National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Plasma Science: Enabling Technology, Sustainability, Security, and Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25802.
×
Page R1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Plasma Science: Enabling Technology, Sustainability, Security, and Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25802.
×
Page R2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Plasma Science: Enabling Technology, Sustainability, Security, and Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25802.
×
Page R3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Plasma Science: Enabling Technology, Sustainability, Security, and Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25802.
×
Page R4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Plasma Science: Enabling Technology, Sustainability, Security, and Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25802.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Plasma Science: Enabling Technology, Sustainability, Security, and Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25802.
×
Page R6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Plasma Science: Enabling Technology, Sustainability, Security, and Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25802.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Plasma Science: Enabling Technology, Sustainability, Security, and Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25802.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Plasma Science: Enabling Technology, Sustainability, Security, and Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25802.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Plasma Science: Enabling Technology, Sustainability, Security, and Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25802.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Plasma Science: Enabling Technology, Sustainability, Security, and Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25802.
×
Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Plasma Science: Enabling Technology, Sustainability, Security, and Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25802.
×
Page R12
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Plasma Science: Enabling Technology, Sustainability, Security, and Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25802.
×
Page R13
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Plasma Science: Enabling Technology, Sustainability, Security, and Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25802.
×
Page R14

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Prepublication Copy – Subject to Further Editorial Correction Plasma Science: Enabling Technology, Sustainability, Security, and Exploration Committee on a Decadal Assessment of Plasma Science Board on Physics and Astronomy Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences A Consensus Study Report of PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by Grant No. PHY-1801266 from the National Science Foundation, Grant No. DE-SC0018435 from the U.S. Department of Energy, and Grant No. FA9550-18-1-0220 from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, and by the Office of Naval Research. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25802 Copies of this publication are available free of charge from Board on Physics and Astronomy National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2020 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested Citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Plasma Science: Enabling Technology, Sustainability, Security, and Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25802. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

COMMITTEE ON A DECADAL ASSESSMENT OF PLASMA SCIENCE MARK J. KUSHNER, NAE,1 University of Michigan, Co-Chair GARY P. ZANK, NAS,2 University of Alabama, Huntsville, Co-Chair AMITAVA BHATTACHARJEE, Princeton University PETER BRUGGEMAN, University of Minnesota TROY CARTER, University of California, Los Angeles JOHN CARY, University of Colorado CHRISTINE COVERDALE, Sandia National Laboratories ARATI DASGUPTA, Naval Research Laboratory DANIEL DUBIN, University of California, San Diego CAMERON G.R. GEDDES, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory GAIL GLENDINNING, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory DAN M. GOEBEL, NAE, Jet Propulsion Laboratory DAVID B. GRAVES, University of California, Berkeley JUDITH T. KARPEN, National Aeronautics and Space Administration MAXIM Y. LYUTIKOV, Purdue University JOHN S. SARFF, University of Wisconsin, Madison ADAM B. SEFKOW, University of Rochester EDWARD E. THOMAS, JR., Auburn University Staff CHRISTOPHER J. JONES, Program Officer, Study Director JAMES C. LANCASTER, Director NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer AMISHA JINANDRA, Research Associate LINDA WALKER, Program Coordinator BETH DOLAN, Financial Associate 1 NAE, National Academy of Engineering. 2 NAS, National Academy of Sciences. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION v

BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY ABRAHAM LOEB, NAS,3 Harvard University, Chair ANDREW LANKFORD, University of California, Irvine, Vice Chair MEIGAN ARONSON, University of British Columbia WILLIAM BAILEK, NAS, Princeton University JILL DAHLBURG, Naval Research Laboratory SALLY DAWSON, Brookhaven National Laboratory LOUIS DIMAURO, The Ohio State University WENDY FREEDMAN, NAS, University of Chicago TIM HECKMAN, NAS, Johns Hopkins University WENDELL T. HILL III, University of Maryland ALAN J. HURD, Los Alamos National Laboratory CHUNG-PEI MA, University of California, Berkeley NERGIS MAVALVALA, NAS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology SUNIL SINHA, University of California, San Diego WILLIAM A. ZAJC, Columbia University Staff JAMES C. LANCASTER, Director GREGORY MACK, Senior Program Officer CHRISTOPHER J. JONES, Program Officer NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer AMISHA JINANDRA, Research Associate LINDA WALKER, Program Coordinator BETH DOLAN, Financial Associate 3 NAS, National Academy of Sciences. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vi

