FROM RESILIENT INFRASTRUCTURE TO RESILIENT COMMUNITIES: HOW CAN EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES SUPPORT COMMUNITY EFFORTS TO BECOME RESILIENT?
Chris D. Poland P.E., S.E., NAE, M.ASCE, F.SEI
Consulting Engineer, Canyon Lake, California
NIST Disaster Resilience Fellow
Infrastructure resilience is all about minimizing the impacts of chronic stresses and major shocks. This workshop is focused on the application of emerging technologies in structural engineering that will lead to more resilient communities. Infrastructure in this context includes all the built environment; the complex network of building, bridge, dam, and treatment plant systems, as well as the networks of energy, transportation, communication, water, and waste water. It is all about the built environment’s ability to endure environmental conditions, support routine daily use, and recover from the low-probability, high-consequence events that may occur. For decades, engineers have been working to improve the performance of the individual buildings and systems by using their intuition, applicable codes and standards, and the willingness of their clients to understand and finance the increased durability. Today we refer to such efforts as building in resilience, and in most of these designs we can achieve “life safety” without specific regard for the time it will take to recover.
Community resilience is all about how well a jurisdiction can understand and reduce the impact of its chronic stresses and mitigate and recover from the expected shocks that affect its social, economic, natural, and built environments. It is a holistic view that encompasses both dealing with the impact of slowly developing problems such as the cost of housing, traffic, rising crime, etc. and the damage and disruption caused by natural or man-made hazard events. The quality and durability of the built environment is a key factor in how resilient a community is. While the resilience of one building or system is important, it is the combined performance of the entire network of systems that matters.
Before a major hazard event occurs, communities focusing on resilience need to consider their social and economic institutions, determine how those functions are supported by the built environment and make a realistic assessment of when the related sectors of the built environment are needed to support rapid and continuous recovery. These realistic assessments become the performance goals and they are next compared to the capability of the existing built environment when subjected to the expected major hazard events. The gaps between the goals and the existing conditions represent barriers to recovery. Communities become more resilient when the barriers
are understood and steps are taken to mitigate them through improved land-use planning, performance-based design codes and standards, and interim plans to work around the damage that occurs. This is a costly and time-consuming process that only a few communities have attempted. Emerging technologies should be able to make resilience planning and implementation more attainable.
For the past 20+ years, concepts surrounding community resilience have been developing along with various metrics and frameworks that are aimed at making resilience planning achievable. The most complete of these frameworks related to the built environment was published in 2015 by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST). The NIST Community Resilience Planning Guide for Buildings and Infrastructure Systems defines a six-step process that is implemented by a collaborative planning team. (NIST, 2015). It provides an orderly planning process that is affordable and yields both administrative and construction related solutions.
Emerging structural engineering technologies can advance community resilience planning before and after hazard events occur. Before hazard events occur, design professionals play a leading role in the process of defining the hazards, developing appropriate design standards, determining the existing vulnerabilities within the built environment, and identifying cost-effective community wide mitigation opportunities. After the event, they must conduct realistic safety assessment of damage, determine which buildings and systems can continue to be used and operated, and lead the adoption of appropriate repair standards that incorporate opportunities to build back better.
While the tools and standards available today are a great improvement over what was available 20 years ago, there are many emerging technologies that can improve community resilience and allow communities to reach their goals more quickly and at a lower financial impact.
Consider the impact the following emerging technologies can have on planning and implementing improved community resilience.
- Deliberate thinking about the relationship between social and economic institutions and their dependence on the built environment,
- The development of new planning tools to better understand community wide vulnerability, and the cascading consequences of damage.
- Further development and use of advanced design and evaluation tools including computer simulations that are applicable at both the project and community scale.
- Utilization of social media and crowd-sourced information for planning and recovery.
- Innovations in construction materials and material systems that improve durability.
- Development of cost-effective structural systems that can be designed to a wide variety of predictable performance levels.
- Development of connected, autonomous and adaptive infrastructure systems.
- Development and adoption of performance-based design standards and codes that encourage applications of new technologies.
- Applications for advanced structural health monitoring and artificial intelligence to understand the extent of deterioration and to speed post-event inspection.
- Development of new repair standards that balance affordable reconstruction and the need to build back better.
NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). 2015. Community Resilience Planning Guide for Buildings and Infrastructure Systems: Volume 1. http://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.1190v1.pdf.
