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Suggested Citation:"5 Developing a Sustainability Work." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Sustainability Programs and Curricula at the Undergraduate and Graduate Levels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25821.
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Suggested Citation:"5 Developing a Sustainability Work." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Sustainability Programs and Curricula at the Undergraduate and Graduate Levels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25821.
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Suggested Citation:"5 Developing a Sustainability Work." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Sustainability Programs and Curricula at the Undergraduate and Graduate Levels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25821.
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Suggested Citation:"5 Developing a Sustainability Work." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Sustainability Programs and Curricula at the Undergraduate and Graduate Levels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25821.
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Suggested Citation:"5 Developing a Sustainability Work." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Sustainability Programs and Curricula at the Undergraduate and Graduate Levels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25821.
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Suggested Citation:"5 Developing a Sustainability Work." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Sustainability Programs and Curricula at the Undergraduate and Graduate Levels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25821.
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Suggested Citation:"5 Developing a Sustainability Work." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Sustainability Programs and Curricula at the Undergraduate and Graduate Levels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25821.
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Suggested Citation:"5 Developing a Sustainability Work." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Sustainability Programs and Curricula at the Undergraduate and Graduate Levels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25821.
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Suggested Citation:"5 Developing a Sustainability Work." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Sustainability Programs and Curricula at the Undergraduate and Graduate Levels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25821.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

5 Developing a Sustainability Workforce Chapter 3 outlines the conceptual underpinnings necessary for a robust sustainability curriculum, which include the need to develop competency in five realms, to develop capacities to act on these competencies, and to have the knowl- edge foundation to build on these capacities in a variety of contexts. Chapter 4 examined how these concepts are realized in institutions, and how to address impeding factors. In Chapter 5, the focus turns to developing and supporting the individual student, maintaining that a sustainability graduate can become, ideally, an agent of change to create a more sustainable world. CONSIDERATIONS BEYOND THE ACADEMIC Before summarizing the research and related information about developing change agents, it is important to recognize a self-evident and sometimes ignored reality. Simply put, students are individuals who do not abandon their identities when they enter a classroom or work at a field site. This reality was expressed by workshop participants in different ways—in the challenges they face and how sustainability programs can offer some solutions. Students face many economic pressures. As noted in Chapter 3, students may be unable to take advantage of experiential learning opportunities in differ- ent locations that require additional travel costs or unpaid/underpaid internships. Even with financial aid, students are faced with high living costs that lead them to take on one or more jobs. The Urban Institute estimates that 11 percent of students in 4-year colleges experience food insecurity (Blagg et al., 2017). An administrator at the University of California, Santa Cruz, the site of the commit- tee’s third workshop, acknowledged the impact of the area’s high cost of living on 109

110 STRENGTHENING SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAMS AND CURRICULA student well-being. The farm run by the university’s Center for Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems was set up more than 50 years ago to experiment with different types of plant and animal products. Its harvests now also go to provide fresh produce, ready-to-eat meals, and other food at a low cost to students. Many students entering sustainability courses and degree programs are pro- pelled by a desire to change the world. Some of those students come from com- munities and neighborhoods that are themselves disproportionately affected by poverty, climate change, air pollution, unsafe drinking water, and other problems. One student from the Santa Cruz workshop reported a dean at another university asserting to her that environmental justice was not an “academic discipline” and therefore had no part in the classroom. Yet, drawing on these lived experiences can improve the learning outcomes for all. The idea of “wraparound services” has gained traction in higher education. While it is beyond the scope of this report to go into these services in detail, several participants pointed out that students must have sustainability in their own life to be- come an effective sustainability student and, ultimately, sustainability professional. DEVELOPING CHANGE AGENTS Theory and research regarding the role of change agents in achieving SDGs provides important insights into the design of sustainability programs. Change agents are people who play a significant role in “initiating, managing, or imple- menting change” (Caldwell, 2003). To address complex sustainability issues, change agents may be challenging long-held assumptions, practices, and/or poli- cies. According to Van Poeck et al. (2017), change agency “is always related to political struggles on what, how, who, why, and when to change.” Further, they state, change agents need to understand the technical or scientific solutions, but that is not enough: “Rather, it is a matter of engaging with the multi-dynamic complexity of wicked problems, including tensions between stability and change, short term and long term, local and global, rich and poor, etc.” An analysis by Van Poeck et al. (2017) drew on examples of change agents in varied sustainability education settings in Belgium and Denmark. The authors mapped the roles that change agents played on two axes (see Figure 5-1). The vertical axis looked at instrumental versus open-ended agency: in other words, op- erating more as a networker or facilitator (open-ended) versus more as a manager or exemplar (instrumental). The second axis graphs personal detachment versus involvement. Against these axes, they identified four main types of sustainabil- ity change agents: Technician, Convincer, Mediator, and Concerned Explorer. A change agent’s role and performance will change over time, depending on the chal- lenge at hand, the circumstances, the stages in the person’s career, and other factors. Sustainability practitioners can draw from other change management models. For example, the Situational Leadership Model, developed by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard and first introduced as the “Life Cycle of Leadership” (Hersey and

