave Number (cm-1) Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8%) V3 Unaged Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8%) V3 RTFO Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8%) V3 PAV20 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8%) V3 PAV40 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 600100014001800 A bs or ba nc e (a .u .) Wave Number (cm-1) Base Binder (PG 64-28) RTFO Recycled 0.5 RBR RTFO Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (13.5%) A1 RTFO Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8%) B1 RTFO Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (10.5%) B2 RTFO Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (11%) P RTFO Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8.5%) T1 RTFO Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (9%) V2 RTFO Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8%) V3 RTFO

Recycling Agent Characterization Data G-7 Figure G.11. FTIR Spectra Different Blends at PAV20 Aging. Figure G.12. FTIR Spectra Different Blends at PAV40 Aging. 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 600100014001800 A bs or ba nc e (a .u .) Wave Number (cm-1) Base Binder (PG 64-28) PAV20 Recycled 0.5 RBR PAV20 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (13.5%) A1 PAV20 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8%) B1 PAV20 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (10.5%) B2 PAV20 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (11%) P PAV20 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8.5%) T1 PAV20 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (9%) V2 PAV20 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8%) V3 PAV20 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 600100014001800 A bs or ba nc e (a .u .) Wave Number (cm-1) Base Binder (PG 64-28) PAV40 Recycled 0.5 RBR PAV40 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (13.5%) A1 PAV40 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8%) B1 PAV40 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (10.5%) B2 PAV40 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (11%) P PAV40 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8.5%) T1 PAV40 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (9%) V2 PAV40 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8%) V3 PAV40

G-8 Evaluating the Effects of Recycling Agents on Asphalt Mixtures with High RAS and RAP Binder Ratios Table G.2. Carbonyl Area Value and Growth with Aging for Blends. (CA According to UNR Modified Method) CA Value (a.u.) CA Growth (a.u.) OB RTFO PAV 20 PAV 40 RTFO PAV 20 PAV40 Base Binder (PG 64-28) 0.17 0.20 0.41 0.64 0.03 0.24 0.47 Recycled 0.5 RBR 0.46 0.60 0.83 1.05 0.14 0.36 0.59 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (13.5%) A1 0.47 0.58 0.92 1.07 0.11 0.45 0.60 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8%) B1 1.11 1.23 1.60 1.94 0.12 0.49 0.83 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (10.5%) B2 0.97 1.10 1.40 1.63 0.12 0.43 0.65 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (11%) P 0.42 0.55 0.84 0.96 0.13 0.42 0.55 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8.5%) T1 1.44 1.47 1.84 2.05 0.02 0.40 0.61 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (9%) V2 1.35 1.47 1.77 2.08 0.13 0.42 0.73 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8%) V3 1.25 1.35 1.73 1.96 0.09 0.48 0.70 Figure G.13. Carbonyl Area Absorbance with Aging for Blends.

Recycling Agent Characterization Data G-9 Figure G.14. Carbonyl Area Growth with Aging for Blends. Table G.3. Complex Viscosity for Different Recycling Agents. Recycling Agent Complex Viscosity (η*) at 15°C & 10 rad/s (mPa.s) Aging Index Unaged RTFO PAV20 PAV40 A1 16440.00 20315.00 18945.00 18965.00 1.15 B1 732.85 840.35 2034.00 2110.00 2.88 B2 608.40 731.90 1408.00 1583.00 2.60 P 161.50 170.30 175.30 176.75 1.09 T1 341.25 967.80 332850.00 5557000.00 16284.25 V2 138.00 149.65 163.35 255.40 1.85 V3 55.92 99.24 16290.00 60110.00 1074.93

G-10 Evaluating the Effects of Recycling Agents on Asphalt Mixtures with High RAS and RAP Binder Ratios Figure G.15. Complex Viscosity for Different Recycling Agents.

Recycling Agent Characterization Data G-11 Table G.4. G-R/CAg Hardening Susceptibility for Different Blends Blend Aging Log G-R (kPa) CAg (a.u.) G-R/CAg HS Base Binder (PG 64-28) RTFO 1.18 0.03 2.63 PAV20 1.89 0.24 PAV40 2.35 0.47 Recycled 0.5 RBR RTFO 2.42 0.14 1.79 PAV20 3.02 0.37 PAV40 3.24 0.59 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (13.5%) A1 RTFO 0.43 0.11 2.67 PAV20 1.35 0.45 PAV40 1.74 0.60 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8%) B1 RTFO 0.17 0.12 2.06 PAV20 1.10 0.49 PAV40 1.63 0.83 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (10.5%) B2 RTFO 0.25 0.12 2.62 PAV20 1.13 0.43 PAV40 1.63 0.65 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (11%) P RTFO 0.71 0.13 3.73 PAV20 1.73 0.42 PAV40 2.30 0.55 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8.5%) T1 RTFO 0.09 0.02 3.12 PAV20 1.21 0.40 PAV40 1.93 0.61 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (9%) V2 RTFO 0.25 0.13 2.26 PAV20 1.047 0.42 PAV40 1.63 0.73 Rejuvenated 0.5 RBR (8%) V3 RTFO 0.28 0.09 2.27 PAV20 1.20 0.48 PAV40 1.65 0.70

Next: Appendix H - Economics Associated with the Use of Recycling Agents »
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More than 90 percent of highways and roads in the United States are built using hot-mix asphalt (HMA) or warm-mix asphalt (WMA) mixtures, and these mixtures now recycle more than 99 percent of some 76.2 million tons of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and about 1 million tons of recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) each year. Cost savings in 2017 totaled approximately $2.2 billion with these recycled materials replacing virgin materials.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program'sNCHRP Research Report 927: Evaluating the Effects of Recycling Agents on Asphalt Mixtures with High RAS and RAP Binder Ratios presents an evaluation of how commercially available recycling agents affect the performance of asphalt mixtures incorporating RAP and RAS at high recycled binder ratios.

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