SEEING DIFFERENTLY IN ORDER TO BROADEN COMMUNITY RESILIENCE
Dr. Janice Barnes
Global Resilience Director
Community Resilience requires that our infrastructure work harder for us, serving communities 365 days per year and providing multiple co-benefits for citizens. However, in order to understand what ‘working harder’ means, it’s first important to create a baseline assessment of community context. This includes looking at the physical environment which we all know so well, but also looking at the social and economic domains too. Most importantly, it requires that we assess the links between these environments in terms of their exposures to acute and chronic issues. In looking more broadly at Social, Economic and Environmental domains, we begin to SEE differently, opening our eyes to new ways of considering infrastructure investments while gaining greater leverage for the monies invested, and potentially expanding the range of investors. Instead of thinking only in cascading consequences, we want to think in terms of cascading benefits. Doing so requires us to use technologies to help us understand contexts more fully and to join in collaborations with other specialists who enable understanding of those same contexts in quite unique ways. Health District Planning is an example.
Health District Planning
A Health District is a place where investments are targeted to improve population health outcomes and to inspire healthy behaviors. The term “health” is used here instead of “medical” because a medical campus, by definition, is focused solely on the treatment of sick patients. A Health District, by contrast, is a hub that integrates and links services across the continuum of care. Similarly, the term “campus” is replaced with “district” because a campus, by its definition, is a separate entity from the surrounding community. A health district, by contrast, is integrated into the surrounding community with public infrastructure, distinguished from its context only by its specific uses and character.
Case Study: Wyckoff Health District Assessment Summary
Wyckoff has established The Wyckoff Health Improvement District (HiD) to focus and organize efforts to improve the health of the community. By recognizing that the determinants of good health involve more than healthcare as we know it, Wyckoff is seeking out and organizing a collaborative coalition of like-minded community-based organizations and care providers that have a stake in the health of the Bushwick/Ridgewood community. The community partners of the Wyckoff HiD will collaborate in the development of effective, evidence-based strategies to
improve the health of the population, and to reduce health disparity that is impacting the neighborhood disproportionally. This coalition will work together to create a comprehensive, well-coordinated, and integrated system of care that will welcome all members of the community and will provide a supportive and patient-centered continuity of care, focused on wellness and prevention. The community partners of the Health Improvement District organization will work together by pooling resources to undertake projects targeted to improve the health, physical quality, sustainability, and resilience of the community. The organization will work to improve access to care, health resources, and needed health services. It will target health related improvements to the community that will also provide economic benefit to local residents and business. It will track health data for the community in order to measure baseline health conditions, target pockets of disparity, and measure the improvement of health factors over time. Wyckoff is leading in this innovative approach in order to catalyze a new culture of continuous health improvement. In this way, Wyckoff is working to reduce the cost of care within the community, to retool as a more efficient outpatient-focused platform of care that will reduce unnecessary hospital utilization, increase wellness and prevention efforts, and prioritize investments that will ensure financial stability of the hospital in the long term.
By overlaying health data and infrastructure/city data (flooding areas, infrastructure failures, etc.), one can see where investments need to be made in order to gain more leverage and to coordinate efforts for the greater good. [Could be a good place to explore an overlay with Reggie’s work.]
- Infrastructure assessment, planning, and monitoring should include linkages to the social and economic indicators, like health, as much as to the environmental indicators, like stability or flood risk.
- Seeing differently, or rather broadening the way that we see, opens dialogues with new funders, leverages financing, benefits communities more and enables more of the rapid transformations necessary to achieve community resilience.
- Speaking about infrastructure in these broader terms changes the nature of the conversations in communities, building bridges between the individual or family and the community or city investments. This encourages longer term viability and care of investments, but also enables crowdsourcing for maintenance awareness [Could be a good place to link to Reggie’s work again – he’d suggested how that might help]
- Future directions suggest that open source/crowd sourcing of technology-driven inputs will lead us to new innovations for resilience. This is more prominent in developing countries where traditional infrastructure is not fully in place [power grids, water supplies, etc.] or where traditional infrastructure is more unstable due to the ways in which things were initially built. Examples include I SEE CHANGE which allows the public to log environmental changes they observe and some of the Amplify Challenge results leveraging mobile banking system communication platforms in Africa as a resource for risk announcements for communities. [Could be a good place to describe the post-Nepalese earthquake mapping response for structural stability or the Build Change Program in SE Asia which is focused on structural stability in informal settlements].
