National Academies Press: OpenBook

Incorporating Roadway Access Management into Local Ordinances (2020)

Chapter: Appendix H - Site Plan Review Checklist for Access

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Page 114
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H - Site Plan Review Checklist for Access." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Incorporating Roadway Access Management into Local Ordinances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25750.
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Page 114
Page 115
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H - Site Plan Review Checklist for Access." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Incorporating Roadway Access Management into Local Ordinances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25750.
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Page 115

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114 Site Plan Review Checklist for Access A P P E N D I X H Should the site be redesigned to better accommodate cross access? Can the proposed site accommodate joint or shared access with an adjacent parcel? Can the site be designed to provide an opportunity to allow joint access in the future? Can you achieve access from this parcel to an adjacent traffic signal? Is the site driveway located outside of the functional area of an adjacent intersection as defined by adopted spacing standards and/or engineering analysis? If access is within the intersection functional area, has the site access been moved to the outside edge of the property line, or can access be shared with adjacent properties? Does the location of the site access points provide adequate sight distance? Do proposed signs, landscaping, or other improvements potentially obstruct the sight distance of drivers exiting the proposed access? Are driveways adequately offset from opposing driveways or streets across the roadway if no median is present? Is there adequate uninterrupted throat length for any driveways and frontage roads that serve the site? Are turning or access restrictions desirable for a proposed driveway located within the influence zone of an adjacent intersection? Is the site driveway located directly across from an existing driveway or at a location allowing for future shared use? Does the site plan show the property lines for properties to the rear, both sides, and across the street? Does the parking lot design facilitate safe movements? Does the proposed project connect with the surrounding street system? Do adjacent sites have cross access easements that should be connected to the site under review? Site plan review should address a variety of topics. This checklist from the TRB Access Management Manual addresses those items that relate to site access (Williams et al., 2014). Vehicular Access Are all buildings and improvements (including billboards) located outside of planned easements and right of way areas? Is there an opportunity to provide alternative access to the site from a service road or existing local road? Are the number of proposed driveways the minimum necessary to serve the site and proposed use? Is there an opportunity to reduce the number of driveways serving the site? Can the proposed site provide a cross access connection and/or easement to an abutting parcel?

Site Plan Review Checklist for Access 115 If there are multiple buildings on the parcel, is there an adequate pedestrian connection between the buildings? Do access locations and parking layout minimize potential conflicts with pedestrians and bicyclists? Is bicycle parking provided? Is there an adequate pedestrian connection to a transit stop on both sides of the roadway? Are measures needed to direct pedestrians to safe crossing points and pedestrian access ways? Are pedestrian travel zones clearly delineated from other modes of traffic through the use of striping, colored, and/or textured pavement, signing, and other methods? Are building entrances located and designed to be obvious and easily accessible to pedestrians? Does the site include pedestrian lighting where appropriate? Will snow storage disrupt pedestrian access or visibility? Is the path clear from both temporary and permanent obstructions? Intergovernmental Coordination Has the state department of transportation (DOT) been identified as an interested or involved agency? If so, has the DOT been contacted? Has the county been identified as an interested or involved agency? If so, has the county been contacted? Has the access permit application process of other affected agencies been started? Have all necessary comments been received from other affected agencies relative to the proposed access? Pedestrian, Bicycle, and Transit Access Does the site plan include a sidewalk connecting to adjacent properties, the adjacent roadway network, and ending at a logical terminus? Do sidewalks extend across the driveway opening? Is the sidewalk crossing designed in accordance with ADA requirements? Are there sidewalk connections between the building entrance and public sidewalk system? Is there an internal pedestrian connection to connect the building with the parking area?

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Managing access connections to roadways is vital to safety and operational performance of roadways for all users. Given the separation of authority between state and local governments over land development and access, intergovernmental coordination is integral to effective access management.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Synthesis 549: Incorporating Roadway Access Management into Local Ordinances documents regulatory tools and practices used by local governments to implement access management, as well as provides examples of how state transportation agencies are coordinating with local governments to advance access management objectives.

The review of local ordinances and state and local government coordination practices indicates that access management is being actively implemented throughout the United States. Typical features of local ordinances reviewed included access classification schemes and corresponding spacing standards, interparcel cross access requirements, intersection functional area or corner clearance standards, limits on driveways per site, unified access and circulation requirements for outparcels, allowances for deviations from standards, and access permitting and development (site plan) review procedures and criteria.

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