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Alternative Intersection Design and Selection (2020)

Chapter: Appendix A - Survey Questionnaire

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Survey Questionnaire." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Alternative Intersection Design and Selection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25812.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Survey Questionnaire." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Alternative Intersection Design and Selection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25812.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Survey Questionnaire." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Alternative Intersection Design and Selection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25812.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Survey Questionnaire." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Alternative Intersection Design and Selection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25812.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Survey Questionnaire." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Alternative Intersection Design and Selection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25812.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Survey Questionnaire." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Alternative Intersection Design and Selection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25812.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Survey Questionnaire." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Alternative Intersection Design and Selection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25812.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Survey Questionnaire." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Alternative Intersection Design and Selection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25812.
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82 Survey Questionnaire A P P E N D I X A NCHRP SYNTHESIS 20-05, TOPIC 50-11 ALTERNATIVE INTERSECTION DESIGN AND SELECTION QUESTIONNAIRE LETTER TO THE RESPONDENT Dear Participant, The Transportation Research Board (TRB), through the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), under the sponsorship of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), and in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is preparing a synthesis report on Alternative Intersection Design and Selection. The objective of this synthesis study is to review and document the procedures and policies applied by state DOTs to evaluate and select alternative intersection projects. The scope of the synthesis encompasses the following: At-grade intersections and intersections at interchange ramp terminals, New construction and intersection improvement projects, Conventional signalized and unsignalized intersections in the context of the intersection selection process. Completion of this synthesis will assist state DOTs with identifying practices to improve decision-making processes for alternative intersections and thereby help to optimize infrastructure investments and enhance safety and operations. Your cooperation in completing this survey will help to ensure the success of this synthesis project. This survey is being sent to one person from each state DOT. You have been identified as the appropriate person at your DOT to complete this survey. The survey link that you received

Survey Questionnaire 83 Please complete this survey by February 15, 2019. We estimate that the survey will take approximately 20 minutes to complete. If you have any questions, please contact the Principal Investigator, Henry Brown, at (573) 882-0832 or brownhen@missouri.edu. Any supporting materials may be sent by email to Henry or uploaded in lieu of providing URLs. Thank you again for participating in this survey! QUESTIONNAIRE INSTRUCTIONS 1. To view and print the entire questionnaire, Click on this survey link and download and print the document. 2. To save your partial answers and complete the questionnaire later, close the questionnaire. Answers are automatically saved upon closing the browser window. To return to the questionnaire later, open the original email from Henry Brown and click on the survey link. 3. To pass a partially completed questionnaire to a colleague, close the questionnaire and forward the original email from Henry Brown to a colleague. Note that only one person may work on the survey at a time; the survey response should only be active on one computer at a time. 4. To view and print your answers after completing the survey, submit the survey by clicking “submit” on the final page. Download and print the PDF on the following page which contains a summary of your responses. 5. To submit the survey, click on "Submit" on the last page. QUESTIONNAIRE TIPS 1. Survey navigation is conducted by selecting the forward and back arrows at the bottom of each page. 2. If you are unable to complete the questionnaire, you can return to the questionnaire at any time by reentering through the survey link. DEFINITIONS For the purposes of this survey, the following definitions are used: Intersection: At-grade junction of two or more streets. Alternative intersection: An intersection where one or more traffic movements is re-routed to remove major conflict points. Service interchanges that include alternative intersections or intersections with innovative traffic control methods are included in the scope of this survey. is unique for your DOT. If it would be more appropriate for someone else at your DOT to take this survey, please forward the email with the survey link to them or send their name and email address to Henry Brown (brownhen@missouri.edu). Additional instructions are provided below. If you would like to see a preview of the full survey, please click here.

84 Alternative Intersection Design and Selection TERMINOLOGY FOR TYPES OF ALTERNATIVE INTERSECTIONS Agencies use various terms for alternative intersections. Some common types of alternative intersections along with terms used for each intersection type are shown below in Figures 1 through 6. The terms that will be used throughout this survey are shown in this font. Links to these images are provided in the survey in case you would like to refer to them while taking the survey. A supplemental list of other alternative intersections (without figures) is also provided. Please note that the scope of this synthesis is not limited to the intersection types shown in Figures A-1 through A-6. Throughout the survey, you are encouraged to provide information regarding other types of alternative intersections that have been evaluated and/or implemented by your agency. Figure A-1. Roundabout.

Survey Questionnaire 85 Figure A-2. Superstreet intersection, J-Turn intersection, restricted crossing U- Turn intersection, and synchronized street intersection. Note that in some superstreet configurations, left turns from major streets may be removed. Figure A-3. Median U-turn intersection, Michigan left, thru-turn intersection, median U-turn crossover, and boulevard turnaround.