Preface Plasma science, the investigation of ionized gases and their interactions with materials, is a discipline absolutely critical to the U.S. economy, national security and protection of our planet from space weather events, while also being one of the major and fundamental areas of physical science. The extraordinary reach of plasma science can be gleaned from the range of plasma enabled technologies that the past decades have enjoyed. These span microelectronics fabrication (plasma science underpins the $1 trillion information technology industry), health care, lighting and displays, water purification and materials synthesis. Moreover, plasma science offers unparalleled opportunities to address outstanding and critical societal problems. Not the least of these contributions is making a major impact on society’s ability to address climate change and energy sustainability through the development of fusion generated, carbon free electricity. In addition, plasma science is the basis of stewardship of our nuclear deterrent. Control of intense lasers interacting with plasmas is enabling a new generation of particle accelerators that could revolutionize X-ray imaging from medicine to industry and enable investigation of new quantum phenomena. Plasma science as a scientific discipline in its own right is remarkable in spanning a huge range of physics, contributing to and drawing from disciplines as diverse as space physics and astrophysics, materials science and engineering, atomic, molecular and optical physics, chemistry, biology, medicine and agriculture. The importance of plasma science to the nation is reflected by its support from a variety of federal agencies in developing decadal assessments to measure the impact, accomplishments, future research directions and the role of plasma science to the United States. This report, Plasma Science: Technology, Sustainability, Security, and Exploration, (hereafter “Plasma 2020”), is the third in the series of decadal studies providing this assessment. The Plasma 2020 report was requested and funded by the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, the Office of Naval Research, and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. The committee’s statement of task authored by these agencies appears in Appendix A. By any measure, plasma science and plasma enabled technologies have revolutionized modern society and enabled our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern stars and galaxies, the magnetic fields of planets, the atmosphere, interaction of intense electromagnetic fields with matter, and how energy self-organizes in response to its environment. Besides the fundamental and exciting nature of plasma science in exploring nature, we indeed live our everyday lives surrounded by the extraordinary fruits of applying plasma science to any number of applied problems. Technologies ranging from cell phones to solar cells rely on plasmas for their economic fabrication. The lesson to be drawn from these examples of plasma science in our lives is that there is enormous potential for plasma science to make equal and greater contributions to society moving forward. The recognition of this potential led to a partial focus by the committee to identify in the findings and recommendations of Plasma 2020 the means to make these potential contributions a reality. There is, however, a possible impediment to achieving that potential, and that is the manner in which federal funding for plasma science is structured in the United States. Unfortunately, plasma science funding, because of its wide-ranging utility to so many applications and sciences, tends to be distributed across multiple agencies and there is a lack of cohesive strategic goals. This has a limiting effect on plasma science as a whole, but of greater concern is that it leaves opportunities untaken and in some cases threatens the leadership of the nation in multiple areas of plasma science and engineering. Although our comments on this topic are specific to plasma science, the committee expects that our recommendations may apply to other fields of science and technology as well. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vii

Plasma science and engineering is intrinsically interdisciplinary. The basic science of the field is in its own right a unique discipline and fundamental plasma science is in large part supported by the federal agencies that sponsored this report. However, the majority of the applications and technologies enabled by plasma science are within the realm of other federal agencies (or other offices or programs in the sponsoring agencies). These administrative separations of the fundamental science and the society benefiting applications is an impediment to performing translational research that produces the technologies that empower society. Compartmentalization even occurs within and between agencies that primarily support fundamental plasma science. There are many reasons for this compartmentalization, ranging from interpretation of guidelines that discourage duplication to narrow definitions of missions. This compartmentalization is not in the best interest of furthering the science of plasmas, and in particular, is not in the best interest of the nation, which would benefit from more coordinated fundamental and translational research, while also addressing the science needs of industry. A major theme of Plasma 2020 is partnerships between federal agencies that can mitigate this compartmentalization. In this regard, the findings and recommendations of Plasma 2020 extend far beyond the agencies that sponsored this report. During review and final preparation of Plasma 2020, we are in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic (March to May 2020). The areas of plasma medicine and plasma biotechnology encompass the use of plasmas for sterilization of materials and living tissue such as skin, and address the need to physically kill pathogens without risking antimicrobial resistance. Plasma medicine and plasma biotechnology are examples of interdisciplinary fields that have fallen between the cracks of the perceived responsibilities of individual funding agencies. Plasma focused agencies are reluctant to sponsor projects that involve biological systems and biologically focused agencies are reluctant to sponsor projects that have a focus on plasma physics. As a result, we may have missed an opportunity to have another tool at our disposal to aid in the current health crisis. During the development of Plasma 2020, the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), in response to a Congressional request, began a strategic planning process. The Fusion Energy Scientific Advisory Committee (FESAC) will provide FES with a proposed strategic plan after Plasma 2020 is issued. The plan will be based on a community planning process requested by FESAC and initiated by the American Physical Society Division of Plasma Physics through establishment of an oversight committee. That community planning process was conducted while Plasma 2020 was being developed. Although the FES strategic planning process applies only to FES and its operational goals moving forward, FES does sponsor a considerable fraction of the plasma science that is conducted in the United States, and so there will be some overlap between the Plasma 2020 and the FES report in terms of science challenges. The purview of Plasma 2020 however extends beyond FES to all federal agencies that sponsor fundamental research in plasma or benefit from plasma technologies. Having said that, synergies between the reports emphasize the importance of those topics. During the development of the Plasma 2020 report, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Final Report of the Committee on a Strategic Plan for U.S. Burning Plasma Research was issued. This report discussed a path forward for the United States to perform the research and develop the technologies needed to produce magnetic fusion generated electrical power. Magnetic fusion energy is also a topic of the Plasma 2020 report. As with the FES strategic planning process, the synergies between the recommendations of the burning plasma report and Plasma 2020 are some indication of their importance. Given the extreme breadth of plasma science and engineering that is the purview of this report, the Plasma 2020 committee did not make specific recommendations on prioritizing, for example, the recommendations of the burning plasma report over those of developing laser-plasma based particle accelerators or vice-versa. The intent of Plasma 2020 is to present the scientific science challenges, prioritize within the sub-fields of plasma science and propose structural changes to how plasma science is coordinated to address those science challenges and the translational research that produces societal benefit. Finally, the committee thanks the national and international plasma science and engineering communities for providing input and their perspectives. These communities were engaged through PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION viii

