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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Weapons System Sustainment Planning Early in the Development Life Cycle. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25756.
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Weapons System
Sustainment Planning
Early in the
Development Life Cycle

Committee on USAF Sustainment Planning
Early in the Development Life Cycle

Air Force Studies Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

A Consensus Study Report of

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Weapons System Sustainment Planning Early in the Development Life Cycle. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25756.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by Contract FA955016D0001 between the United States Air Force and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-67585-7
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-67585-5
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25756

Limited copies of this report may be available through the Air Force Studies Board, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001; (202) 334-3111.

Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2020 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Weapons System Sustainment Planning Early in the Development Life Cycle. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25756.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Weapons System Sustainment Planning Early in the Development Life Cycle. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25756.
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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Weapons System Sustainment Planning Early in the Development Life Cycle. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25756.
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Image

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Weapons System Sustainment Planning Early in the Development Life Cycle. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25756.
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COMMITTEE ON USAF SUSTAINMENT PLANNING EARLY IN THE DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE

FRANK KENDALL, Independent Consultant, Chair

MARK D. HARNITCHEK, Independent Consultant, Vice Chair

ANDREW E. BUSCH, AE Busch Consulting, Inc.

KATHLEEN M. DUSSAULT, Lemon Grove Associates, LLC

WESLEY L. HARRIS, NAE,1 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

BRUCE A. LITCHFIELD, Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company

OZDEN OCHOA, Texas A&M University

CHRISTINA L. TRUESDALE, KBR Wyle, Inc.

ANGIE L. TYMOFICHUK, Logistics Specialties, Inc. (through June 2019)

DAVID J. VENLET, DJ Venlet, LLC (through February 2019)

Staff

ELLEN CHOU, Study Director

ADRIANNA HARGROVE, Finance Business Partner

MARGUERITE SCHNEIDER, Administrative Coordinator

STEVEN DARBES, Research Associate (through October 2019)

CATHERINE PUMA, Research Associate

___________________

1 Member, National Academy of Engineering.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Weapons System Sustainment Planning Early in the Development Life Cycle. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25756.
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AIR FORCE STUDIES BOARD

DOUGLAS M. FRASER, Doug Fraser, LLC, Chair

KEVIN G. BOWCUTT, NAE,1 The Boeing Company

TED F. BOWLDS, IAI North America

CLAUDE R. CANIZARES, NAS,2 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MARK COSTELLO, Georgia Institute of Technology

BRENDAN B. GODFREY, University of Maryland, College Park

MICHAEL A. HAMEL, U.S. Air Force (retired)

WESLEY HARRIS, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

JAMES E. HUBBARD, JR., NAE, Texas A&M University

LESTER L. LYLES, NAE, The Lyles Group

WENDY M. MASIELLO, Wendy Mas Consulting, LLC

ALEX MILLER, University of Tennessee

LESLIE ANN MOMODA, HRL Laboratories, LLC

OZDEN OCHOA, Texas A&M University

F. WHITTEN PETERS, Williams & Connolly, LLP

HENDRICK RUCK, Edaptive Computing, Inc.

JULIE J.C.H. RYAN, Wyndrose Technical Group

MICHAEL D. SCHNEIDER, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

GRANT H. STOKES, NAE, MIT Lincoln Laboratory

ZACHARY TUDOR, Idaho National Laboratory

DEBORAH WESTPHAL, Toffler Associates

MICHAEL YARYMOVYCH, NAE, Sarasota Space Associates

Staff

ELLEN CHOU, Director

GEORGE COYLE, Senior Program Officer

RYAN MURPHY, Program Officer

ADRIANNA HARGROVE, Finance Business Partner

MARGUERITE SCHNEIDER, Administrative Coordinator

STEVEN DARBES, Research Associate (through October 2019)

CATHERINE PUMA, Research Associate

___________________

1 Member, National Academy of Engineering.

2 Member, National Academy of Sciences.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Weapons System Sustainment Planning Early in the Development Life Cycle. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25756.
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Preface

According to the Government Accountability Office, sustainment of weapon systems accounts for approximately 70 percent of the total life-cycle costs, but is rarely factored into the total cost of acquisition for the program of record. When sustainment is not considered early in the development process or as an integral part of the systems engineering design, it can negatively affect the ability of the Air Force to maintain and improve the weapon system once it enters service. The Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (SAF/AQ) requested the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine to conduct a workshop and consensus study to determine how and when sustainment planning should be integrated into weapons system development. The statement of task for the study is given in Box P.1.

