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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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ÝŒõè Môƒ°è¬÷Š «ðµî™ ñŸÁ‹ ðò¡ð£†®Ÿè£ù õN裆® (â†ì£õ¶ ðFŠ¹) «ïûù™ Üè£ìIv Hóv õ£Sƒì¡, ®.C އ옫ïûù™ Þ¡v®Î† ÝçŠ ð«ò£ªì‚ù£ôT ܇´ 죂Rè£ôT (Þð£†)

2 ÝŒõè Môƒ°è¬÷Š «ðµî™ ñŸÁ‹ ðò¡ð£†®Ÿè£ù õN裆® ÝŒõè Môƒ°è¬÷Š «ðµî™ ñŸÁ‹ ðò¡ð£†®Ÿè£ù õN裆® (â†ì£õ¶ ðFŠ¹) (Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals) ݃Aô Ë™ ªõOf´ «ïûù™ Üè£ìIv Hóv, õ£Sƒì¡, ®.C îI› Ë™ ªõOf´ IIBAT, Þð£†,ð슬ð, îI›ï£´ ºî™ ðFŠ¹ : ñ£˜„ 2020 裊¹K¬ñ : «ïûù™ Üè£ìIv Hóv õ£Sƒì¡, ®.C. îIö£‚è‚ è£Š¹K¬ñ: IIBAT, Þð£†, ð슬ð, îI›ï£´ Ü„ê£‚è‹ : ñE ÝŠªê†, ªê¡¬ù.

3 ÝŒõè Môƒ°è¬÷Š «ðµî™ ñŸÁ‹ ðò¡ð£†®Ÿè£ù õN裆® (Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals) â†ì£õ¶ ðFŠ¹ Þ¡v®®Î† ÝçŠ ªôð«óìK ÜQñ™ Kꘄ ®Mû¡ Ý¡ ☈ ܇† ¬ôçŠ vì®v «ïûù™ Kꘄ 辡C™ ÝçŠ î «ïûù™ Ü裪ìIv «ïûù™ Üè£ìIv Hóv õ£Sƒì¡, ®.C www.nap.edu îIN™ Þ¡ªì˜«ïûù™ Þ¡v®†Î† ÝçŠ ð«ò£ ªì‚ù£ôT ܇´ 죂Rè£ôT (ääHã®; Þð£†) www.iibat.com

4 ÝŒõè Môƒ°è¬÷Š «ðµî™ ñŸÁ‹ ðò¡ð£†®Ÿè£ù õN裆® «ïûù™ Üè£ìIv Hóv («îCò è™M‚ èöèŠ ðFŠðè‹), 500 ä‰î£õ¶ ªî¼, NW, õ£Sƒì¡, ®.C 20001 𣘬õ‚° Þ‚¬è«ò†¬ì ªõOJ´‹ F†ì‹ «îCò Ý󣌄C‚ èöèˆF¡ G˜õ£è õ£KòˆF¡ ÜÂñF»ì¡ ï쉫îPò¶. Þ‚èöèˆF¡ «îCò ÜPMò™ è™M‚°¿, «îCò ªð£PJò™ è™M‚°¿, «îCò ñ¼ˆ¶õ GÁõù‹ ÝAòõŸPL¼‰¶ ªðøŠð†ì ܃èˆFù˜èœ ªè£‡ì «ðó¬õ ÞˆF†ìˆFŸ°ˆ îù¶ «ê¬õ¬òˆ œ÷¶. ÞšõP‚¬è¬òˆ îò£K‚°‹ ªð£ÁŠ¬ð G¬ø«õŸø êñ„Yó£ù, YKò, î°Fõ£Œ‰î G¹í˜è¬÷ˆ «î˜¾ªêŒ¶ ÜŠ«ðó¬õ à¼õ£‚èŠð†ì¶. W›è‡ì ܽõôèƒ èÀ‹ GÁõùƒèÀ‹ ÞˆF†ìˆFŸ° Ýîó¾ œ÷ù: Office of Extramural Research, Office of the Director, National In- stitutes of Health/Department of Health and Human Services (under Con- tract Number N01-OD-4-2139 Task Order #188; the Office of Research Integrity, Department of Health and Human Services; the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International; American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; Abbott Fund; Pfizer; American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine; American Society of Laboratory Animal Practitioners; Association of Primate Veternarians Þ‚¬è«ò†®™ ÃøŠð†´œ÷ 輈¶èÀ‹, è‡ìP¾èÀ‹, b˜ñ£ùƒèÀ‹, ðK‰¶¬óèÀ‹ މ˙ ÝCKò˜è¬÷«ò ꣘‰î¬õ. ܬõ ÞˆF†ìˆFŸ° Ýîó¾ ÜOˆ¶ G¬ø«õŸPˆ î‰î GÁõùƒèO¡ Ü™ô¶ ܽõôèƒèO¡ 𣘬õ¬òŠ HóFðL‚èM™¬ô. މ˟ HóFJ¡ Üì‚èƒèœ «îCò Ý«ó£‚AòˆFŸè£ù GÁõùƒèO¡ 𣘬õ¬ò«ò£ ªè£œ¬èè¬÷«ò£ HóF ðL‚èM™¬ô. ÞF™ õ˜ˆîèŠ ªðò˜è¬÷«ò£, õ˜ˆîèŠ

5 ªð£¼†è¬÷«ò£ Ü™ô¶ ܶ«ð£¡ø GÁõùƒ è¬÷«ò£ °PŠH†®¼‰î£™ ÜõŸ¬ø ܪñK‚è Üó² Cð£K² ªêŒAø¶ â¡Á‹ ܘˆîñ£è£¶. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-15400-0 (Book) International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-15400-6 (Book) International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-15401-7 (PDF) International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-15401-4 (PDF) Library of Congress Control Number: 2010940400 «ñ½‹ HóFèœ «õ‡´ñ£J¡ W›è‡ì ºèõK‚° â¿FŠ ªðŸÁ‚ªè£œ÷ô£‹: ݃AôŠ HóF‚°: «ïûù™ Üè£ìIv Hóv, 500 ä‰î£õ¶ ªî¼, NW, ô£‚ð£‚v 285, õ£Sƒì¡, ®C 20055; (800) 624-6242 Ü™ô¶ (202) 334-3313 (õ£Sƒì¡ ªð¼ïèóŠ ð°FJ™); <http://www.nap.edu> îI›Š HóF‚°: ޡ옫ïûù™ Þ¡v®†Î† ÝçŠ ð«ò£ªì‚ ù£ôT ܇´ 죂Rè£ôT (ääHã®; ²¼‚èñ£è ‘Þ𣆒) ð슬ð, 601 301, www.iibat.com ðFŠ¹K¬ñ 2011, «îCò ÜPMò™ è™M‚ èöè‹ â™ô£ àK¬ñè¬÷»‹ ªè£‡´œ÷¶ ݃Aô Ë™ ܪñK‚è£M™ ðFŠH‚èŠð†ì¶. îI› Ë™ îI›ï£†®™ ðFŠH‚èŠð†ì¶.