solicitation and their submission of white papers; participation in a series of town hall meetings at universities, national laboratories, conferences and workshops; and through presentations made to the committee in closed and open sessions. The committee reached out to numerous members of the community for specific contributions and input where we felt additional insight and expertise was needed. The committee also thanks the reviewers for their candid and helpful comments, the National Academies staff and, in particular, Dr. Chris Jones and Dr. James Lancaster for guiding the committee through this process. Mark J. Kushner and Gary P. Zank, Co-Chairs Committee on the Decadal Assessment of Plasma Science PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION ix

Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Jill Dahlburg, Naval Research Laboratory, Roger Falcone, NAS, University of California, Berkeley, Truell Hyde, Baylor University, Justin Kasper, University of Michigan, Christopher Keane, Washington State University, Carolyn Kuranz. University of Michigan, Michael Litos, University of Colorado, Boulder, Michael Mauel, Columbia University, Steven C. Shannon, North Carolina State University, Clifford M. Surko, University of California, San Diego, and Toshiki Tajima, University of California, Irvine. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Richard A. Gottscho, NAE, LAM Research Inc., and T. Kenneth Fowler, NAS, University of California, Berkeley. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xi

Contents SUMMARY S-1 1 PLASMA SCIENCE: ENABLING TECHNOLOGY, SUSTAINABILITY, SECURITY, AND EXPLORATION 1-1 2 THE FOUNDATION OF PLASMA SCIENCE 2-1 3 LASER-PLASMA INTERACTIONS: COMPACT PARTICLE ACCELERATORS, NEW OPTICS, AND BRILLIANT X-RAY SOURCES 3-1 4 EXTREME STATES OF PLASMAS: HIGH ENERGY DENSITY SYSTEMS 4-1 5 LOW-TEMPERATURE PLASMAS: A UNIQUE STATE OF MATTER FOR ADDRESSING SOCIETAL NEEDS 5-1 6 MAGNETIC CONFINEMENT FUSION ENERGY: BRINGING STARS TO EARTH 6-1 7 THE COSMIC PLASMA FRONTIER 7-1 APPENDIXES A Statement of Task A-1 B Summary of Findings and Recommendations B-1 C Survey Data Gathering Events C-1 D Committee Member Biographical Information D-1 E Acronyms E-1 PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xiii

Next: Summary »
Plasma Science: Enabling Technology, Sustainability, Security, and Exploration Get This Book
×
Buy Prepub | $97.00 Buy Paperback | $90.00
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Plasma Science and Engineering transforms fundamental scientific research into powerful societal applications, from materials processing and healthcare to forecasting space weather. Plasma Science: Enabling Technology, Sustainability, Security and Exploration discusses the importance of plasma research, identifies important grand challenges for the next decade, and makes recommendations on funding and workforce.

This publication will help federal agencies, policymakers, and academic leadership understand the importance of plasma research and make informed decisions about plasma science funding, workforce, and research directions.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!