From October 2018 to October 2019, the Committee on USAF Sustainment Planning Early in the Development Life Cycle held a 2-day workshop and convened five meetings to receive expert testimonies and gather information about the state of sustainment efforts in the Air Force. Experts consulted involved acquisition, logistics, engineering, and cost estimator professionals from the Department of Defense, including Service representatives from the Army, Navy, and Air Force, along with subject-matter experts from the RAND Corporation, the General Accountability Office, the Congressional Budget Office, and Carnegie Mellon University’s Software Engineering Institute. Members of the study committee also visited several Air Force and commercial facilities engaged in product support, including the Air Force Life Cycle Management Center at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Air Force Sustainment Center at Tinker Air Force Base, Ogden

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Weapons System Sustainment Planning Early in the Development Life Cycle. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25756.
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Air Logistics Complex at Hill Air Force Base, Delta Airlines Technical Operations in Atlanta, Georgia, and Amazon Web Services in Arlington, Virginia. (Meeting agendas are provided in Appendix D.)

The study committee developed a set of findings and recommendations that if fully implemented will address sustainment areas of cost of operation, readiness, and reliability. The proposed recommendations should not involve significant amounts of new resources or people. However, some reallocation of resources from a program investment to an enterprise investment would be required, and there would need to be appropriate taskings to reflect this approach. The study committee did not address any specific organizational mission realignments, which is outside the scope of the statement of task and which the committee believes would be better suited for the Air Force to address. The study’s recommendations are mostly about improving acquisition processes, improving the tradecraft of sustainment and product support personnel, making sustainment co-equal with technical performance early in the acquisition process, and more rapidly adopting well-established commercial processes that produce superior technologies that are reliable and cost effective to operate.

Frank Kendall, Chair
Committee on USAF Sustainment Planning
Early in the Development Life Cycle

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Weapons System Sustainment Planning Early in the Development Life Cycle. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25756.
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommenda-

___________________

1 Member, National Academy of Sciences.

2 Member, National Academy of Engineering.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Weapons System Sustainment Planning Early in the Development Life Cycle. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25756.
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tions of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by John P. Stenbit, NAE, TRW, Inc. (retired). He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Weapons System Sustainment Planning Early in the Development Life Cycle. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25756.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Weapons System Sustainment Planning Early in the Development Life Cycle. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25756.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Weapons System Sustainment Planning Early in the Development Life Cycle. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25756.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Weapons System Sustainment Planning Early in the Development Life Cycle. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25756.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Weapons System Sustainment Planning Early in the Development Life Cycle. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25756.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Weapons System Sustainment Planning Early in the Development Life Cycle. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25756.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Weapons System Sustainment Planning Early in the Development Life Cycle. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25756.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Weapons System Sustainment Planning Early in the Development Life Cycle. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25756.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Weapons System Sustainment Planning Early in the Development Life Cycle. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25756.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Weapons System Sustainment Planning Early in the Development Life Cycle. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25756.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Weapons System Sustainment Planning Early in the Development Life Cycle. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25756.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Weapons System Sustainment Planning Early in the Development Life Cycle. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25756.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Weapons System Sustainment Planning Early in the Development Life Cycle. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25756.
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According to the Government Accountability Office, sustainment of weapon systems accounts for approximately 70 percent of the total life-cycle costs. When sustainment is not considered early in the development process or as an integral part of the systems engineering design, it can negatively affect the ability of the Air Force to maintain and improve the weapon system once it enters service.

At the request of the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, Weapons Systems Sustainment Planning Early in the Development Life Cycle identifies at what point or phase of the development of a weapons system sustainment planning should be integrated into the program; examines and provides recommendations regarding how sustainment planning should be evaluated throughout the development process; investigates and describes the current challenges with sustainment planning and determines what changes have occurred throughout the acquisition process that may have eroded sustainment planning; and identifies opportunities for acquisitions offices to gain greater access to sustainment expertise.

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