DEVELOPMENT OF A RAPID POST-EARTHQUAKE SITUATIONAL AWARENESS TOOL FOR CALIFORNIA BRIDGES
Reginald DesRoches, Ph.D.
William and Stephanie Sick Dean of Engineering
George R. Brown School of Engineering
California has over 25,000 bridges—each of which is unique in terms of design, material properties, geometric properties, and seismic hazard. However, there is a need to understand the condition of these bridges immediately following a seismic event. A unique performance-based grouping approach is developed to group bridges into classes with similar design or structural performances. Using detailed nonlinear analytical models, fragility functions are then developed for the groupings of bridges and implemented in ShakeCast, a web based post-earthquake situational awareness application that supports the emergency responders and managers in California. The enhanced fragility curves provide real-time information on the expected performance, both at a system and component level, enabling responders and bridge maintenance crews to quickly assess bridges. Extension to other hazards, and applications of real time sensor data is also discussed.
DESIGNING FOR RESILIENCE FROM ATOMS TO STRUCTURES
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Building resilient communities and cities requires infrastructure with extended service life of up to 150 years while still considering the impact of the structure and material on the environment. These systems deteriorate over time as a result of service loads and exposure conditions. Degradation and failure are often attributed to material sources related to fatigue, damage, chemical or biological interactions, and environmental factors. Advanced technologies to develop resilient infrastructure include structural sensing and innovations in construction materials. “Smart” structures utilizing robust sensing networks allow for the measurement of displacement, acceleration, temperature and humidity data for monitoring the changes in building behavior and to ensure maximum performance. This data can be used to identify and localize damage that may occur gradually with time or after severe loading events like an earthquake or hurricane. However, the challenges towards achieving robust infrastructure begins with construction materials which must exhibit durable properties while incorporating locally available raw ingredients for economic and sustainable benefits.
Construction materials include Portland cement-based composites like concrete which are the most widely used man-made material. As a result, the production of Portland cement contributes up to 6 percent of the world’s carbon emissions, and this problem will intensify as cities continue to expand. One solution is to utilize additives as partial replacement of Portland
cement. These additives are typically natural or industry waste products like fly ash from coal power plants, slag from blast furnaces, and volcanic ash that would otherwise require disposal. When properly selected, proportioned, and activated, these additives can produce building materials that achieve improved durability and a more sustainable solution compared to an ordinary Portland cement (OPC) mixture. However, current mixture development is achieved through trial-and-error because of the complexity of the material and its sensitivity to raw material features. A bottom-up holistic approach connecting behavior from atomistic to macroscopic scales can now be applied to achieve this objective.
Recent advances in nanotechnology have illuminated the importance of molecular structures and interactions, particularly for calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H) the binding phase in cement-based composites. Although these studies have furthered our understanding of the material on the order of nanometers, the ability to connect these molecular details to macroscale properties that structural engineers require for design has remained elusive. To address this challenge, we have developed a multiscale framework that applies advanced computational techniques to perform parametric studies on the influence of changes in the material at molecular (~1 nm), meso (~100 nm) and micrometer (~100 μm) length scales. These parameters include the chemical composition and structure of the binding C-S-H phase that varies through the incorporation of additives. Using this methodology, we have captured the essential features controlling the strength development of the material ranging from 10-10 to 10-2 meters. These results can be incorporated within a database that will continue to evolve as new chemistries and structures are considered. This work provides a platform for researchers and engineers to formulate innovative mix designs incorporating locally available additives, and enables a paradigm shift in the engineering of the next generation of sustainable and durable cementitious materials.
The larger scale benefits of the material development from atomistic to structural scales can be measured through embodied energy calculations. During a case study with a natural volcanic ash, we found that a more resilient material can be engineered through 30% substitution of additive material for Portland cement that resulted in no decrease in mechanical performance, but with an embodied energy savings of 9% per kg of material. As an example application for the Al-Hamra tower, an 80-story building that is the world’s tallest sculpted concrete structure in Kuwait consisting of 490,000 metric tons of concrete, this would result in a huge embodied energy savings within the structure. Further development and advancement in material and structural sensing technologies can have immense impacts if we apply them to city scales, enabling the development of resilient-smart cities.