6 ÝŒõè Môƒ°è¬÷Š «ðµî™ ñŸÁ‹ ðò¡ð£†®Ÿè£ù õN裆® «ïûù™ Üè£ìIv Hóv («îCò è™M‚ °¿‚èœ; The National Academies) ÜPMò™, ªð£PJò™ ñŸÁ‹ ñ¼ˆ¶õ‹ ðŸPò «îCò Ý«ô£êè˜èœ: «îCò ÜPMò™ è™M‚°¿ («ïûù™ Üè£ìI ÝçŠ êJ¡êv; National Academy of Sciences) ô£ð «ï£‚èŸø, îŸê£˜ð£ù å¼ îQò£˜ °¿. ÞF™ ÜPMò™ ñŸÁ‹ ªð£PJòL™ «î˜‰î, ÜPMò™ ¸†ðƒè¬÷ «ñ½‹ º¡«ùŸø‹ ܬìò„ ªêŒõF½‹ ÜõŸ¬øŠ ªð£¶Š ðò¡ð£†®Ÿ°‚ ªè£‡´õ¼õF½‹ ñ ܘŠðEˆ ¶œ÷ è™Mò£÷˜è¬÷‚ ªè£‡ì¶. «îCò 裃Aó꣙ 1863-Ý‹ ݇´ ªè£‡´õóŠð†ì «îCò êóˆF¡ð® Þ‚è™M‚ °¿ ÜPMò™, ªî£N™¸†ðMò™ ꣘‰î è£KòƒèO™ Ü󲂰ˆ îñ¶ ÜP¾¬óè¬÷ õöƒ°‹ð® ܬñ‚èŠð†ì¶. «îCò ÜPMò™ è™M‚ °¿M¡ î¬ôõó£è ì£‚ì˜ ó™çŠ «ü. CC«ó£¡ ªêòô£ŸÁAø£˜. «îCò ªð£PJò™ è™M‚°¿ («ïûù™ Üè£ìI ÝçŠ â…CQòKƒ; National Academy of Engineering) 1964-Ý‹ ݇´ «îCò ÜPMò™ è™M‚ °¿MŸ° Þ¬íò£è, Cø‰î ªð£PJò£÷˜è¬÷‚ ªè£‡´ GÁõŠð†ì¶. îù¶ ܃èˆFù˜è¬÷ˆ ñ «î˜¾ ªêŒ»‹ð® îŸê£˜ð£ù G˜õ£èˆ¬î‚ ªè£‡´œ÷ Þ‚°¿ «îCò ÜPMò™ è™M‚ °¿¬õŠ «ð£¡«ø îñ¶ CøŠ¹ˆ ¶¬ø ꣘‰î è£KòƒèO™ Ü󲂰 ÜP¾¬óè¬÷ õöƒ°‹ð® ܬñ‚èŠð†ì¶. Þ‚°¿ «îêˆF¡ «î¬õ¬ò‚ 輈F™ ªè£‡´ è™M ñŸÁ‹ ÝŒ¾ ºòŸCè¬÷ «ñŸªè£œ÷ ¾‹ CøŠ¹I° ªð£PJòô£÷˜è¬÷‚ ªè£‡´ YKò ê£î¬ùè¬÷Š ð¬ì‚è¾ñ£ù ªð£PJò™ F†ìƒè¬÷ˆ b˜ñ£Q‚辋 ªêŒAø¶. «îCò ªð£PJò™ è™M‚ °¿M¡ î¬ôõó£è ì£‚ì˜ ê£˜ôv ªõv† ªêòô£ŸÁ Aø£˜.

7 «îCò ÜPMò™ è™M‚ °¿õ£™ 1970-Ý‹ ݇´ ñ¼ˆ¶õ GÁõù‹ (Þ¡v®†Î† ÝçŠ ªñ®R¡; Insti- tute of Medicine), ªð£¶ ²è£î£ó‹ ê‹ð‰îñ£ù è£KòƒèO™ «îCò‚ ªè£œ¬èè¬÷ˆ bó ÝŒõF™ Cø‰î ñ¼ˆ¶õ õ™½ï˜è¬÷‚ ªè£‡ì °¿õ£è ܬñ‚èŠð†ì¶. «îCò‚ Æì󲂰 «îCò ÜPMò™ è™M‚ °¿¾ì¡ ެ퉶 ÜP¾¬óè¬÷ õöƒ°‹ ªð£ÁŠ¬ð‚ ªè£‡ ´œ÷¶. Þ‚°¿ îù¶ ªê£‰î ºòŸCèO¡ Íô‹ «îêˆ F¡ ñ¼ˆ¶õˆ «î¬õ, Ý󣌄C ñŸÁ‹ è™M º¬ùŠ¹ èO™ ß´ð´Aø¶. Þ‹ñ¼ˆ¶õ GÁõùˆF¡ î¬ôõó£è ì£‚ì˜ ý£˜M Mç¬ð¡ªð˜‚ ªêòô£ŸÁAø£˜. «îCò Ý󣌄C‚ èöèñ£ù¶ («ïûù™ Kªê˜„ 辡C™; National Research Council) «îCò ÜPMò™ è™M‚ °¿õ£™ 1916-Þ™ ðó‰¶ð†ì ÜPMò™ ñŸÁ‹ ¸†ð Mò™ êÍèˆF¡ ÜPõ£˜ˆîƒè¬÷ õ÷˜ˆªî´‚辋 Ü󲂰 ÜP¾¬ó õöƒè¾ªñù ܬñ‚èŠð†ì¶. «îCò è™M‚ °¿ õ°ˆî ªð£¶‚ ªè£œ¬èèO¡ Ü®Šð¬ì J™ «îCò ÜPMò™ è™M‚ °¿«õ£´‹ «îCò ªð£P Jò™ è™M‚ °¿«õ£´‹ ެ퉶, ÜóꣃèˆFŸ°‹, «îCò è™M‚°‹, ÜPMò™, ªð£PJò™ êÍèƒèÀ‚°‹ «ê¬õ ªêŒ¶ õ¼Aø¶. Þ‚°¿, ÜPMò™, ªð£PJò™ ñŸÁ‹ ñ¼ˆ¶õ GÁõƒè«÷£´ ެ퉶, ì£‚ì˜ ó™çŠ «ü. CC«ó£¡ Üõ˜è¬÷ˆ î¬ôõó£è¾‹ ì£‚ì˜ ê£˜ôv ªõv† Üõ˜è¬÷ ¶¬íˆ î¬ôõó£è¾‹ ªè£‡´ ªêò™ð†´ õ¼Aø¶. www.national-academies.org

8 ÝŒõè Môƒ°è¬÷Š «ðµî™ ñŸÁ‹ ðò¡ð£†®Ÿè£ù õN裆® ÝŒõè Môƒ°è¬÷Š «ðµî™, ðò¡ð£†®Ÿè£ù õN裆® Æì¬ñŠ¹ àÁŠHù˜èœ Janet C. Garber (Chair), Garber Consulting R. Wayne Barbee, Virginia Commonwealth University Joseph T. Bielitzki, University of Central Florida Leigh Ann Clayton, National Aquarium, Baltimore John C. Donovan, BioResources, Inc. Coenraad F. M. Hendriksen, Netherlands Vaccine Institute, Bilthoven, The Netherlands (until March 2009) Dennis F. Kohn, Columbia University (retired) Neil S. Lipman, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and Weill Cornell Medical College Paul A. Locke, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health John Melcher, U.S. Senate (retired) Fred W. Quimby, Rockefeller University (retired) Patricia V. Turner, University of Guelph, Canada Geoffrey A. Wood, University of Guelph, Canada Hanno Würbel, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany ܽõô˜èœ Lida Anestidou, Study Director Frances Sharples, Acting Director Kathleen Beil, Administrative Coordinator Cameron H. Fletcher, Senior Editor

9 Ruth Crossgrove, Senior Editor Radiah Rose, Manager of Editorial Projects Rhonda Haycraft, Senior Project Assistant Joanne Zurlo, Director (until April 2010) Þ¡v®®Î† ÝçŠ ªôð«óìK ÜQñ™ Kꘄ 辡C™ àÁŠHù˜èœ Stephen W. Barthold (Chair), Center for Comparative Medicine, University of California-Davis Kathryn A. Bayne, Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International, Frederick, Maryland Myrtle A. Davis, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland Jeffrey I. Everitt, Comparative Medicine and Investigator Support, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (until June 2010) James G. Fox, Division of Comparative Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Nelson L. Garnett, Laboratory Animal Care and Use Programs, Dickerson, MD Estelle B. Gauda, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (until June 2010) Joseph W. Kemnitz, Institute for Clinical and Translational Research and Department of Physiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison Judy A. MacArthur Clark, Animals in Scientific Procedures Inspec- torate, Home Office, London, United Kingdom Martha K. McClintock, Institute for Mind and Biology, University of Chicago, Illinois Leticia V. Medina, Animal Welfare and Compliance, Abbott Labo- ratories, Abbott Park, Illinois