DEVELOPING A SUSTAINABILITY WORKFORCE 111 FIGURE 5-1 Ideal typology of change agents. SOURCE: Van Poeck et al. (2017). Blanchard, 1969), proposes a taxonomy consisting of four leadership styles, includ- ing telling, selling, participating, and delegating, and a framework for matching each style to specific situations (Thompson and Glasø, 2015). The model asserts that successful leadership is both task relevant and relationship relevant, and leaders adapt their management style based on groups and individuals according to the situ- ation as they possess different levels of capability and experience. Another example includes the Cohen-Bradford Model of Influence without Authority developed by Allen R. Cohen and David L. Bradford. The model consists of six steps for how to influence others when authority is not present, including (1) assume all are poten- tial allies; (2) clarify your goals and priorities; (3) diagnose the world of the other person; (4) identify relevant currencies, theirs, yours; (5) dealing with relationship; and (6) influence through give and take (Cohen and Bradford, 2005). Workshop participants concurred with the idea that sustainability programs have a role to play in preparing their students to become change agents—while in school and in their careers. They noted that students often enter their programs already motivated to effect change, but they require knowledge and skills to do so. In addition to the competencies and content areas described in Chapter 3, stu- dents need to understand theories of change and leadership. A three-level youth engagement model, in which students start by working on a project, then serve in an advisory role, and then feel prepared to take leadership, was provided by one workshop participant as an example for preparing students for leadership and independence.1 Workshop participants also emphasized the power of agile learning 1  See Act for Youth’s statement on youth engagement in organizations, available at http://actfor youth.net/youth_development/engagement, accessed on March 11, 2020.

112 STRENGTHENING SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAMS AND CURRICULA methods for leadership training in innovation to solve complex sustainability chal- lenges. One example is the Blue Pioneers Program’s training of innovation leaders to solve ocean sustainability challenges via the raw case method (see Box 5-1). A network of higher education institutions known as A Network for Graduate Leadership in Sustainability, or ANGLES, was formed to encourage leadership BOX 5-1 The Raw Case Method in the Blue Pioneers Program The raw case method of learning was pioneered by several faculty members at the Yale School of Management and Middlebury Institute of International Studies (MIIS) and initially used in regular courses such as Business and Global Issues at MIIS (Shi and Dow, 2019). Raw case learning presents student teams with a specific and demanding assignment that requires teams to collectively discover, analyze, decide, and communicate about a complex problem and relevant solu- tions. The learning happens in an open, real-time information space. The Blue Pioneers Program (BPP) at MIIS uses the raw case method in its 2-week accelerator program for innovative solutions to wicked problems (Rittel and Weber, 1973) in ocean conservation and sustainable use. The BPP is inspired by the importance of the blue economy in Asia’s sustainable development and the need for leaders and entrepreneurs who can build organizations that innovate to solve these challenges. A typical raw case assignment of the BPP accelerator program asks students to develop a specific organizational-level strategy to scale up their team’s innovative solution idea into outsized positive impact on solving a wicked ocean problem. For example, the 2019 program assignment was for a real organization, Think Beyond Plastics Foundation, to accelerate innovations in green and sustainable chemistry and alternative models of product fulfillment toward eliminating fossil fuel–based plastics from the packaging industry. Program partici- pants learn by doing, along with on-demand minilectures, coaching, and mentoring, culminating with evaluation of final presentations by a diverse panel of experts. The BPP experience with this pedagogical approach has shown that partici- pants are highly motivated to take an active role in learning under the weight and urgency of such an assignment—faced with a problem wicked enough to paralyze teams for a couple of days. Faculty have learned to deliver custom, just-in-time teachings that are most helpful to the student project teams. The intense learning environment is also conducive to developing soft skills such as high-performance teamwork and collaborative leadership. The 5-year experiment at MIIS has had more than a dozen examples where unconfident and inexperienced new graduate students went through the overwhelming learning process and transformed them- selves into forward-looking, practical, and capable professionals with deliverables that won prestigious case competitions. REFERENCES Rittel, H. W. J., and M. M. Weber. 1973. Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences 4(2), 155–169. Shi, Y., and S. Dow. 2019. International business education at the interface: The raw case study method. Journal of Teaching in International Business 30(3), 246–268. DOI: 10.1080/08975930.2019.1698392.

