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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Communications, Cyber Resilience, and the Future of the U.S. Electric Power System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25782.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Communications, Cyber Resilience, and the Future of the U.S. Electric Power System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25782.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Communications, Cyber Resilience, and the Future of the U.S. Electric Power System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25782.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Communications, Cyber Resilience, and the Future of the U.S. Electric Power System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25782.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Communications, Cyber Resilience, and the Future of the U.S. Electric Power System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25782.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Communications, Cyber Resilience, and the Future of the U.S. Electric Power System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25782.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Communications, Cyber Resilience, and the Future of the U.S. Electric Power System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25782.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Communications, Cyber Resilience, and the Future of the U.S. Electric Power System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25782.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Communications, Cyber Resilience, and the Future of the U.S. Electric Power System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25782.
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Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Communications, Cyber Resilience, and the Future of the U.S. Electric Power System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25782.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Prepublication Copy – Subject to Further Editorial Correction Communications, Cyber Resilience, and the Future of the U.S. Electric Power System PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP Anne Frances Johnson, Rapporteur Committee on the Future of Electric Power in the U.S. Board on Energy and Environmental Systems Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by Contract/Grant No. DE-EP000006/89303018FOE400001 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25782 Cover: This publication is available in limited quantities from: Board on Energy and Environmental Systems 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 bees@nas.edu http://www.sites.nationalacademies.org/DEPS/BEES Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2020 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Communications, Cyber Resilience, and the Future of the U.S. Electric Power System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25782. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

COMMITTEE ON THE FUTURE OF ELECTRIC POWER IN THE U.S. M. GRANGER MORGAN, NAS,1 Carnegie Mellon University, Chair ANURADHA M. ANNASWAMY, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ANJAN BOSE, NAE,2 Washington State University TERRY BOSTON, NAE, Terry Boston, LLC KAREN BUTLER-PURRY, Texas A&M University JEFFERY DAGLE, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory DEEPAKRAJ M. DIVAN, NAE, Georgia Institute of Technology MICHAEL HOWARD, Electric Power Research Institute CYNTHIA HSU, National Rural Electric Cooperative Association REIKO KERR, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power NANCY LANGE, MISO Board of Directors KAREN L. PALMER, Resources for the Future H. VINCENT POOR, NAE/NAS, Princeton University WILLIAM H. SANDERS, Carnegie Mellon University SUSAN F. TIERNEY, Analysis Group DAVID G. VICTOR, University of California, San Diego ELIZABETH J. WILSON, Dartmouth College Staff K. JOHN HOLMES, Director, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems ELIZABETH ZEITLER, Senior Program Officer BRENT HEARD, Associate Program Officer HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Manager MICHAELA KERXHALLI-KLEINFELD, Research Associate REBECCA DEBOER, Research Assistant 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 2 Member, National Academy of Engineering. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION v

BOARD ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS JARED COHON, NAE,1 Carnegie Mellon University, Chair DAVID T. ALLEN, University of Texas, Austin VICKY BAILEY, Anderson Stratton Enterprises, LLC CARLA BAILO, Center for Automotive Research W. TERRY BOSTON, NAE, Terry Boston, LLC WILLIAM BRINKMAN, NAS,2 Princeton University DEEPAKRAJ M. DIVAN, NAE, Georgia Institute of Technology MARCIUS EXTAVOUR, XPRIZE T.J. GLAUTHIER, TJ Glauthier Associates, LLC NAT GOLDHABER, Claremont Creek Ventures KELLY SIMS GALLAGHER, Tufts University BARBARA KATES-GARNICK, Tufts University JOANN MILLIKEN, Independent Consultant DOROTHY ROBYN, Boston University ALEXANDER SLOCUM, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN WALL, NAE, Cummins, Inc. ROBERT WEISENMILLER, California Energy Commission (Retired) Staff K. JOHN HOLMES, Director JAMES ZUCCHETTO, Senior Scientist ELIZABETH ZEITLER, Senior Program Officer BRENT HEARD, Associate Program Officer HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Manager MICHAELA KERXHALLI-KLEINFELD, Research Associate REBECCA DEBOER, Research Assistant 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Member, National Academy of Sciences. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vi

Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: David Batz, Edison Electric Institute, Marc Child, Great River Energy, and Paul Skare, Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by John Manferdelli, Northeastern University. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteur and the National Academies. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vii

Contents OVERVIEW 1 1 INTRODUCTION 5 2 UNDERSTANDING THE THREAT LANDSCAPE 6 Computing in the Grid, 6 Cybersecurity Challenges, 7 EMP and GMD Challenges, 11 National Security Implications, 14 3 STRATEGIES TO INCREASE RESILIENCE 19 Technological Capabilities, 19 Culture Change, 23 Translational R&D, 27 APPENDIXES A Statement of Task 33 B Workshop Agenda 34 C Registered Workshop Participants 36 D Acronyms 43 PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION ix

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Communications, Cyber Resilience, and the Future of the U.S. Electric Power System: Proceedings of a Workshop Get This Book
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Electric power is a critical infrastructure that is vital to the U.S. economy and national security. Today, the nation’s electric power infrastructure is threatened by malicious attacks, accidents, and failures, as well as disruptive natural events. As the electric grid evolves and becomes increasingly interdependent with other critical infrastructures, the nation is challenged to defend against these threats and to advance grid capabilities with reliable defenses. On November 1, 2019, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop to gather diverse perspectives on current and future threats to the electric power system, activities that the subsector is pursuing to defend itself, and how this work may evolve over the coming decades. This publications summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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