10 ÝŒõè Môƒ°è¬÷Š «ðµî™ ñŸÁ‹ ðò¡ð£†®Ÿè£ù õN裆® Timo Olavi Nevalainen, National Laboratory Animal Center, Uni- versity of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland Bernard E. Rollin, Department of Animal Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins Abigail L. Smith, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Penn- sylvania, Philadelphia (until June 2010) Stephen A. Smith, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg James E. Womack, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Texas A&M University, College Station (until June 2010) ܽõô˜èœ Frances Sharples, Acting Director Lida Anestidou, Senior Program Officer Kathleen Beil, Administrative Coordinator Cameron H. Fletcher, Managing Editor, ILAR Journal Rhonda Haycraft, Program Associate Joanne Zurlo, Director (until April 2010) Þ¡v®®Î† ÝçŠ ªôð«óìK ÜQñ™ Kꘄ 辡C™ Recognition and Alleviation of Pain in Laboratory Animals (2009) Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research (2009) Recognition and Alleviation of Distress in Laboratory Animals (2008) Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy (2007) Overcoming Challenges to Develop Countermeasures Against Aero- solized Bioterrorism Agents: Appropriate Use of Animal Models (2006) Guidelines for the Humane Transportation of Research Animals (2006) Science, Medicine, and Animals: Teacher’s Guide (2005)

11 Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Final Report (2005) Science, Medicine, and Animals (2004) The Development of Science-based Guidelines for Laboratory Ani- mal Care: Proceedings of the November 2003 International Workshop (2004) Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Interim Report (2004) National Need and Priorities for Veterinarians in Biomedical Re- search (2004) Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research (2003) International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Re- sources, Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002 (2003) Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Nonhuman Primates (2003) Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held June 22, 2000 (2000) Strategies That Influence Cost Containment in Animal Research Facilities (2000) Microbial Status and Genetic Evaluation of Mice and Rats: Proceed- ings of the 1999 US/Japan Conference (2000) Microbial and Phenotypic Definition of Rats and Mice: Proceedings of the 1998 US/Japan Conference (1999) Monoclonal Antibody Production (1999) The Psychological Well-Being of Nonhuman Primates (1998) Biomedical Models and Resources: Current Needs and Future Op- portunities (1998) Approaches to Cost Recovery for Animal Research: Implications for Science, Animals, Research Competitiveness and Regulatory Compli- ance (1998) Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for Their Ethical Care, Man- agement, and Use (1997)

12 ÝŒõè Môƒ°è¬÷Š «ðµî™ ñŸÁ‹ ðò¡ð£†®Ÿè£ù õN裆® Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals (1997) Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (1996) Rodents (1996) Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals, Fourth Revised Edi- tion (1995) Laboratory Animal Management: Dogs (1994) Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Ani- mals (1992) Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs (1991) Companion Guide to Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats (1991) Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats (1991) Immunodeficient Rodents: A Guide to Their Immunobiology, Hus- bandry, and Use (1989) Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research (1988) Animals for Research: A Directory of Sources, Tenth Edition and Supplement (1979) Amphibians: Guidelines for the Breeding, Care and Management of Laboratory Animals (1974) «ñŸè‡ì Hó²óƒèO¡ HóFèœ «õ‡´ñ£J¡ W›è‡ì ºèõK‚° â¿FŠ ªðŸÁ‚ ªè£œ÷ô£‹ The National Academies Press, (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 www.nap.edu <http://www.nap.edu>

13 ñFŠd†ì£÷˜èœ Ý Œõè Môƒ°è¬÷Š «ðµî™ ñŸÁ‹ ðò¡ 𣆮Ÿè£ù õN裆®J¡ â†ì£õ¶ ðFŠH¡ ÞÁFŠ ð®õñ£ù¶ «îCò Ýó£ŒC‚ èöèˆF¡ ÝŒ¾¬ó ñFŠd†´‚ Æì¬ñŠð£™ (K«ð£˜† Kš» èI†®, Re- port Review Committee) ܃WèK‚èŠð†ì õNº¬øè¬÷‚ ªè£‡´ «î˜¾ ªêŒòŠð†´ Þˆ¶¬øJ™ î¬ôCø‰î ð¡ºèŠð†ì G¹í˜è¬÷‚ ªè£‡´ ñFŠd´ ªêŒòŠ ð†´œ÷¶. å¼ Cø‰î ¬è«òì£è މ˙ Fèö «õ‡®, «ï˜¬ñò£ù Mñ˜êùƒè¬÷»‹ ñFŠd†¬ì»‹ î¼õîŸ è£ù ²î‰Fóˆ¬î Þ‚°¿¾‚° õöƒA»œ÷¶. «ñ½‹ މ˙ GÁõùˆ îó‚«è£†ð£´èÀ‚°‹ ÜõŸP¡ ÝŒ¾ˆ «î¬õ‚° Gèó£ù ÜPMò™ ªð£¼÷ì‚èƒè¬÷ »‹, Ýî£óƒè¬÷»‹, ßÁè¬÷»‹ àœ÷ì‚Aòî£è ܬñ»‹ð® å¼ î¡ù£†C ªè£‡ì «ð£‚¬è GÁõ õNõ°‚èŠð†´œ÷¶. ñFŠd†ì£÷˜è÷£™ Gè›ˆîŠ ð†ì Mõ£îƒèœ, ꣡Áèœ, îó¾èœ ðˆFóñ£ù º¬øJ™ ð£¶è£‚èŠð†´ õ¼A¡øù. W›‚致œ÷ G¹í˜èO¡ «ñô£ù ÜPMò™ àîM‚° ÞŠ«ðó¬õ ï¡P‚ èì¡ð†´œ÷¶. Michael B. Ballinger, Amgen Philippe J.R. Baneux, PreLabs Stephen W. Barthold, University of California-Davis Linda C. Cork, Stanford University Jann Hau, University of Copenhagen, Denmark Michael J. Huerkamp, Emory University Michael D. Kastello, sanofi-aventis Arthur L. Lage, Harvard Medical School