DEVELOPING A SUSTAINABILITY WORKFORCE 113 development for sustainability graduate students (see Box 5-2). The ANGLES network encourages the “entire higher education enterprise to become change agents in order to deal with today’s sustainability challenges at multiple levels of agency: as individuals, communities, organizations, networks and systems” (Kremers et al., 2019). The network has identified five critical change-agent capacities: (1) transdisciplinary collaboration and community; (2) intellect and innovation; (3) emotional intelligence and well-being; (4) energy and commit- ment; and (5) reflexivity, reflection, and action (Kremers et al., 2019). Net Impact is an organization that mobilizes next-generation emerging leaders to use their skills and careers to make a positive impact in the world (Net Impact, 2020). With more than 400 chapters in nearly 40 countries, the organization supports a global network made up of local chapters on university campuses, in cities, and in companies, and runs programs, campaigns, and events to help students build leadership skills and experiences related to sustainability. Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals will require change agents from multiple disciplines beyond the small percentage who study sustainability in depth (i.e., undergraduate majors or minors and/or as graduate students). All students must feel empowered to create change for a better future. As one partici- pant noted, “Every student will have to deal with sustainability in his or her [or BOX 5-2 A Network for Graduate Leadership in Sustainability Established in 2017, ANGLES (A Network for Graduate Leadership in Sustain- ability) is a network of higher education professionals engaged in graduate student leadership development, with a mission for growing the capacity for collective leadership and impact on sustainability by accelerating and improving leadership development in graduate education. ANGLES hopes to develop a generation of societal change agents capable of drawing on scholarly expertise and leadership capabilities to catalyze collective impact on sustainability challenges. The idea is to benefit from shared learning across institutions. As of this writing, participating institutions include Arizona State University, Brown University, Colorado State University, Cornell University, Duke University, Leopold Leadership Program,* MARINE (Monterey Area Research Institutions’ Network for Education), McGill University, National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center, University of British Columbia, University of California (UC) Santa Bar- bara, UC Santa Cruz, University of Maine, and University of Minnesota. REFERENCE ANGLES (A Network for Graduate Leadership in Sustainability). n.d. http://anglesnetwork. com. *In early 2020, the Leopold Leadership Program transitioned to a new name: Earth Leader- ship Program. See https://www.earthleadership.org.

114 STRENGTHENING SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAMS AND CURRICULA their] lifetime.” One idea proposed was establishing a core requirement course across the academy to teach sustainability principles, which would then serve as a reference when embarking on other fields. A participant at the Washington, D.C., workshop noted that students are demanding to be listened to as partners and demanding transparency and accountability, sincerity, and authenticity. Rage and anger is what propels social justice, another said, but a positive vision can help create sustained change. An academic program in sustainability, with its roots in evidence and objec- tivity, traditionally does not teach “rage and anger,” nor should it. As one partici- pant urged, “Students need to go beyond their passions and learn evidence-based decision-making, then how to communicate and persuade to implement change.” These are within the purview of a strong sustainability program. Sustainability by its nature disrupts the status quo in many domains and will require the development of a sustainability workforce that is capable of guiding effective transitions to sustainable practices. Students are entering sustainability programs with the desire to “change the world for the better.” Academic pro- grams can harness this motivation with the necessary competencies, knowledge, and skills described in this report. As such, the committee makes the following recommendation: Recommendation 5.1: Completion of a sustainability program in higher education should improve students’ ability to design, imple- ment, and lead proactive change toward a sustainable world. Thus, sustainability education programs should provide training and men- toring support to enhance capacities of their graduates to translate knowledge to effective action to meet emerging local, regional, na- tional, and global needs. ENHANCING COLLABORATION AMONG SUSTAINABILITY PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES As sustainability programs emerge and evolve, students, faculty, and pro- gram directors would benefit from opportunities to share best practices, obtain guidance on career paths for students, and join a network or community to share ideas and develop shared principles and values. Professional societies play a role in facilitating community building and resource sharing through convening groups. They also present an entity that can set standards and determine param- eters for program evaluations and potential accreditation, as well as lead efforts for standardized data collection about students, employees, and employers. Such capabilities would be valuable to both sustainability education programs and the sustainability workforce. Professional societies are also responsible for setting the standards for professional actions and behaviors by that profession.

