National Academies Press: OpenBook
Page i
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidance to Improve Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety at Intersections. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25808.
×
Page R1
Page ii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidance to Improve Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety at Intersections. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25808.
×
Page R2
Page iii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidance to Improve Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety at Intersections. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25808.
×
Page R3
Page iv
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidance to Improve Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety at Intersections. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25808.
×
Page R4
Page v
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidance to Improve Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety at Intersections. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25808.
×
Page R5
Page vi
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidance to Improve Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety at Intersections. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25808.
×
Page R6
Page vii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidance to Improve Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety at Intersections. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25808.
×
Page R7
Page viii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidance to Improve Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety at Intersections. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25808.
×
Page R8

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

2020 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 926 Guidance to Improve Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety at Intersections Rebecca Sanders ArizonA StAte UniverSity School of GeoGrAphicAl ScienceS & UrbAn plAnninG Tempe, AZ Bill Schultheiss Belinda Judelman Rob Burchfield toole DeSiGn GroUp Silver Spring, MD Krista Nordback Dan Gelinne Libby Thomas Daniel Carter Charlie Zegeer UniverSity of north cArolinA hiGhwAy SAfety reSeArch center Chapel Hill, NC Conor Semler Meredyth Sanders Hermanus Steyn Paul Ryus KittelSon & ASSociAteS, inc. Portland, OR William W. Hunter Chapel Hill, NC Peter Koonce Portland, OR Subscriber Categories Pedestrians and Bicyclists • Design • Safety and Human Factors Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transporta- tion results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to high- way authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniques—the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRB’s recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRB’s relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the Federal Highway Administration. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&I’s recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 926 Project 15-63 ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-48123-6 Library of Congress Control Number 2020933503 © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Cover photo: Toole Design Group NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 926 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs William C. Rogers, Senior Program Officer Jarrel McAfee, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Jennifer Correro, Assistant Editor NCHRP PROJECT 15-63 PANEL Field of Design—Area of General Design J. Michael Y. Ereti, Gunda Corporation, LLC, Houston, TX (Chair) Ed J. Spilker, Washington State DOT, Olympia, WA Sharon K. Daleo, CH2M Hill, Portland, OR Brian K. Frazer, California DOT, Sacramento, CA Carlos Ibarra, Cobb, Fendley & Associates, Inc., Atlanta, TX Carissa Dale McQuiston, Michigan DOT, Lansing, MI Jamie R. Parks, San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency, San Francisco, CA Ann H. Do, FHWA Liaison Bernardo Kleiner, TRB Liaison

F O R E W O R D By William C. Rogers Staff Officer Transportation Research Board NCHRP Research Report 926 provides a succinct process for selecting intersection designs and operational treatments that provide safety benefits for pedestrians and bicyclists, and the most appropriate situation for their application. The report draws from and builds on the strengths of key countermeasures and safety resources, tying these together in a system- atic process for transportation practitioners to use to improve bicycle and pedestrian safety at intersections. In 2016 and 2017, pedestrians and bicyclists made up 18 percent of all fatalities on our streets, despite representing less than 4 percent of all trips. This continues an upward trend in these modes’ share of roadway fatalities since 2007. Intersections are challenging locations for all road users, but they can be especially difficult for people walking and biking. Between 2014 and 2016, 27 percent of pedestrians and 38 percent of bicyclists killed in crashes were struck at intersections. In this same period, the numbers were even higher in urban areas where 32 percent of pedestrian fatalities and 44 percent of bicyclist fatalities occurred at intersections or were intersection-related. To help address the increase in crashes involving vulnerable roadway users, NCHRP Research Report 926 provides up-to-date knowledge for practitioners to identify and apply proven treatments to make intersections safer for all users. For NCHRP Project 15-63, the University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center led a consultant team, composed of Toole Design Group, Kittelson & Associates, William W. Hunter, and Peter Koonce. The team was asked to develop guidance for trans- portation practitioners to improve pedestrian and bicycle safety at intersections through design and operational treatments that (1) identifies and evaluates current practices and emerging technologies and trends; (2) describes current best practices for measuring the effectiveness of such intersection treatments; (3) evaluates safety outcomes of specific intersection treatments using quantitative measures; and (4) identifies and ranks strategies, processes, and relationships that could accelerate the adoption of improved pedestrian and bicycle intersection design and operational treatments. The Guide provides a step-by-step process for selecting intersection safety treatments based on site conditions, effectiveness, level of public process, and their potential to reduce certain common pedestrian and bicycle crash types. The appendix is a Countermeasure Glossary documenting 34 pedestrian and bicycle intersection safety countermeasures with two-page listings of key information for each.