14 ÝŒõè Môƒ°è¬÷Š «ðµî™ ñŸÁ‹ ðò¡ð£†®Ÿè£ù õN裆® Christian Lawrence, Children’s Hospital Boston Randall J. Nelson, University of Tennessee College of Medicine- Memphis Steven M. Niemi, Massachusetts General Hospital Melinda A. Novak, University of Massachusetts-Amherst Gemma Perretta, National Research Council, Italy Marky E. Pitts, IACUC Consultant George E. Sanders, University of Washington Allen W. Singer, Battelle Memorial Institute William J. White, Charles River Laboratories «ñ«ô °PŠH†´œ÷ ñFŠd†ì£÷˜èœ îñ¶ «ñô£ù °PŠ¹¬óè¬÷»‹ M÷‚èƒè¬÷»‹ Ý«ô£ê¬ù è¬÷»‹ õöƒA Þ¼‰î£½‹, ÞšõN裆®J¡ b˜ñ£ùƒ è¬÷«ò£ ðK‰¶¬óè¬÷«ò£ Üõ˜èœ õNªñ£Nò M™¬ô. ܶñ†´ñ™ô, ñFŠd†®Ÿ°Š H¡, މ˙ ÞÁFò£èŠ ðFŠHˆ¶ ªõOõ¼õ¶ õ¬óJ™ ܬî Üõ˜èœ 𣘂è¾I™¬ô. Þî¡ ñFŠd´ ü£¡ ªì£Lƒ‚, ý£˜õ˜´ ð™è¬ô, ñŸÁ‹ ü£¡õ£‡ªì¡ ªð˜‚, õì‚° è«ó£Lù£ v«ì† ð™è¬ô, ÝA«ò£ó£™ «ñŸð£˜¬õ ªêŒòŠð†ì¶. G¼õ£è ªêò™º¬øèO¡ ð® ²î‰Fóñ£ù ñFŠd´ ï¬ìªðÁõ¬î»‹, Üõ˜èO¡ ñFŠ¹¬óèœ èõùˆF™ ªè£œ÷Šð´A¡øùõ£ â¡ð¬î àÁFªêŒõ‹ «îCò Ý󣌄C‚ èöèˆî£™ ÞšM¼õ¼‹ Üñ˜ˆîŠð†ìù˜. މ˽‚è£ù ÞÁFŠ ð®õˆF¡ ªð£¼÷ì‚èˆFŸè£ù º¿Šªð£ÁŠ¹‹ މˬô â¿F«ò£¬ó»‹ Üõ˜èO¡ G¼õ£èˆFù¬ó »«ñ ꣘‰î¶.

15 º¡Â¬ó ÜPMò™ gFò£è¾‹, ÝŒ¾ ¸†ðƒèœ Íôº‹, ñQî «ïòˆF¡ Ü®Šð¬ìJ½‹ Môƒ°è¬÷Š «ðí ¾‹ ðò¡ð´ˆî¾‹ ÝŒ¾ GÁõùƒèÀ‚°ˆ ¶¬í ¹Kõ«î Þ‰î ÝŒõè Môƒ°è¬÷Š «ðµî™ ñŸÁ‹ ðò¡ð£†®Ÿè£ù õN裆®J¡ °P‚«è£÷£°‹. Þ¬î«ò ÞšõN裆®¬ò «ñ‹ð´ˆFò «ðó¬õ ªîKòŠð´ˆF»œ÷¶. «ñ½‹ Môƒ° ê‹ð‰îŠð†ì îƒè÷¶ ðK«ê£î¬ùè¬÷ ÝŒõ£÷˜èœ F†ìI쾋, ÝŒ¾ ïìˆî¾‹ Üõ˜èOìI¼‰¶ âF˜ð£˜‚èŠð´‹ àò˜G¬ô ÜPMò™, Üø‹, ñQî£Hñ£ù‹ ꣘‰î MFº¬øè¬÷Š H¡ðŸø àîM ¹K»‹ õ¬èJ™ ÞšõN 裆® â¿îŠð†´œ÷¶. ÞšõN裆®J™ Cð£K² ªêŒòŠð†´œ÷ Môƒ° èO¡ «ðµî™ ñŸÁ‹ ðò¡ð£†®Ÿè£ù Mðóƒèœ Hó²K‚èŠð†ì îó¾èœ, ÝŒ¾ º®¾èœ, ÜPMò™ «è£†ð£´èœ, G¹í˜èO¡ 輈¶, àò˜îó Ý󣌄C, ñQî£Hñ£ù Ü®Šð¬ìJ™ Fø‹ õ£Œ‰î¬õ âù GÏH‚èŠð†ì ÝŒ¾, ðJŸC º¬øèO¡ Ü®Šð¬ì J™ ªè£´‚èŠð†´œ÷ù. å¼ GÁõùˆF¡ Môƒ° è¬÷Š «ðµî™ ñŸÁ‹ ðò¡ð£´ ꣘‰î å¼ º¿ Mõó Gó¬ôˆ îò£KŠðîŸè£ù Ü®ˆî÷ñ£è Þ‚¬è«ò†®¡ Mðóƒ è¬÷Š ðò¡ð´ˆîô£‹. ܉Góô£ù¶ Þ‚¬è«ò†®™ ÃøŠð†´œ÷ °P‚«è£À‚°‹, âF˜ð£˜‚°‹ ðô‚°‹, MFº¬øè¬÷‚ ¬è‚ªè£œõ‹ ãŸð â¿îŠð쾋, H¡ðŸøŠð쾋, ÝŒ¾èœ ïìˆîŠð쾋 âF˜ð£˜‚èŠ ð´Aø¶. ܶ«õ Þ‚¬è«ò†®¡ «ï£‚è‹. Þ‚¬è«ò´ Môƒ° ÝŒ¾ ꣘‰î «ðµî™ ñŸÁ‹ ðò¡ð£†®¡ Ü®Šð¬ìJ™ æ˜ ÝŒ¾ˆîó‚ «è£† ð£ì£è ê˜õ«îê Ü÷M™ ãŸÁ‚ªè£œ÷Šð†´œ÷¶.

16 ÝŒõè Môƒ°è¬÷Š «ðµî™ ñŸÁ‹ ðò¡ð£†®Ÿè£ù õN裆® ªð£¶„ ²è£î£óŠ ðE‚è£ù ªè£œ¬èò£è Þ‚¬è«ò´ ä‚Aò ܪñK‚è£M™ ÜõCòñ£‚èŠð†´œ÷¶. Þ¶ ºîL™ ÝŒõè Môƒ°èO¡ ÝŒ¾‚Ãì‹ ñŸÁ‹ ÜõŸP¡ «ðµî½‚è£ù õN裆® â‹ î¬ôŠH™ 1963Ý‹ ݇´ Hó²K‚èŠð†ì¶. Ü¬îˆ ªî£ì˜‰¶ 1965, 1968, 1972, 1978, 1985, 1996 ÝAò ݇´èO™ ñÁðKYô¬ù ªêŒòŠð†´ ªõOJìŠð†ì¶. Þî¡ ºî™ Hó²óˆF L¼‰¶ Þ¶õ¬ó ²ñ£˜ 5,50,000 HóFèœ Ü„CìŠ ð†´œ÷ù. ÝŒõè Môƒ° Ý󣌄C GÁõù‹ (Laboratory Animal Research Institute), 2006Ý‹ ݇´ Þ‚¬è«ò†®¡ Mðóƒ è¬÷ «ñ‹ð´ˆî «õ‡® å¼ îŸè£LèŠ «ðó¬õ¬ò‚ Æ®ò¶. «îCò Ý󣌄C Æì¬ñŠ¹ (National Research Council) 2008-Þ™ ÝŒõè Môƒ°èO¡ «ðµî™ ñŸÁ‹ ðò¡ð£†®Ÿè£ù õN裆®¬ò «ñ½‹ õ÷Šð´ˆî å¼ «ñ‹ð£†´Š «ðó¬õ¬ò ܬñˆî¶. ÜPMòô£÷˜èœ, 裙ï¬ì ñ¼ˆ¶õ˜èœ, àJ˜õN ñ¼ˆ¶õ Üø‹ ñŸÁ‹ Môƒ° ïôˆF™ Ü‚è¬ø ªè£‡ì ÜPMò™ ê£ó£î ªð£¶Š HóFGFèœ âùŠ ðF¡Í¡Á «ð˜ ÞŠ«ðó¬õ J¡ ܃èˆFù˜è÷£èˆ «î˜¾ ªêŒòŠð†ìù˜. ÞŠ«ðó¬õ ÜPMòô£÷˜èœ, ªð£¶ñ‚èœ «ïó®ò£è¾‹ ⿈¶ Íôº‹ ðA˜‰¶ªè£‡ì 輈¶‚è¬÷ Þ‚¬è«ò†®¡ õ÷¬ñ‚°Š ðò¡ð´ˆF‚ ªè£‡ìù˜. «ïó®‚ Ã†ìƒèœ, ªêŠì‹ð˜ 26, 2008-™ õ£SƒìQ ½‹, Ü‚«ì£ð˜ 16-™ Þ˜M¡, èLç«ð£˜Qò£M½‹, ïõ‹ð˜ 14, 2008-™ C裫è£M½‹ G蛉îù. Ü«î Ã†ìˆ F™ ⿈¶ Íôñ£ù 輈¶‚èÀ‹ Mõ£F‚èŠð†ìù. «ñ½‹, 2005-™ îèõ™ «î¬õJ¡ Ü®Šð¬ìJ™ «îCò ²è£î£ó GÁõùˆFŸ° (National Institute of Health) êñ˜ŠH‚èŠ ð†ì Mõóƒè¬÷»‹ ÞŠ«ðó¬õ ÜP‰¶œ÷¶ (NOT-OD- 06-011). ÞŠð®ò£è, ªðøŠð†ì ܬùˆ¶‚ 輈¶‚èÀ‹ ÞšõN裆®J¡ õ÷¬ñ‚° â´ˆ¶‚ ªè£œ÷Šð†ìù. ÞŠðE¬ò ܵ°¬èJ™, ÞšõN裆®J¡ Ü®Šð¬ì Ü‹êñ£ù, Môƒ°èO¡ ðò¡ ð£Ÿð†ì Üø‹, ÜPMò™ âù Þó‡´ è£óEè¬÷»‹ êññ£è‚ 輈F™ ªè£œõ¬î„ êKò£ù º¬øJ™ ⴈì¶. Ü«î êñò‹, ÝŒ¾„ êÍèˆFù¼‚° «ñ‹ð´ˆîŠð†ì