IF BRIDGES COULD TALK...
Maria Q. Feng
Department of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics
Data Science Institute
With recent technological breakthroughs, making bridges smart is no longer a dream. This talk will first review the lessons that I have learned from bridge structural health monitoring research over the last two decades. Then I will discuss opportunities and challenges related to transforming advances in ubiquitous sensors, cloud computing, and artificial intelligence into the design, maintenance, and operation of structures with self-sensing and learning capabilities. When bridges could reliably call for help, wouldn’t you give them timely and proper remedies?
INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES TO INCREASE URBAN RESILIENCE—A GERMAN PERSPECTIVE
Daniel Hiller (Head of Strategic Management)
Alex Stolz (Head of the Department of Protective Structures and Security Technologies)
Fraunhofer EMI, Germany
To meet the multi-faceted challenges our world faces, its critical infrastructure needs to be resilient. International terrorism and natural disasters but also vulnerabilities stemming from the growing interconnectedness and complexity of coupled infrastructure systems threaten the sustained and reliable functioning of the latter. Traditional risk analysis, which relies on reductionism and uses well-specified scenarios, defined probabilities and rigid damage estimations, is not a suitable tool to analyze, manage and improve complex systems. Furthermore, modern infrastructure systems are strongly coupled with each other and therefore vulnerable to cascading effects. Those effects can trigger unforeseen outcomes in situations which seemed to be controllable before. Thus, new and holistic concepts are needed. Resilience is such a concept.
Resilience can be understood as the ability to repel, prepare for, take into account, absorb, recover from and adapt ever more successfully to actual or potential adverse events (NRC, 2012).1 The presentation will focus on various innovative planning and management tools developed by Fraunhofer EMI, which can be applied by urban stakeholders such as architects, city planners, infrastructure operators and SaR communities. The tools allow to bake resilience into all aspects of urban planning and urban management so that the consequences of major disruptive events, be they naturally caused or human induced can be significantly reduced.
Moreover, they allow to create mechanisms that improve a swift and effective response in the face of disaster as well as a cost-efficient recovery thereafter.
The solutions presented range from passive protective measures for built infrastructures and their components all the way to simulation tools that allow to simulate the cascading effects of major disasters in an environment of coupled infrastructure networks. Fraunhofer EMI develops such tools in collaborative projects that include both the relevant end-user communities as well as the private sector. The latter often picks up such innovations and turns them into marketable products, which, then can be deployed by the end-users.
COMMUNITY RESILIENCY THROUGH CONNECTED AND AUTONOMOUS INFRASTRUCTURE
Jerome P. Lynch, Ph.D.
Donald Malloure Department Chair of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
University of Michigan
This is undoubtedly one of the most exciting times in the modern era for a civil engineer—as societies face massive global challenges, our profession can serve as a leader implementing pioneering solutions. Community resiliency is perhaps one of the greatest challenges that the profession faces due to two major factors: rapid global urbanization and persistent population exposure to hazards. The accelerating trend toward urbanization reached a historic tipping point in 2010 when, for the first time, more than 50 percent of the world’s population resided in an urban environment. The global emergence of mega-cities with populations of 10 million or more are just one manifestation of this trend. Urban densification is a curiously paradoxical situation. On one hand, densification translates into economic efficiencies and more environmentally sustainable habitats for humans. However, densification also presents difficult challenges including excessive demand on infrastructure, poor mobility from congestion, and increasing levels of environmental pollution. Population densification can also hinder a society’s ability to adapt and react to stressors challenging notions of community resiliency. Clearly this is a major issue as the risks are rising because densification exposes larger populations to hazard events (e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes, terrorist activities) with infrastructure failures coming at higher costs. In addition to natural hazards, climate change is another challenge that will inevitably require unprecedented levels of adaptation to remain resilient.