86 Alternative Intersection Design and Selection Figure A-4. Continuous flow intersection (CFI), displaced left turn (DLT) intersection, and crossover displaced left-turn intersection. Figure A-5. Single point diamond interchange (SPDI) and single point urban interchange (SPUI).

Survey Questionnaire 87 Figure A-6. Diverging diamond interchange and double crossover diamond interchange (DCD). Other alternative intersections may include the following: Jughandles, Continuous-Ts, Quadrant Roadways, Bowties, and Echelons. Hybrids using various elements of alternative intersections, which would also include using alternative intersection concepts in service interchange forms, would also be considered a unique alternative intersection. QUESTIONS Contact Information Name ___________________ State ___________________ Phone Number _____________________ Email Address ______________________

88 Alternative Intersection Design and Selection 1. Approximately how many of the following intersection/interchange types does your agency currently have open and operational? 0 1-5 6-10 11-25 26-50 >50 Roundabout Superstreet MUT CFI SPDI DDI Other (Please describe in comments box below) Comments: _____________________________________________________________________________

Survey Questionnaire 89 2. Approximately how many of the following intersection/interchange types is your agency currently considering as an alternative in the planning stage of project development? 0 1-5 6-10 11-25 26-50 >50 Roundabout Superstreet MUT CFI SPDI DDI Other (Please describe in comments box below) Comments: _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. Approximately how many of the following intersection/interchange types are currently moving forward in the project development stage at your agency after being selected as the preferred intersection/interchange type at a given location? 0 1-5 6-10 11-25 26-50 >50 Roundabout Superstreet MUT CFI SPDI DDI Other (Please describe in comments box below) Comments: _____________________________________________________________________________

90 Alternative Intersection Design and Selection 4. On a scale of 1 to 10 (1 = Poor, 10 = Outstanding, 0 = N/A), how would you rate the performance of the following intersection/interchange types that have been implemented by your agency? Rating Roundabout Superstreet MUT CFI SPDI DDI Other (Please describe in “Additional Comments” box below) Please explain any ratings of 1 to 4: _____________________________________________________________________________ Comments: _____________________________________________________________________________

Survey Questionnaire 91 5. How frequently would you estimate that your agency considers the following factors when selecting an intersection type at a given site? Always Almost Always Sometimes Rarely Never Access Management Bicyclists Capacity Constructability Costs (Initial) Costs (Life Cycle) Driver Expectancy Maintenance of Traffic During Construction Pedestrians Public/Political Reaction Right-of-way Safety Performance Vehicle Delay Vehicle Speed Other (Please describe in comments box below) Comments: _____________________________________________________________________________

92 Alternative Intersection Design and Selection 6. How strongly do you agree or disagree that the following concerns have hindered your agency’s efforts to implement alternative intersection designs? Strongly Agree Somewhat Agree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Somewhat Disagree Strongly Disagree Access Management Agency Understaffed Constructability Driver Awareness Environmental Impacts Funding Constraints Impacts to Bicyclists and Pedestrians Land Use Constraints Large Vehicles Liability Issues Need Information on Benefits Newness of Design Older Drivers Operational Impacts Proper Expertise to Design or Review Public Education Public Opposition Safety Impacts Stakeholder Concerns Time to Research and/or Implement Other (Please describe in comments box below)

Survey Questionnaire 93 Comments: _____________________________________________________________________________ 7. Has your agency performed any evaluations of alternative intersections after construction? Yes No If you answered “yes” to Question 7, please provide URL(s) for evaluation documents in the box below, upload files, or email files to brownhen@missouri.edu ____________________________________________________________________________ Comments: _____________________________________________________________________________ 8. Has your agency used or developed any documented policies, procedures, or guidelines for evaluating intersection types and selecting an intersection type for a given site? Yes No If you answered “yes” to Question 8, please provide URL(s) for these documents in the box below, upload files, or email files to brownhen@missouri.edu ____________________________________________________________________________ Comments: _____________________________________________________________________________

94 Alternative Intersection Design and Selection 9. Has your agency developed any design criteria, analysis criteria, or construction details (including details for signing, marking, and lighting) for the following types of alternative intersections? Yes No Roundabout Superstreet MUT CFI SPDI DDI Other (Please describe in comments box below) If you answered "yes" to any intersection types in Question 9, please provide URL(s) for these documents in the box below, upload files, or email files to brownhen@missouri.edu ____________________________________________________________________________ Comments: _____________________________________________________________________________ 10. Does your agency provide any training for employees and/or consultants for evaluating and/or designing intersection types for a given site? Yes No If you answered “yes” to Question 10, please provide URL(s) for available training materials in the box below, upload files, or email files to brownhen@missouri.edu ____________________________________________________________________________ Comments: _____________________________________________________________________________

