Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
2020 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 941 Bicyclist Facility Preferences and Effects on Increasing Bicycle Trips Kari Edison Watkins Calvin Clark Patricia Mokhtarian Giovanni Circella GeorGia institute of technoloGy Atlanta, GA Susan Handy Davis, CA Alison Kendall Kendall PlanninG + desiGn Santa Monica, CA Subscriber Categories Pedestrians and Bicyclists Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transporta- tion results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to high- way authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniquesâthe National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation, under Agree- ment No. 693JJ31950003. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRBâs recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRBâs relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs iden- tified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the FHWA. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&Iâs recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 941 Project 08-102 ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-48127-4 Library of Congress Control Number 2020935051 Â© 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; the FHWA; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 941 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Ann M. Hartell, Senior Program Officer Jarrel McAfee, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications NCHRP PROJECT 08-102 PANEL Field of Transportation PlanningâArea of Planning Methods and Processes Jennifer Fran Slesinger, Alexandria City Hall, Alexandria, VA (Chair) Cassidy Boulan, Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission, Philadelphia, PA Paul Brewster, Thurston Regional Planning Council, Olympia, WA Jill Mrotek Glenzinski, Wisconsin DOT, Madison, WI Rosa Kozub, New Mexico DOT, Santa Fe, NM Peter B. Ohlms, Virginia DOT, Charlottesville, VA Christopher D. Porter, Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Medford, MA James A. Robertson, Lee Engineering, San Antonio, TX Gregory M. Rowangould, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT Darren G. Buck, FHWA Liaison
NCHRP Research Report 941 presents an analysis of perceptions and preferences of cyclists for different types of bicycling facilities. The study analyzes data from before and after the construction of bicycling facilities in three communities. The results provide insights into how the design and presence of new bicycling facilities can affect attitudes, preferences, and willingness to try cycling. The report will be of interest to those responsible for planning and designing bicycling facilities. Many communities are investing in bicycle infrastructure as they seek to better accom- modate those who currently cycle and to encourage potential cyclists and increase bicycling. While considerable previous research on the relationship between bicycle infrastructure and the perceptions and behavior of cyclists has focused on communities where cycling is widely accepted, this report provides insights from communities where on-road cycling for transportation is less common. The study presents information on how cyclists and noncyclists perceive a range of on-street bicycling facility designsâincluding sharrows, bike lanes, and buffered bike lanesâalong a variety of roadway types, with and without curbside automobile parking. In addition, the research analyzed the effect of newly constructed bicycling facilities on percep- tions of bikeability and changes in the frequency of bicycling. The research was conducted under NCHRP Project 08-102 by Georgia Institute of Technology of Atlanta, Georgia. The research effort included a review of methods previ- ously applied to study bicyclist preferences and the effect of bicycle facilities on bicycling behavior; this review informed the rigorous study design that included focus groups and before-and-after surveys. The data collection tools provide a template for future studies in additional locations. To request more information on the data collection tools, as well information on replicating the research, visit the NCHRP Project 08-102 web page at https:// apps.trb.org/cmsfeed/TRBNetProjectDisplay.asp?ProjectID=3861. The report is accompanied by a poster presentation and a set of presentation slides that summarize the project. These materials are available at the TRB website by searching for âNCHRP Research Report 941â. F O R E W O R D By Ann M. Hartell Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
1 Summary 4 Chapter 1 Introduction 4 Scope of Work 4 Past Literature on Types of Cycling Facilities 7 Chapter 2 Study Methodology 7 Study Site Selection 8 Research Design Literature Review 14 Focus Group Methodology 15 Wave 1 Survey 20 Wave 2 Survey 22 Chapter 3 Focus Group Findings 22 Differences in Comfort for Various Bicycling Facilities 23 Impact of Curbside Parking on Cyclist Comfort 24 Role of a Physical Barrier versus Buffered Lanes 24 Concerns About Introducing Protected/Separated Bicycle Lanes and New Intersection Treatments 25 Impact of Number of Vehicular Lanes 25 Other Infrastructure Factors 26 Cycling Comfort 27 Focus Group Conclusions 29 Chapter 4 Description of Survey Respondents 29 Wave 1 Respondents 31 Data Cleaning 32 Wave 2 Respondents 34 Chapter 5 Expressed Comfort, Safety, and Willingness to Try Cycling 34 Analysis of Expressed Comfort, Safety, and Willingness to Try Cycling 50 Summary 51 Chapter 6 Perceptions of Transportation Change 51 Perceptions of General Transportation Trends 59 Recognition of New Cycling Facilities 60 Summary 64 Chapter 7 Changes in Comfort, Safety, Willingness to Try Cycling, and Actual Cycling Behavior 64 Changes in Expressed Comfort, Safety, and Willingness to Try Cycling 66 Observed Changes in Bicycle Trip Frequency 68 Summary C O N T E N T S
69 Chapter 8 Conclusions and Application of Findings for Decision-Making 69 Findings 70 Implications of Findings 71 Effect of Treatments 73 Further Use of Study Materials 77 References 81 Appendix A Focus Group Presentation Materials 94 Appendix B Before Survey 115 Appendix C After Survey 132 Appendix D Survey Demographics 134 Appendix E Alternatives to Regression Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.