To be truly resilient, communities will require increasing abilities to adapt and respond. The tools and methods now available to engineers are empowering novel solution strategies to achieve high levels of autonomy and adaptation. For example, advanced sensing technologies have emerged that provide a means of observing built infrastructure and the natural environment with exceptional levels of measurement fidelity. This is leading to profound advancement of our field’s understanding of the dynamics of infrastructure, how infrastructure deteriorate under short- and long-term load exposure, and the role of human choice in how society uses infrastructure, just to name a few. The field’s efforts have also led to dramatic advances in computing that have expanded our analytical capacity at all length scales, ranging from the modeling of materials at the molecular level to the modeling of regional systems such as cities
exposed to hazard events. Other key technologies our profession has advanced include computer vision, data science and controls. We already see the profession using its new collection of tools and methods to achieve societal resiliency. For example, civil engineering is a leader in the conception and design of autonomous infrastructure systems: connected and autonomous cars allow cities to densify while enhancing mobility, actuated components in urban watersheds alleviate demand on storm water infrastructure during extreme weather events, and control systems protect high-rise structures from extreme seismic events.
This presentation is intended to introduce the presenter’s experience in deploying sensing, data and control systems to achieve higher levels of infrastructure resiliency. The work highlights field studies of connected and automated infrastructure components that prototype the building blocks of tomorrow’s fully adaptive and reactive infrastructure systems delivering true community resiliency.
INNOVATION IN DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE INFRASTRUCTURE: INSPECTION TECHNOLOGIES, SERVICE LIFE PREDICTION TOOLS, AND ADVANCED MATERIALS INTEGRATION
Robert D. Moser, Ph.D.
Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer
The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) is responsible for critical infrastructure around the world, including facilities on military installations, reliance on the domestic transportation network for sustainment and readiness, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ role in maintaining the Nation’s waterways. The importance of this infrastructure to operate efficiently and effectively is paramount for both the success of the U.S. economy and to support defense readiness and sustainment. Novel inspection and monitoring technologies are one enabler for infrastructure asset management which are currently the subject of basic and applied research, from autonomous unmanned aerial systems for inspection to smart structural health monitoring and better use of human inspectors as sensors. Taking information from inspections and monitoring to identify fundamental drivers for deterioration is also a critical research area with high potential for innovation. This approach enables asset managers to move beyond quantifying distress based on symptoms, rather focusing on the true cause of damage and determining measureable inputs for use in service life models. Recent initiatives to develop robust system-level asset management tools using service life modeling have identified needs for improving our understanding of deterioration of critical infrastructure such as airfields, bridges, locks, and dams. To inform asset management and enable decision making, fundamental science to understand deterioration, the current state of distress, and to predict future deterioration is needed. As approaches for asset management become more quantitative and science-informed, the need for robust service life modeling tools will only grow. Advancements in high-performance computing capabilities and multi-physics material modeling combined with an improved understanding of deterioration mechanisms will likely enable future advancement of service life models to consider more complex environments and synergies between different modes of deterioration. The final area the DOD is investing research in is advanced materials for infrastructure applications. Many of these materials are dual-use, with both military and civilian applications. Advanced materials offer many potential advantages ranging from improved
structural properties to increased corrosion resistance and self-sensing with potential benefits in structural performance, durability, reduced construction logistics, and even to impart new functionalities to structures. This talk focuses on pathways for innovation in DOD infrastructure, including the development and use of novel inspection technologies, robust service life prediction tools, and the integration of advanced materials for repair, rehabilitation, and new construction. Research and application focus areas and interests will be discussed along with business processes currently being implemented which inform asset management decisions and research roadmapping for future infrastructure requirements.
CITY AS TERRESTRIAL CRUSTACEAN: STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING AND RESILIENT CITIES
This paper responds to a specific question raised regarding: “How are cities thinking about the role of technologies and structural engineering for future resilience?” The author reflects on 40 years of planning and project development practice in the field of municipal consulting engineering on water-related infrastructure for cities across America. The major points addressed in the paper are summarized as follows:
- Cities need structural engineers to help reinvent urban process and governance—while continuing to make the component parts of cities more resilient, less energy-intensive, and smarter.
- Today, cities are experiencing a multi-pronged infrastructure threat driven by: rapid population growth, increasingly frequent and extreme events, neglected and deteriorating facilities, and the extreme complexity of the system-of-systems that govern urban processes. These pervasive stresses on cities all contribute to a decreased capacity to recover from disruptions.
- Struggling with these chronic stressors, cities are expecting structural engineers to work collaboratively with the other participants in the urban process to address the complexity and uncertainty they face; redefine the fundamental nature of the problems we are attempting solve; and acknowledge that our ability to adapt will depend on a combination of structural and institutional solutions that offer both protection (rigid barriers and mechanical systems) and flexibility (communities of people and natural ecosystems).