DEVELOPING A SUSTAINABILITY WORKFORCE 115 A number of organizations are helping to shape the landscape for sustain- ability educators, students, and professionals, including the following: • Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE):2 Launched in 2005, its mission is “inspiring higher education to lead the sustainability transition.” AASHE holds an annual conference for sustainability educators in higher education institutions. Many uni- versities participate in its Sustainability Tracking, Assessment and Rating System, which measures sustainability performance of higher education institutions, with an increasing emphasis on adoption and delivery of sustainability curricula. Through the system, universities receive a medal ranking—bronze, silver, gold, or platinum. AASHE also offers profes- sional development training along with toolkits and resources. As of this writing, it has 719 members in North America. • National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE):3 Established in 1990, NCSE’s mission is to “improve the scientific basis of environ- mental policy and decision making.” Member institutions include approx- imately 100 universities and colleges, 20 community colleges or college districts, and 2 international university members (this latter program was just launched). The NCSE Alliance of Sustainability and Environmental Academic Leaders (formerly known as the Council of Environmental Deans and Directors) meets twice per year, engages in communities of practice (including one on sustainability education), engages with policy makers in an Academic-Federal Dialog, and receives training on science policy communications. • Second Nature:4 Founded in 1993, the mission of Second Nature is a commitment to “accelerating climate action in, and through, higher edu- cation.” In 2006, it launched the Presidents’ Climate Leadership Com- mitments with dedicated targets for climate change action. This initiative formed the basis for the Climate Leadership Network, which includes more than 600 universities and colleges. The organization provides grant funds, solutions toolsets, convenings, and other activities to forward cli- mate change action with universities and colleges. • Sustainability Curriculum Consortium (SCC):5 The purpose of the SCC is to build “collective capacity as educators and change agents, along with the administrators and stakeholders who can support them, to improve the way sustainability is perceived, modeled, and taught.” Through webinars and other convenings, the SCC brings together experts on sustainability 2  See http://www.aashe.org, accessed on March 10, 2020. 3  See https://www.ncseglobal.org, accessed on March 10, 2020. 4  See https://secondnature.org, accessed on March 10, 2020. 5  See http://curriculumforsustainability.org, accessed on March 10, 2020.

116 STRENGTHENING SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAMS AND CURRICULA curricula to share best practices and ideas and seek partnership opportuni- ties for sustainability educators. • International Society of Sustainability Professionals:6 The mission of the society is to “advance sustainability in organizations and communities around the globe.” It provides collaboration and partnership opportunities for members as well as training, including a Sustainability Professional Certification offered in partnership with Green Business Certification Inc. • Association for Environmental Studies and Sciences (AESS). The AESS is a “faculty-and-student-based professional association in higher educa- tion, designed to serve the needs of environmental scholars and scien- tists who value interdisciplinary approaches to research, teaching, and problem-solving” (AESS, 2020). The AESS has held an annual meeting since 2009 to address an interdisciplinary approach to environmental issues and sustainability. • National Association of Environmental Professionals (NAEP). The mis- sion of the association is “to be the interdisciplinary organization dedi- cated to developing the highest standards of ethics and proficiency in the environmental professions” (NAEP, 2020). It is designed for professionals from the public and private sectors to promote excellence in decision- making relating to environmental, social, and economic impacts. Corporate sustainability organizations continue to grow, reflecting the change in sustainability as a “nice to have” or form of corporate social responsibility to the recognition of sustainability as a “need to have” and for establishing competi- tive advantage. Some examples include GreenBiz, Ceres, Sustainable Brands, and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development.7 Alongside these have grown sustainability-reporting organizations for businesses such as CDP (formerly Carbon Disclosure Project), Global Reporting Initiative, and the United Nations Global Compact initiative.8 Successful sustainability education programs will need to pay attention to trends and needs identified by these organizations for both curriculum development and career pathways in sustainability. During the committee’s second workshop in Washington, D.C., a participant suggested the need to create peer-to-peer networks on two levels: among leader- ship (embodied by the Council of Environmental Deans and Directors, since re- named to the Alliance of Sustainability and Environmental Academic Leaders) and through a professional society (through the Association for Environmental Studies and Sciences). Including a research component and opportunities for interfacing between academics and the user community are also important, as the annual 6  See https://www.sustainabilityprofessionals.org, accessed on March 10, 2020. 7  See https://www.greenbiz.com, https://www.ceres.org, https://sustainablebrands.com, and https://www.wbcsd.org, all accessed on March 10, 2020. 8  See https://www.cdp.net/en, https://www.globalreporting.org, and https://www.unglobalcompact. org, all accessed on March 10, 2020.