17 îèõ¬ô ÜOŠðF½‹, Môƒè£ŒM™ Ü„êÍè‹ ªð£ÁŠ ¹ì‹ ²ò 膴Šð£†´ì‹ Môƒè£Œ¬õ ïìˆî à õ¬èJ™ î¡ èì¬ñ¬ò ÞŠ«ðó¬õ CøŠð£èŠ ̘ˆFªêŒ¶œ÷¶. Môƒ° Ý󣌄CJ™ Üø‹, ÜPMò™ ꣘‰î «ñô£ù º®¾è¬÷ Üšõ£Œõ£÷˜è«÷ YKò º¬øJ™ â´‚°‹ õ¬èJ½‹, Ü«î êñò‹ Iè‚ è´¬ñ ò£ù MFº¬øè¬÷ GÁ¾õîŸè£ù «î¬õ¬ò M÷‚° õî£è¾‹ ܶ ܬñò «õ‡´‹ â¡Aø ¹KîL¡ Ü®Šð¬ìJ™ ÞšõN裆® â¿îŠð†´œ÷¶. ÝŒõè Môƒ ° ÜP Mò™ ªõ° «õèñ £èŠ ðKí£ñ‹ ܬ쉶õ¼‹ å¼ è÷ñ£°‹. âQ‹ Üî¡ ð™«õÁ ªî£ì˜¹ ªè£‡ì ÜPMò™ ¶¬øèO™ 𣶠A¬ì‚è‚îò îèõ™èœ «ð£¶ñ£ùî£è Þ™¬ô â¡ð¬î»‹ ÞŠ«ðó¬õ ܬìò£÷‹ 致œ÷¶. âù«õ, õ÷˜‰¶õ¼‹ ÜPMò™ îèõ™è¬÷ «ñ½‹ «êèKˆ¶, ÜõŸ¬ø„ YKò º¬øJ™ ÜPMò™ ̘õñ£è Ý󣌉¶ H¡ù£†èO™ Üšõ£«ô£ê¬ùè¬÷ ÞšõN 裆®J™ «ê˜‚è «õ‡®ò «î¬õ¬ò»‹ ªîKMˆ ¶œ÷¶. ÞŠ«ðó¬õJ¡ ð£¬îò ªð£ÁŠ¹ èÀ‚°œ ê£ó£M®Â‹, ÞšMó‡´ î¬ôŠ¹èœ âF˜ è£ôˆF™ 輈F™ ªè£œ÷ «õ‡®ò¬õ: 1) ÝŒõè Môƒ° Þù‹ 嚪õ£¡P¡ õ£Nì‹ ñŸÁ‹ ÞìŠðóŠ¹ õêF ðŸPò «î¬õè¬÷»‹ 2) àìŸðJŸC, õ£Nì„ ªêP¾ ñŸÁ‹ ñQîˆ ªî£ì˜¹ ꣘‰î «î¬õè¬÷»‹ Cø‰î õNº¬ø è¬÷»‹ è‡ìPõ‹. ªî£ì˜‰î îèõ™ «ñ‹ð£´ ÞšõN裆®J¡ º‚Aò‚ °P‚«è£÷£ù, “Môƒ° ïôˆ¬î õ÷Šð´ˆî¾‹, Ý󣌄Cˆ îóˆ¬î àò˜ˆî¾‹, ñQî˜èÀ‚°‹ Môƒ° èÀ‚°ñ£ù ÜøˆF¡ Ü®Šð¬ìJ™ ÜPMò™ ë£ùˆ¬îŠ ªð¼‚辋 «î¬õŠð´‹ îèõ™è¬÷ ÜOŠð¶ (܈Fò£ò‹ 1)” â¡ð¬îˆ î¡Âœ ªè£‡ ´œ÷¶. ÞšõN裆®J¡ ðFŠ¹èO™ Þ¬ìªõOèœ F†ìIìŠðì£ñ½‹ c‡´‹ Þ¼‚A¡øù. 7-õ¶ ðFŠ¹‚°‹ 8-õ¶ ðFŠ¹‚°‹ Þ¬ìJô£ù 14 õ¼ì c‡ì Þ ¬ìªõOJ™ º ‚Aòñ £ù¶‹ ¹ F ò ¶ñ £ù ð ô Ý󣌄C‚ è‡ì¬ì¾èœ YKò ÝŒ¾º¬øè÷£è GÁõŠðì ðˆî£‡´èÀ‚° «ñô£è‚ 裈F¼‚è