- Insights include: (a) the need for collaborative design processes that go beyond the minimum requirements of codes and ordinances; (b) the importance of citizen engagement in understanding hazards, being prepared to respond, and fully committing to fulfilling their roles in urban resilience; (c) ensuring that the governance process provided by institutions, agencies, and governmental bodies is as robust as the innovations and technologies provided by the engineering disciplines, and (d) improving communication between the engineering community and policy makers regarding the underlying science and assumptions that should inform decisions regarding the built environment.
In summary, this paper explores the relationship between how cities are dealing with chronic stresses, the lessons learned, and some of the unanswered challenges that remain to be addressed if urban resilience is to be a reality.
DESIGN AND INTEGRATION OF EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS
Craig A. Davis, Ph.D., PE, GE
Los Angeles Department of Water and Power
It is time to consider what future resilient infrastructure systems will be like. It is easy to think of future infrastructure systems as highly reliable. Recently we have begun to develop initial generations of smart infrastructure. Can we extend the vision to consider them as self-protective and even interacting with humans? Will future electrical power transformers, pipelines, or railway bridges be able to communicate to engineers about the possibility of their own deterioration and potential failure or where critical maintenance is needed? Can we design and construct water systems to automatically sense severe earthquake damage and communicate optimum operational changes, or even automatically manage flow, to ensure potable water continues to be provided to hospitals and other critical customers? These are challenging questions which should be addressed in order to ensure we develop the most efficient and resilient infrastructure systems for the future. The convergence of: (a) aging infrastructure requiring renewal with (b) technological advancements provides fantastic opportunities over the coming decades to re-invent how traditional lifeline infrastructure systems provide services to communities.
Lifeline infrastructure systems include water, wastewater, flood risk management, transportation, electric power, communications, solid waste management, and gas and liquid fuel systems. These systems provide the essential services for modern communities to survive and thrive in safe and healthy environments. In support of community resilience, these large, geospatially distributed, interdependent infrastructure systems must be resilient themselves.
There are numerous examples of emerging technologies which may be applied, from unmanned aerial vehicles for monitoring and inspections, to applications of space satellite sensing capabilities. Advanced computer simulations are useful for (1) assessing if current system layouts can meet resilience performance goals, (2) post-event assessment, and (3) real-time monitoring. Instrumentation is key to developing smart infrastructure, without which there is a limit to improving system resilience. Instrumentation can provide real-time intelligence under normal operations and following extreme events. Smart infrastructure can learn from and inform operational issues and capabilities. It has the ability to link operational issues following an incident with advanced computer simulations to predict future service provision capabilities. It also is essential to infrastructure health monitoring for degradation, deterioration, and leak detection. Dense instrumentation and the monitoring of large infrastructure systems requires the embracing of big data management and analysis.
Resilient infrastructure systems must have performance goals which are consistent with community resilience objectives, for normal operations and following extreme events. For extreme events, the performance goals should match what the local communities find acceptable performance they are willing to pay for. Upon establishing these goals, system owners and
operators may find they cannot meet them, at least for extreme events, without system modifications. Many opportunities for reinventing how systems provide services, especially after extreme events, and the development and implementation of emerging technologies, exist when addressing how to modify and improve systems to meet the performance objectives and when aged infrastructure is renewed. Sometimes this is through highly advanced technologies such as instrumentation, monitoring and communications systems. Other times this is accomplished through much simpler changes to how infrastructure components perform.
As an example, the City of Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) Water System is embarking on developing a seismic resilient pipe network (SRPN). This network is intended to absorb seismic damage and adapt to provide water services to customers when they need it following major earthquakes. The plan is to identify and grade pipelines based on their post-earthquake criticality to service provision. As pipes are being replaced through the on-going asset management and pipe replacement programs, they will be exchanged with materials and jointing systems capable of withstanding seismic forces and deformations correlated with their importance to system operations. To implement this, seismic resilient pipe technologies are required to withstand earthquake shaking and large permanent ground deformations from fault movement, liquefaction, and landslides. However, few resilient pipe systems exist, and most are originating in Japan. The LADWP has taken an approach to implement pilot studies for available seismic resilient pipe and lining systems to investigate their application toward developing a SRPN while encouraging the development and importing of new seismic pipe technologies to create a national and international self-sustainable resilient pipe marketplace. Related resilient pipe guidelines and standards for design, testing, and installation practices are under development through a collaborative effort between water agencies, pipe suppliers, the American Society of Civil Engineers, and the pipe testing experience developed by Cornell University.