DEVELOPING A SUSTAINABILITY WORKFORCE 117 conference of the NCSE provides. Another participant supported these ideas, but emphasized that sustainability includes more fields than environmental science. Several participants said they would find value in the networking and leadership opportunities that a professional society could offer, although it was pointed out that it would be a challenge to balance the multiple disciplines that make up the field with providing relevant information and opportunities. Despite the challenge, many participants, especially those starting out in their careers, expressed the desire to be part of the kind of community that a professional society could offer. ACCREDITATION One role played by professional societies in the United States is to serve as an accreditor. More than 50 professional societies accredit the college and uni- versity programs in their areas of expertise.9 The committee’s statement of task (see Box 1-1 in Chapter 1) requested that the committee consider the feasibility of accreditation of sustainability programs to strengthen them and to further engage with the Sustainable Development Goals. According to the U.S. Department of Education, which oversees accrediting organizations, benefits of accreditation include the following: • Creating a culture of continuous improvement of academic quality at colleges and universities and stimulating a general raising of standards among educational institutions. • Involving faculty and staff comprehensively in institutional evaluation and planning. • Establishing criteria for professional certification and licensure and for upgrading courses offering such preparation. • Assessing the quality of academic programs at institutions of higher education. At all three workshops, the committee posed a series of questions to elicit the perspectives of educators and end users on the desirability of accreditation for sustainability programs. While participants agreed about the need to strengthen existing sustainability programs and provide guidance for emerging ones, no clear consensus emerged on the topic. Some participants saw accreditation as a way to build credibility and to improve programs. Several drew upon other efforts they have been involved in or observed. Public administration was referred to as an example of a discipline that has gained in stature since accreditation began in 9  See Department of Energy, available at https://www2.ed.gov/admins/finaid/accred/accreditation. html#history, accessed on April 10, 2020.

118 STRENGTHENING SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAMS AND CURRICULA 1970.10 In contrast to this relatively recent effort, another said her forestry and natural resources department has been involved in accreditation carried out by the Society of American Foresters since 1935. She pointed to the value of the periodic examination not only for the external review but also as a process of reflection for the faculty, students, and administration. One workshop participant noted accreditation can provide greater legitimacy to a field of study, with public policy and landscape architecture as examples. Another suggested that accredita- tion could help break down the disciplinary silos identified as an impediment, build a cross-cutting program, and provide some value as a credential, especially small institutions that might see it as a valuable counterweight to larger ones. Others, however, expressed concern that accreditation would pose an ob- stacle or a bar to entry. An institution may decide not to expand or initiate a pro- gram with accreditation requirements. For example, the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology has been evaluating chemical engineering programs at universities in the United States since the 1930s; however, California Institute of Technology’s chemical engineering department and Stanford University have recently decided not to pursue accreditation in order to modernize their curricula and offer students more flexibility in designing programs (Arnaud, 2017). Ac- creditation might hamper diversity efforts, a few people pointed out, especially if less-resourced schools where underrepresented minorities attend in greater numbers are discouraged from the field. Another concern related to employment security, including people already in the workplace, if an applicant had not gradu- ated from an “accredited program.” End users at the workshops did not consider accreditation a critical aspect in their hiring. While they said they did require graduation from an accredited program vital in fields such as architecture, several said they are more concerned with a sustainability applicant’s course work, internships, and competencies. Another employer said she envisioned a future in which “all jobs become sus- tainability jobs,” and accreditation would narrow, rather than broaden, the field. Many workshop participants pointed to certifications that individuals could earn and may be considered more valuable to an employer than accreditation of their colleges and universities; examples cited included the International Organi- zation for Standardization’s ISO 14001 requirements for environmental manage- ment systems and the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design certification, among others.11 A benefit in such programs is that individuals must continue their education and training to remain certified. In consideration of possible accreditation in the future, several participants suggested strategies that are more voluntary and less rigorous than a full-bore 10  Network of Schools of Public Policy, Affairs, and Administration is the accrediting body—self- described as the “Global Standard in Public Service Education Network of Schools of Public Policy, Affairs, and Administration.” 11  See ISO 14000, available at https://www.iso.org/iso-14001-environmental-management.html; LEED rating system, available at https://www.usgbc.org/leed; both accessed on March 12, 2020.