18 ÝŒõè Môƒ°è¬÷Š «ðµî™ ñŸÁ‹ ðò¡ð£†®Ÿè£ù õN裆® «õ‡®òî£JŸÁ. ÞŠ«ðó¬õJ¡ F†ì õ¬ó¾‚°œ ÞŠHó„C¬ù Üìƒè£¶ âQ‹, º¬øò£ù Þ¬ìªõO J™, Ü®‚è® ÞšõN裆®J½œ÷ îèõ™è¬÷ «ñ‹ð´ˆ¶õ¶ Môƒ° ïô‹ «ðµõF½‹ îóñ£ù ÝŒ¾è¬÷»‹ ÝŒ¾ º®¾è¬÷»‹ ªðø Ü®ˆî÷ñ£è ¾‹ ܬñ»‹ â¡ð¬î ï£ƒèœ è¼ˆF™ ªè£œA«ø£‹. º¬øò£ù F†ìI†ì Þ¬ìªõOJ™ ÞšõN裆®J¡ îèõ™è¬÷»‹ îó‚ «è£†ð£´è¬÷»‹ «ñ‹ð´ˆî «õ‡®ò º¬øè¬÷ G˜íJŠð¶ Þˆ«î¬õ¬òŠ ̘ˆF ªêŒ»‹ âù A«ø£‹. Þˆîèõ™ «ñ‹ð£†¬ì 㟬èJ™, ÞšõN裆® J¡ Íôˬô â¿î àîMò M™Lò‹ ä«è ñŸÁ‹ ªð ¡ù † «ü «è £ý¡ Üõ ˜è O ¡ ð ƒ èO Š ¬ ð ÞŠ«ðó¬õ ܃WèK‚Aø¶. 1959-™ Môƒ° ïô‚°¿M¡ (Animal Care Panel) î¬ôõó£ù «è£ý¡, Môƒ° «ðµî™ ñŸÁ‹ ðò¡ð£†®¬ùŠ ðŸP ñFŠd´ ªêŒò ‘ÝŒõè Môƒ°è¬÷Š «ðµõîŸè£ù Üø‚è£óEèO¡ «ðó¬õ’¬ò (Committee of Ethical Consideration in the Care of Labo- ratory Animals) GÁMù£˜. ÜŠ«ðó¬õJ¡ î¬ôõó£è GòI‚èŠð†ì ì£‚ì˜ «è, Môƒ° ïô‹ «ðµõ¶ ðŸPò îQŠð†ì îó‚ «è£†ð£´èœ Þ™ô£ñ™ ªõOŠð¬ì ò£è ܬî ñFŠHìˆ îñ¶ «ðó¬õò£™ Þòô£¶ â¡ð¬î M¬óM«ô«ò ܬìò£÷‹ è‡ì£˜. ܬî Môƒ° ïô‚°¿M¡ àò˜ñ†ìŠ «ðó¬õ ãŸÁ‚ªè£‡´ ÝŒ¾‚Ãìˆ îó‚«è£†ð£†´Š «ðó¬õ¬ò ܬñˆîù˜. «îCò ²è£î£ó GÁõù‹, ÝŒõè Môƒ°èO¡ ÝŒ¾‚ Ãì‹ ñŸÁ‹ ÜõŸP¡ «ðµî½‚è£ù ªî£NŸð£Ÿð†ì îó‚«è£†ð£´è¬÷ GÁõ ÜŠ«ðó¬õ‚° å¼ îŸè£LèŠ ªð£ÁŠ¬ð õöƒAò¶. Üîù®Šð¬ìJ™ ì£‚ì˜ «è£ý¡ î¬ô¬ñJ™ Môƒ° ÝŒ¾‚Ãìˆ îó‚«è£† 𣆴Š «ðó¬õò£ù¶ ºî¡ºîL™ ÝŒõè Môƒ° èO¡ ÝŒ¾‚Ãì‹ ñŸÁ‹ ÜõŸP¡ «ðµî½‚è£ù õN裆® â‹ މˬô ªõOJ†ì¶. ÞšõN裆®¬òŠ ðFŠH‚è «îCò ²è£î£ó GÁõù‹, Ý󣌄C «ï˜¬ñ‚è£ù ܽõôè‹, ²è£î£ó‹ ñŸÁ‹ ñQîˆ ªî£‡´‚è£ù ¶¬ø, ܪñK‚è «õ÷£‡ ¶¬ø (USDA), ÝŒõè Môƒ° ÜPMò½‚è£ù ê˜õ«îê

19 ܃Wè£ó‹ ñŸÁ‹ ðFŠð£Œ¾Š «ðó¬õ (AAALAC), ÝŒõè Môƒ° ÜPMò½‚è£ù ܪñK‚è‚ °¿, ÜŠªð£† GF, ç¬ðú˜ GÁõù‹, ÝŒõè Môƒ° ñ¼ˆ¶õˆFŸè£ù ܪñK‚è‚ è™ÖK, ÝŒõè Môƒ° ñ¼ˆ¶õŠ ðJŸC ò£÷˜èO¡ ܪñK‚è‚ °¿, °óƒ°èÀ‚è£ù ñ¼ˆ¶õ˜ èO¡ °¿ ÝAòõŸP¡ GF»îM»ì¡ ðFŠH‚èŠ ð†´œ÷¶. ÝŒõè Môƒ°è¬÷Š «ðµî™ ñŸÁ‹ ðò¡ð£† ®Ÿè£ù õN裆® «ñ‹ð£†®Ÿè£ù «ðó¬õ Þ‰ËL™ ðò¡ð´ˆîŠð†ì ÝŒ¾‚膴¬ó Mðóƒè¬÷»‹ îó¾è¬÷»‹ õK¬êŠð´ˆî àîMò Môƒ° ïô‹ ðŸPò îèõ™ ¬ñò‹, «îCò «õ÷£‡ Ëôè‹, ܪñK‚è «õ÷£‡¶¬ø ÝAòõŸÁ‚°ˆ îù¶ ð£ó£†¬ìˆ ªîKMˆ¶‚ ªè£œAø¶. Þ‹¬ñòˆF¡ àîMJ¡P Þ‚¬è«ò†®¡ ðFŠ¹ Iè‚ è®ùñ£ù Þ¼‰F¼‚°‹. މˬô ñFŠð£Œ¾ ªêŒ«î£¼‚°, °PŠð£è, CøŠð£ù G˜õAŠ¹‚°‹ F†ìI콂°‹ àîMò «ó£‡ì£ «ýA󣊆, º‚Aòñ£è Übî ªð£Á¬ñ»ì¡ c®ˆî 制¬öŠ¬ð»‹ õöƒA, îù¶ «ñô£ù ÜPMJò™ ë£ùˆî£™ ÞˆF†ìˆF¡ ªî£ì‚è‹ ºî™ º®¾ õ¬ó Ý«ô£Cˆ¶ õNïìˆFò ÝŒ¾ Þò‚°ï˜ Lì£ Üªùv®«ì£ Üõ˜èÀ‚°‹ ñùñ£˜‰î ð£ó£†¬ìˆ ªîKMˆ¶‚ ªè£œA«ø£‹. Þ‰ËL¡ õ£êè˜èœ, ÞF™ ã«î‹ îèõ™ M´ð†´Š«ð£ùî£è«õ£, îõø£ù îèõ™ îóŠð†´œ÷ î£è«õ£ è‡ìPò «ï˜‰î£™, Üõ˜èO¡ F¼ˆîƒè¬÷»‹ Ý«ô£ê¬ùè¬÷»‹ õó«õŸA«ø£‹. ÜõŸ¬ø ÝŒõè Môƒ° Ý󣌄C GÁõù‹, «îCò Ý󣌄C‚ Æì¬ñŠ¹, 500, 5-Ýõ¶ ªî¼, õ£Sƒì¡, ®C 20001 â¡Aø ºèõK‚° ÜŠ¹ñ£Á «è†´‚ªè£œA«ø£‹. - ü£ªù† C 裘ð˜ 裘ð˜, î¬ôõ˜ ÝŒõè Môƒ°è¬÷Š «ðµî™ ñŸÁ‹ ðò¡ð£†®Ÿè£ù õN裆® «ñ‹ð£†®Ÿè£ù «ðó¬õ

