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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2019-2020 Assessment of the Army Research Laboratory: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25819.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2019-2020 Assessment of the Army Research Laboratory: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25819.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2019-2020 Assessment of the Army Research Laboratory: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25819.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2019-2020 Assessment of the Army Research Laboratory: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25819.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2019-2020 Assessment of the Army Research Laboratory: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25819.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2019-2020 Assessment of the Army Research Laboratory: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25819.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2019-2020 Assessment of the Army Research Laboratory: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25819.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2019-2020 Assessment of the Army Research Laboratory: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25819.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2019-2020 Assessment of the Army Research Laboratory: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25819.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2019-2020 Assessment of the Army Research Laboratory: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25819.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2019-2020 Assessment of the Army Research Laboratory: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25819.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2019-2020 Assessment of the Army Research Laboratory: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25819.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Army Research Laboratory Technical Assessment Board Laboratory Assessments Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences A Consensus Study Report of

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by Contract No. W911QX-14-C-0039 from the Army Research Laboratory. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-67822-3 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-67822-6 Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25819 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2020 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2019-2020 Assessment of the Army Research Laboratory: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25819.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT BOARD JENNIE S. HWANG, NAE,1 Case Western Reserve University; H-Technologies Group, Chair FREDERICK R. CHANG, NAE, Southern Methodist University MARK EBERHART, Colorado School of Mines PRABHAT HAJELA, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute WESLEY L. HARRIS, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology WILLIAM S. MARRAS, NAE, Ohio State University DANIEL A. REED, The University of Utah LESLIE E. SMITH, National Institute of Standards and Technology (emeritus) DAVID A. WEITZ, NAS2/NAE, Harvard University Staff AZEB GETACHEW, Senior Program Assistant EVA LABRE, Administrative Coordinator JAMES P. MCGEE, Director ARUL MOZHI, Senior Program Officer 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Member, National Academy of Sciences.

PANEL ON HUMAN FACTORS SCIENCE AT THE ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY WILLIAM S. MARRAS, NAE, Ohio State University, Chair HENNY ADMONI, Carnegie Mellon University MONICA ANDERSON (HERZOG), University of Alabama ELLEN J. BASS, Drexel University FREDERICK R. CHANG, NAE, Southern Methodist University ERIN K. CHIOU, Arizona State University MATTHEW C. GOMBOLAY, Georgia Institute of Technology MICHAEL A. GOODRICH, Brigham Young University WAYNE D. GRAY, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute MOSHE KAM, New Jersey Institute of Technology MARGARET L. LOPER, Georgia Tech Research Institute ARNOLD M. LUND, University of Washington, Bothell NATHAN J. MCNEESE, Clemson University KATHERINE L. MORSE, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory NADINE B. SARTER, NAE, University of Michigan CAROLYN M. SOMMERICH, Ohio State University LAURA D. STRATER, Raytheon Company MOHAN M. TRIVEDI, University of California, San Diego DOUGLAS J. WEBER, University of Pittsburgh

PANEL ON INFORMATION SCIENCE AT THE ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY PRABHAT HAJELA, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Co-Chair DANIEL A. REED, The University of Utah, Co-Chair RALPH C. ALDREDGE, III, University of California, Davis JEAN M. ANDINO, Arizona State University PETER A. BELING, University of Virginia BIR BHANU, University of California, Riverside IAIN D. BOYD, University of Michigan JENNI L. EVANS, The Pennsylvania State University HAYM B. HIRSH, Cornell University GEORGE KARYPIS, University of Minnesota JOHN M. LANICCI, University of South Alabama TERRY P. LEWIS, Booz Allen Hamilton KYRAN D. MISH, Sandia National Laboratories J. GREGORY MORRISETT, Cornell University RADIA J. PERLMAN, NAE, EMC Corporation PADMA RAGHAVAN, Vanderbilt University DAWN M. TILBURY, University of Michigan PETER K. WILLETT, University of Connecticut

LABORATORY ASSESSMENTS BOARD ROSS B. COROTIS, NAE, University of Colorado, Boulder, Chair WESLEY L. HARRIS, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JENNIE S. HWANG, NAE, Case Western Reserve University; H-Technologies Group W. CARL LINEBERGER, NAS, JILA,3 University of Colorado, Boulder C. KUMAR N. PATEL, NAS/NAE, University of California, Los Angeles; Pranalytica, Inc. ELSA REICHMANIS, NAE, Georgia Institute of Technology LYLE H. SCHWARTZ, NAE, University of South Florida, Tampa Staff AZEB GETACHEW, Senior Program Assistant EVA LABRE, Administrative Coordinator JAMES P. MCGEE, Director ARUL MOZHI, Senior Program Officer MARTIN OFFUTT, Senior Program Officer 3 JILA, formerly known as the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, is a physical science research institute located on the University of Colorado, Boulder, campus. JILA is jointly operated by the University of Colorado and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: William F. Brinkman, NAS,1 Princeton University, Phillip Colella, NAS, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Barbara A. Dosher, NAS, University of California, Irvine, Ayanna Howard, Georgia Institute of Technology, Michael I. Posner, NAS/NAM,2 University of Oregon, Jennifer Rexford, NAE,3 Princeton University, and Charles K. Westbrook, NAE, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Steven J. Wallach, NAE, Los Alamos National Laboratory. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 2 Member, National Academy of Medicine. 3 Member, National Academy of Engineering. ix

Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 7 The Biennial Assessment Process, 7 Preparation and Organization of This Report, 8 Assessment Criteria, 9 Approach Taken During Report Preparation, 10 Report Content, 11 2 NETWORK AND INFORMATION SCIENCES 12 Information Sciences, 13 Networks and Cyber, 16 Overall Quality of the Work, 20 Recommendations, 21 3 COMPUTATIONAL AND ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES 24 Computational Sciences, 25 Atmospheric Sciences, 28 Overall Quality of the Work, 34 Recommendations, 36 4 HUMAN SCIENCES 38 Human-Autonomy Team Interactions and Humans Understanding Autonomy, 39 Autonomy Understanding Humans and Estimating Human-Autonomy Team Outcomes, 42 Human Interest Detection, 45 Cyber Science and Kinesiology, 47 Neuroscience, Training Effectiveness, and STRONG, 49 Overall Quality of the Work, 52 Recommendations, 54 5 CROSSCUTTING RECOMMENDATIONS AND EXCEPTIONAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS 58 Crosscutting Recommendations, 58 Exceptional Accomplishments, 59 APPENDIXES A Army Research Laboratory Organization and Research Core Competency Clusters 65 B Army Research Laboratory Technical Assessment Board Members and Staff Biographical Information 67 C Assessment Criteria 72 D Acronyms 74 xi

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The mission of Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is to discover, innovate, and transition science and technology to ensure dominant strategic land power. The ARL's core competencies include network and information sciences, computational sciences, human sciences, materials and manufacturing sciences, propulsion sciences, ballistic sciences, and protection sciences. As part of a biennial assessment of the scientific and technical quality of the ARL, this interim report summarizes the findings and recommendations for network and information sciences, computational sciences, and human sciences research.

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