Survey Questionnaire 95 11. Has your agency developed any resources (e.g., software, flowcharts, worksheets) to assist in the process of evaluating intersection types and selecting an intersection type at a given site? Yes No If you answered “yes” to Question 11, please provide URL(s) for resources in the box below, upload files, or email files to brownhen@missouri.edu ____________________________________________________________________________ Comments: _____________________________________________________________________________ 12. Does your agency have special in-house engineers or consultants review projects for the following types of alternative intersections/interchanges? Roundabout Superstreet MUT CFI SPDI DDI Other (Please describe in comments box below) Comments: _____________________________________________________________________________

96 Alternative Intersection Design and Selection 13. Does/Did your agency have a “champion” for various alternative intersections? (select all that apply) YES, in the traffic department YES, in the highway design department YES, in the senior management level NO, but one is not needed to get alternative intersections selected NO, which makes getting alternative intersections implemented harder Comments: _____________________________________________________________________________ 14. How frequently does your agency utilize the following resources to evaluate intersection types and select an intersection type at a given site? Always Almost Always Sometimes Rarely Never CAP-X      SPICE      Custom Agency Software Tool      AASHTO Green Book      Agency Standards or Policies      FHWA Alternative Intersection Guides      Highway Capacity Manual      Highway Safety Manual      MUTCD      Worksheet or Flowchart      Other (Please describe in comments box below)     

Survey Questionnaire 97 Comments: _____________________________________________________________________________ 15. What types of public outreach materials regarding alternative intersections has your agency developed (select all that apply)? My agency has not developed public outreach material for alternative intersections My agency is in the process of developing public outreach material for alternative intersections Website, please provide URL _____________________________ Social media site, please provide URL _____________________________ Flyer/and or pamphlet, please provide URL, upload files, or email files to brownhen@missouri.edu _____________________________ Video, please provide URL, upload files, or email files to brownhen@missouri.edu _____________________________ Other, please specify and provide URL, upload files, or email files to brownhen@missouri.edu _____________________________ My agency uses materials from other agencies, please provide URL, upload files, or email files to brownhen@missouri.edu _____________________________ 16. The synthesis will also include case examples demonstrating agency practices for alternative intersection design selection. The development of the case examples will require an additional follow-up interview. Agencies participating in the case examples will be provided with an opportunity to review the case example write-up. Would your agency be interested in participating in a case example? Yes No If you answered "yes" to Question 16, please suggest locations and provide agency contact information for case examples using the box below ____________________________________________________________________________ 17. Please provide any additional comments that you have regarding alternative intersection design and selection. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ To complete the survey and record your answers, please click the “Submit” button.

98 Alternative Intersection Design and Selection Please note that once you click the “Submit” button, you will not be able to modify your answers. To save your partial answers and complete the questionnaire later, close the questionnaire. Answers are automatically saved upon closing the browser window. To return to the questionnaire later, open the original email from Henry Brown and click on the survey link. To pass a partially completed questionnaire to a colleague, close the questionnaire and forward the original email from Henry Brown to a colleague. Note that only one person may work on the survey at a time; the survey response should only be active on one computer at a time. To review your answers before submitting, please select the forward and back arrows at the bottom of each page. END OF SURVEY Thank you for completing this survey. Your efforts are greatly appreciated. Your responses are very important, and your feedback is welcome. For your information, a copy of your responses is provided below. You may download your responses in pdf format using the “Download PDF” link shown below. If you have any questions or comments, please contact the principal investigator, Henry Brown: Henry Brown, P.E. E2509 Lafferre Hall University of Missouri Columbia, MO 65211 (573) 882-0832 brownhen@missouri.edu Your responses have been recorded, and you may now close your browser.

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State departments of transportation often encounter public resistance to alternative intersections, with 86% of respondents in a new survey of state DOTs agreeing or strongly agreeing that public resistance hinders their implementation. Public resistance can vary among projects based on intersection type and whether the project was initiated at the local or state level.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Synthesis 550: Alternative Intersection Design and Selection documents the evaluation and selection processes within state departments of transportation (DOTs) for intersection projects.

Roundabouts are the most widely implemented type of alternative intersection. Ninety percent of state DOTs that responded to the synthesis survey reported having at least one roundabout in their jurisdiction open and operational. Roundabouts also had the highest reported number of facilities in project development as 88% of respondents indicated there was at least one roundabout under development at their DOT.

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