vii Contents Summary .....................................................................................................................1 Introduction ................................................................................................................4 Safety Trends ...................................................................................................................................4 Strategies for Improving Intersection Safety ............................................................................5 Safety Decisions and Trade-Offs .................................................................................................6 Using This Guide .............................................................................................................................7 Additional Information ...................................................................................................................8 Chapter 1: Frame the Process ...................................................................................10 1.1 Project Scope ......................................................................................................................... 10 1.2 Project Purpose and Need .................................................................................................. 10 1.3 Project Delivery Method ....................................................................................................... 12 1.4 Project Limits ......................................................................................................................... 13 1.5 Project Context ...................................................................................................................... 14 1.6 End Users ................................................................................................................................ 14 1.7 Safety Strategy (Decision Point) ........................................................................................ 14 1.8 Financial Considerations ..................................................................................................... 15 1.9 Public Support ....................................................................................................................... 15 Chapter 2: Identify and Collect the Data for Analysis ..................................................16 2.1 Data Types ............................................................................................................................. 16 2.2 Key Data Sources .................................................................................................................. 19 2.3 Measuring Intersection Safety ........................................................................................... 24 2.4 Working with Imperfect Data .............................................................................................. 27 2.5 Case Example ........................................................................................................................ 28 Chapter 3: Analyze Intersection Safety and Identify Issues ........................................35 3.1 Approaches to Intersection Safety Assessment ............................................................ 35 3.2 Using Crash Typing to Identify Treatment Options ........................................................ 39 3.3 Safety Analysis Tools ........................................................................................................... 39 3.4 Engineering Studies .............................................................................................................. 40 3.5 Assessing Comfort and Safety .......................................................................................... 41 3.6 Conclusion .............................................................................................................................. 45 GUIDANCE TO IMPROVE PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLIST SAFETY AT INTERSECTIONS

viii Chapter 4: Identify Treatment Options for Creating Safer Intersections ......................46 4.1 Guiding Principles ................................................................................................................. 46 4.2 Identifying Countermeasures ............................................................................................ 48 Chapter 5: Refine the Countermeasure Options .........................................................65 5.1 Why Consider the Project Context? ................................................................................... 65 5.2 Define Project Land Use Context ....................................................................................... 67 5.3 Define the Project Roadway Type ...................................................................................... 70 5.4 Document Project and Geometric Constraints ............................................................... 73 5.5 Define Policy and Financial Context ................................................................................. 75 5.6 Identify Project Users and Priority Users .......................................................................... 76 5.7 Refine the List of Potential Countermeasures ................................................................ 79 5.8 Making the Case and Measuring Success ....................................................................... 80 5.9 Assessing Performance ...................................................................................................... 82 Chapter 6: Final Countermeasure Selection ...............................................................83 6.1 Determining Modal Priorities for Operations, Safety, and Comfort ............................ 84 6.2 Limitations in Local, Regional, or State Policy ................................................................. 88 6.3 Assessing Benefits and Costs ............................................................................................ 91 6.4 A Process to Identify Flexible Solutions ........................................................................... 95 Chapter 7: Conclusions and Epilogue .........................................................................97 References ................................................................................................................98 List of Acronyms .....................................................................................................107 Appendix: Countermeasure Glossary .......................................................................109 GUIDANCE TO IMPROVE PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLIST SAFETY AT INTERSECTIONS

Next: Summary »
Guidance to Improve Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety at Intersections Get This Book
×
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Intersections are challenging locations for all road users, but they can be especially difficult for people walking and biking. Between 2014 and 2016, 27 percent of pedestrians and 38 percent of bicyclists killed in crashes were struck at intersections.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Research Report 926: Guidance to Improve Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety at Intersections provides a succinct process for selecting intersection designs and operational treatments that provide safety benefits for pedestrians and bicyclists, and the most appropriate situation for their application.

In 2016 and 2017, pedestrians and bicyclists made up 18 percent of all fatalities on U.S. streets, despite representing less than 4 percent of all trips. This continues an upward trend in these modes’ share of roadway fatalities since 2007.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!