20 ÝŒõè Môƒ°è¬÷Š «ðµî™ ñŸÁ‹ ðò¡ð£†®Ÿè£ù õN裆® ˟𣘬õ â†ì£õ¶ ðFŠð£ù ÞšõN裆® 䉶 ܈F ò£òƒè¬÷»‹ ° H¡ ެ특è¬÷»‹ ªè£‡ ´œ÷¶. ܈Fò£ò‹ å¡Á, Þ‚¬è«ò†®¡ «ï£‚èƒè¬÷ »‹ Üî¡ ðò¡ð£†ì÷˜è¬÷Š ðŸP»‹, Þ‚¬è«ò´ â´ˆî£À‹ è÷‹ ñŸÁ‹ Üî¡ ðò¡ð£´ ðŸPò 輈¶ è¬÷»‹, ªê£™ô£ì™è¬÷»‹ ðŸPŠ «ð²Aø¶. Þ º‰¬îò ðFŠH¡ Cô ÜPºèŠ ð°Fè¬÷ ÞF™ «ê˜ˆ¶, Í¡Á 'ݘ' (R) â‹ Môƒ° Üø‹ ðŸPò «è£†ð£´ è÷£ù, ñ£ŸÁõNˆ «îì™ (Replacement), «î¬õ‚°¬øŠ¹ (Reduction), «ê£î¬ù º¬øè¬÷Š ð‡ð´ˆî™ (Refinement), ÝAòõŸ¬ø àò˜ˆFŠ H®‚Aø¶. «ñ½‹, Môƒ°Š ðò¡ð£†®™ Üø‹ ðŸP»‹, Ý󣌄Cò£÷˜èOìI¼‰¶ âF˜ð£˜‚èŠð´‹ ªð£ÁŠ¹‹ Ü‚è¬ø»‹ ðŸP»‹ bMó Mõ£îƒè¬÷ˆ î¡Q™ àœ÷ì‚A Þ¼‚Aø¶. ܈Fò£ò‹ Þó‡´, GÁõù‹ ꣘‰î Môƒ°Š ðò¡ð£´ ñŸÁ‹ «ðµî½‚è£ù F†ìˆ¬îŠ ðŸPŠ «ð²Aø¶. ÜîÂì¡, ãö£‹ ðFŠHL¼‰î ܈Fò£ò‹ å¡P½œ÷ î¬ôŠ¹èœ ðŸP MõK‚Aø¶. å¼ GÁõùˆ F¡ ªè£œ¬èèœ, ªð£ÁŠ¹èœ, Üóê£ƒè‚ è†´Šð£´ èœÝAòõŸ¬ø‚ èí‚A™ ªè£‡´, Hø à†¶¬øè¬÷ å¡P¬íŠð¶, Üî¡ Íô‹ ÞˆF†ìˆ¬î âŠð® ðKí£ñŠðì ¬õŠð¶ â¡Á‹ «ð²Aø¶. ÞˆF†ìˆF¡ Íô‹, Ý󣌄Cò£÷˜èÀ‚°‹ ðEò£÷˜èÀ‚°‹ ðJŸC î¼õ¶, G˜õAŠð¶, ðEÞìŠ ð£¶è£Š¹, îŸè£Š¹, Ý«ó£‚Aò‹ ÝAòõŸP™ èõù‹ ªê½ˆ¶õ¶ ðŸP MõK‚Aø¶. °PŠð£è, F†ì «ñŸð£˜¬õ¬òŠ ªð£Áˆî õ¬óJ™, GÁõù Môƒ° «ðµî™ ñŸÁ‹ ðò¡ð£†´‚ è£ù Æì¬ñŠH¡ (IACUC; Þ‰Fò£M™ GÁõù Môƒ°

21 Üø‹ ꣘‰î Æì¬ñŠ¹, IAEC) 膴ñ£ù‹, ªêò™ð£´, ÝŒ¾ˆF†ì ñFŠd´, ÜÂñF‚°Š Høè£ù «ñŸð£˜¬õ, ÝŒ¾ MôƒA¡ ÞÁF‚ è†ìˆ b˜ñ£ùƒèÀ‚è£ù õ¬óò¬ø, å¡Á‚° «ñŸð†ì ÜÁ¬õ CA„¬ê ªêŒòŠ ð´‹ MôƒA¬ùŠ «ðµî™ «ð£¡øõŸP™ «î¬õŠð´‹ ñQîŠð‡¹èœ, º¬øò£ù ðK«ê£î¬ù‚è£ù õêFèœ, «î¬õèœ ðŸP MKõ£è Mõ£F‚Aø¶. Þ¶ ê‹ð‰îñ£è, ÝŒõè Môƒ° ñ¼ˆ¶õˆFŸè£ù ܪñK‚è¡ è™ÖK J¡ (American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine) “«ð£¶ñ£ù 裙ï¬ìŠ «ðµî½‚è£ù õNº¬ø蜔 (Guidelines for Adequate Veterinary Care) â‹ ˬô ܂Æì¬ñŠ¹ ÝîK‚Aø¶. ܈Fò£ò‹ Í¡Á, Môƒ°è¬÷Š «ðµî™ ðŸP «ïó®ò£èŠ «ð²‹ ÞF™ º‰¬îò ðFŠ¹èœ «ð£ô¡P àJ˜õN ñ¼ˆ¶õ Ý󣌄CJ™ õ÷˜‰¶õ¼‹ c˜õ£› àJ˜èO¡ «î¬õ¬ò‚ èí‚A™ ªè£‡´, Gô‹ ñŸÁ‹ c˜ ꣘‰î Môƒ°è¬÷Š ðŸP îQˆî ¶¬íˆ î¬ôŠH™ «ð²Aø¶. ÜõŸP¡ õ£Nì‹ ñŸÁ‹ ²ŸÁ„Åö™ «î¬õ è¬÷Š ðK‰¶¬ó‚Aø¶. Æ´õCŠH¡ º‚Aòˆ¶õˆ¬î Mõ£F‚Aø¶. «ñ½‹ Åö™ ªêP×†ìŠ ªð£¼†èœ (En- vironmental Enrichment) MôƒA¡ ï™õ£›¾, ÜPMò™ «ê£î¬ù º¬øèO¡ î°Fèœ ðŸPò GÏðí‹ ÝAò õŸP™ èõù‹ ªê½ˆ¶Aø¶. õ£Nì Ü÷M¡ «î¬õèœ ðŸPò Mõóƒèœ Æì¬ñŠH¡ ªî£NŸð´ G¹í˜èO¡ ÜÂðõˆ î°F è¬÷‚ ªè£‡´ «î¬õò£ù𮂰 MK¾ð´ˆîŠð† ´œ÷ù. «ñ½‹ Üõ˜èO¡ èEŠH™ ð£¬îò Þì Ü÷¾ º¬øèÀ‹ èí‚A™ â´ˆ¶‚ªè£œ÷Šð†ìù. Þ‚¬è«ò†®¡ ðòù£÷˜èœ G˜ñ£Eˆî õóô£ŸÁ gFò£ù °¬ø‰îð†ê Þìˆ «î¬õ¬ò‚ 輈F™ ªè£‡´, Môƒ°‚ Ç®¡ ÞìÜ÷i´ õ¬óòŠð†´œ÷¶ (ðK‰¶¬ó‚èŠð†ì °¬ø‰îð†ê Þìˆ «î¬õªòù‚ °PJìŠð†´œ÷¶). ‘°¬ø‰îð†ê‹’ â¡ð¶ â‰îMîˆ F½‹ ðòù£÷˜è¬÷ ªï¼‚°õî£è Þ¼‚è º®ò£¶. ãªùQ™, Þì Ü÷¾ â¡Aø õ¬ó¾„ ê†ì‹ ªð£PJò™ «è£†ð£†®¡ð® G˜íJ‚èŠð†ìªî£¼ â‡E‚¬è ñ†´«ñ. °†®èœ ªè£‡ì ªð‡ âLJùƒèÀ‚°‚