The implementing of an LADWP SRPN, along with other resilient infrastructure developments, is fostered through high level leadership starting from Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti and embraced by the LADWP management. These are explained in Resilience by Design (Mayoral Seismic Safety Task Force, 2014) and Davis (2017). However, creating a SRPN alone is not sufficient to ensure resilient infrastructure performance. Improving the infrastructure to cross the San Andreas and other faults, as well as other seismic hazards, coupled with the use of reliable instrumentation for real-time post-event intelligence is necessary. Instrumentation is needed to monitor system performance for normal and post-event operations. It is also needed to monitor hazards and the seismic performance of important components including the transient and permanent movements of dams, pipes, tunnels, tanks and other components. The information will be useful for daily operations, infrastructure health monitoring over the component lifecycle, and post-event emergency response, recovery, and reconstruction. It is not difficult to imagine how properly instrumented and monitored infrastructure systems can be made to interactively communicate in the future to better manage interdependencies (e.g., water and power systems communicate to ensure power is available for pumps and water is available for power generation). They may also be able to inform technicians of critical operational changes and pre-failure conditions, and possibly even automatically undertake the needed modifications.
To ensure cost-effective, safe and reliable services, infrastructure owners and operators are generally very conservative about implementing new technologies into their systems. Additionally, there may be very limited resources available within these organizations to learn
about and track the potential use of new technologies. These issues however should not be a basis to overlook the potential for new technologies to improve system capabilities. Organizations can team with consultants, researchers, and each other to investigate applications. Cost assessments should include all benefits, including those to the community, over the lifecycle of components and the system itself. Laboratory testing and pilot studies are also useful investments to ensure application without compromising operations.
Davis, C.A. 2017. “Seismic Preparation at the Retail Level: LADWP’s Seismic Resilience Program,” Source Magazine, American Water Works Association, California Nevada Section, Fall, 2017 issue.
Mayoral Seismic Safety Task Force. 2014. “Resilience by Design,” Office of the Mayor, City of Los Angeles, released December 8, 2014, http://www.lamayor.org/earthquake, accessed December 8, 2014.
MAR STRUCTURAL DESIGN
My goal is to make seismic resilience commonplace. Designs should be affordable and easy to understand for owners. To that end, I create new seismic systems, striving to make more cost-effective high-performance designs. I often start designs by reverse engineering the system, working backward from the desired outcome and iterating. The lens for life-cycle validation is explicit loss modeling using FEMA P58 and SP3, coupled to non-linear response history analysis. However, in my experience, first-cost is still the greatest obstacle to wide spread adoption of high-performance design. This real-world dilemma drives the innovation to reduce costs.
For my brief introduction, I’ll use project examples to reveal a process to design for reliance. New structural forms include mode-shaping spines, post-tensioned rocking re-centering frames and walls, rocking foundation systems and weak-story base-absorption. Controlled weak-story response, named the Relative Strength Method is the basis of FEMA P807—Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Multi-Unit Wood-framed Buildings with Weak First Stories.
The diverse forms reveal several common traits. First, the significant response is in the non-linear realm. Second, good buildings need stable displacement modes ideally with re-centering bias. Third, focus on architectural elements to reduce repair costs and downtime. Finally, from the perspective of reducing damage and enhancing resilience - strength is our friend and ductility is not.
VICE PRESIDENT, PREDIX
Resiliency has new meaning in the digital age. Many emergent technologies from sensor networks, location services, data fusion, notifications, wide area wireless connectivity, machine learning, computer vision, robotics, and social networks have completely changed how we mitigate damage, handle first responses, and improve subsequent recoveries. The rate of technical change is only increasing as people adapt to new norms of behavior. Information flows more rapidly through many more networks than at any time before.
All this said, there remain challenges in data sharing between public and private entities, with cybersecurity and denial of service, and in having benefits unevenly flow to affluent and distressed populations.
This talk will cover the changes, opportunities, and challenges of the digital world as it adds and subtracts resiliency from our communities. We will open the stage for discussion of how policy can help and hurt as we move forward.