22 ÝŒõè Môƒ°è¬÷Š «ðµî™ ñŸÁ‹ ðò¡ð£†®Ÿè£ù õN裆® °¬ø‰îð†ê Þì Ü÷¬õ‚ Æì¬ñŠ¹ ðK‰¶¬ó‚Aø¶. Ü«î«ð£™, ºò™ Ç®¡ àòóˆ¬î 16 ܃°ôñ£è àò˜ˆF»œ÷¶. «ñ½‹, Æì¬ñŠ¹ ªðŸø ãó£÷ñ£ù °PŠ¹¬óèO¡ Ü®Šð¬ìJ™, °P‚«è£œèœ ªêò™ ð´ˆî‚îòî£è Þ¼‚辋, ÜõŸ¬ø G¬ø«õŸø¾‹ «î¬õò£ù îèõ™è¬÷ ÜÂðõ Ü®Šð¬ìJô£ù õNº¬øè¬÷‚ ªè£‡´ ðK‰¶¬óˆ¶œ÷¶. ñQî‚°óƒ°è¬÷Š (Nonhuman Primates, NHPs) ªð£Áˆîõ¬óJ™, Æ´ õCŠ«ð ⊫𣶋 ðK‰ ¶¬ó‚èŠð´Aø¶. «ñ½‹, °PŠH†ì °óƒAù‹ ꣘‰î îèõ™èÀ‹ îóŠð†´œ÷ù. °óƒ°èO™, Ãì å¼ °¿¾‹ Þ ¬í‚èŠð†´ œ÷¶. C ‹ð¡Cèœ ( õ£L™ô £ ÝŠHK‚è‚ °óƒ°) ¹Fò °¿ õ¬èò£èŠ HK‚èŠð† ´œ÷ù. Þ‹ñ£Ÿøƒèœ ñQî‚°óƒ°èœ ðŸP ñ¼ˆ¶õ G¹í˜èœ î‰î 輈F¡ Ü®Šð¬ìJ™ Æì¬ñŠ¹ ðK‰¶¬óˆî¬õò£°‹. ªð£¶õ£è ÜõŸÁ‚° c‡ì G¬øõ£ù î¬ó»‹ àòóñ£ù «ñŸÃ¬ó»‹ «î¬õŠð´ Aø¶. ÜõŸP¡ Cô Þùƒèœ àìŸðJŸC ªêŒ»‹ Þò™ð£ù ðö‚èƒèœ Þƒ«è 輈F™ ªè£œ÷Šð† ´œ÷ù. ܈Fò£ò‹ °, MôƒAù‹ «ðµî™ ñŸÁ‹ ܶ ꣘‰î 裙ï¬ì ñ¼ˆ¶õ˜èO¡ ªð£ÁŠ¹èœ ðŸP Mõ£F‚Aø¶. Môƒ° àJ˜‚裊¹ (Animal Biosecurity) â‹ ÝŒõè Môƒ°èO¡ Ý«ó£‚Aòˆ¬î àÁF ªêŒõîŸè£ù ªî£¼ 輈般î ÜPºèŠð´ˆ¶Aø¶. Môƒ°è¬÷‚ ªè£‡´õ¼î™, «ð£‚°õóˆ¶, «ï£Œ‚ 裊¹ ñ¼ˆ¶õ‹, ñŸÁ‹ ñ¼ˆ¶õŠ ðó£ñKŠ¹, G˜õ£è‹, ÜÁ¬õ CA„¬ê, õL, «õî¬ù¬ò‚ ¬èò£Àî™, õLJ¡P Þø‚è„ ªêŒî™ ÝAò ð°Fè¬÷ MK¾ð´ˆF»œ÷¶. ܈Fò£ò‹ 䉶, ÝŒõèˆF¡ ªð÷bè‹ ê£˜‰î î¬ôŠ¹è¬÷Š ðŸP «ð²Aø¶. ¹Fò, «ñ‹ð´ˆîŠð†ì ÜF˜¾ˆ î´Š¹Š ªð£¼†èœ, ªð÷bè Ü÷Mô£ù ð£¶è£Š¹, àœ ¸¬ö¾ˆî´Š¹, «è´ M¬÷M‚°‹ ªð£¼†è¬÷, èN¾è¬÷ õ¬óº¬øŠð´ˆ¶õ¶ ðŸP»‹ M÷‚°Aø¶. «ñ½‹, àœÀì™ è£†C‚ è¼M, º¿¾ì™ èFKò‚è‚ è¼M, î¬ì‚裊¹ ªè£‡ì õ£Nì‹, MôƒAò™¹ ðŸPò «ê£î¬ù, c˜õ£› àJ˜èÀ‚è£ù

23 õ£Nì‹ ÝAòõŸÁ‚è£ù CøŠ¹I° ÝŒMì õêF è¬÷Š ðŸP»‹ Mõ£F‚Aø¶. ¬ñòŠð´ˆîŠð†ì Ü™ô¶ ªð£¶¬ñŠð†ì Môƒ° ÝŒõè õêFè¬÷Š ðŸP MKõ£èŠ «ð²Aø¶. «õÁð†ì õOò÷¾ (Variable Volume) î¼M‚°‹ î†ðªõ†ð‹, 裟«ø£†ì‹, õOG¬ôŠ 𴈶‹ è¼M¬òŠ ðŸP»‹ (Heating, Ventilation, Air Condition- ing System, HVAC), ÜF½‹ °PŠð£è ÝŸø™ «êI‚°‹, Übî ªêò™Fø‹I‚è è¼Mè¬÷ ðò¡ð´ˆ¶‹ð®ò£ù 輈¶èÀ‹ ÜPºèŠð´ˆîŠð†´œ÷ù. ެ특 Ü) ¹Fî£è„ «ê˜‚èŠð†ì îó¾èœ; ެ특 Ý) ðK«ê£î¬ù‚°‹ Ý󣌄C‚°‹ ðJŸC‚ °‹ àð«ò£èŠð´ˆîŠð´‹ º¶ªè½‹¹Š Hó£EèO¡ «ðµî½‹ ðò¡ð£´‹ ðŸPò ܪñK‚è ÜóC¡ MFº¬øèœ; H¡ ެ특 Þ) ÞˆF†ì‹ ðŸPò ÜP‚¬è; ެ특 ß) Æì¬ñŠH¡ ܃èˆFù˜èœ ðŸPò Mðóƒèœ îóŠð†´œ÷ù. ÞˆF†ì‹ ꣘‰î ÜP‚¬èJ¡ð®, (ðòù£Oèœ å«ó «ïóˆF™, «î®‚ è‡ì¬ì»‹ õ¬èJ™, ÞšõP‚¬è «ò£´, 冴ªñ£ˆîñ£è Þ‚¬è«ò´ ²ôðñ£èˆ îóMø‚è‹ ªêŒò‚îò õ¬èJ™ H®âçŠ õ®M™, Þ¬íòî÷ˆF™ îóŠð´Aø¶. Þ‚¬è«ò´ H®âçŠ õ®M™ «î®‚ è‡ì¬ìò õêFò£è «îCò è™M‚°¿Š ðFŠðèˆF¡ Þ¬íòî÷ˆF™ A¬ì‚°‹. www.nap.edu

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Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition -- Tamil Version Get This Book
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This report is the Tamil translation of Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition.

A respected resource for decades, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has been updated by a committee of experts, taking into consideration input from the scientific and laboratory animal communities and the public at large. The Guide incorporates new scientific information on common laboratory animals, including aquatic species, and includes extensive references. It is organized around major components of animal use:

  • Key concepts of animal care and use. The Guide sets the framework for the humane care and use of laboratory animals.
  • Animal care and use program. The Guide discusses the concept of a broad Program of Animal Care and Use, including roles and responsibilities of the Institutional Official, Attending Veterinarian and the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.
  • Animal environment, husbandry, and management. A chapter on this topic is now divided into sections on terrestrial and aquatic animals and provides recommendations for housing and environment, husbandry, behavioral and population management, and more.
  • Veterinary care. The Guide discusses veterinary care and the responsibilities of the Attending Veterinarian. It includes recommendations on animal procurement and transportation, preventive medicine (including animal biosecurity), and clinical care and management. The Guide addresses distress and pain recognition and relief, and issues surrounding euthanasia.
  • Physical plant. The Guide identifies design issues, providing construction guidelines for functional areas; considerations such as drainage, vibration and noise control, and environmental monitoring; and specialized facilities for animal housing and research needs.

The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals provides a framework for the judgments required in the management of animal facilities. This updated and expanded resource of proven value will be important to scientists and researchers, veterinarians, animal care personnel, facilities managers, institutional administrators, policy makers involved in research issues, and animal welfare advocates.

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