DEVELOPING A SUSTAINABILITY WORKFORCE 119 accreditation program, yet still useful to students and other stakeholders. The Canadian Environmental Certification Approvals Board was mentioned as one such assessment that might serve as, at least in the short to medium term, a way for programs to self-measure their performance. The Sustainability Curriculum Consortium and National Council on Science and the Environment have had some discussions about accreditation, according to several workshop participants familiar with the effort. They felt that agree- ment over a common body of knowledge for sustainability needs to emerge first. During this report’s preparation, a community of practice was established within the Council of Environmental Deans and Directors, facilitated by the NCSE (currently known as the Alliance of Sustainability and Environmental Academic Leaders), and this would be a useful development to track. As sustainability education programs continue to increase and evolve, it is important for existing professional societies concerned with sustainability to consider strategies that could strengthen higher education programs. Such strategies could include opportunities for professional development, networking, collaboration, and data collection, and the development of metrics for assessing, certifying, and/or accrediting programs. Additionally, industries could work with these organizations to meet sustainability goals and objectives, establish targets, and encourage students to bring innovation and creativity to address sustain- ability challenges and opportunities. Therefore, the committee recommends the following: Recommendation 5.2: Professional societies focusing on sustain- ability education should pursue collaborative opportunities to (i) provide forums for convening sustainability students, researchers, and professionals; (ii) build partnerships with the public and the private sectors; (iii) offer formalized training and mentorship; (iv) promote information sharing; (v) develop shared principles and val- ues; (vi) establish a model for assessing sustainability programs; and (vii) establish and lead a cross-sectoral effort to track and analyze employment in sustainability-focused jobs. REFERENCES Arnaud, C. H. 2017. Is it time to leave behind chemical engineering accreditation? Chemical & En- gineering News 95(48), 20–22. https://cen.acs.org/articles/95/i48/time-leave-behind-chemical- engineering.html, accessed on June 15, 2020. AESS (Association for Environmental Studies and Sciences). 2020. https://aessconference.org, ac- cessed on May 18, 2020. Blagg, K., C. Gundersen, D. W. Schanzenback, and J. P. Ziliak. 2017. Assessing Food Insecurity on Campus: A National Look at Food Insecurity Among America’s College Students. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Caldwell, R. 2003. Models of change agency: A fourfold classification. British Journal of Manage- ment (14)2, 131–142. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1467-8551.00270.

120 STRENGTHENING SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAMS AND CURRICULA Cohen, A. R., and D. L. Bradford. 2005. Influence without Authority, Second Edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. https://dongengbudaya.files.wordpress.com/2014/05/1472.pdf, accessed on June 15, 2020. Hersey, P., and K. Blanchard. 1969. Life-cycle theory of leadership. Training and Development Journal 23, 26–34. Kremers, K. L., A. S. Liepins, and A. M. York (eds.). 2019. Developing change agents: Innovative practices for sustainability leadership. ANGLES (A Network for Graduate Leadership in Sus- tainability). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Libraries. https://open.lib.umn.edu/ changeagents. NAEP (National Association of Environmental Professionals). 2020. https://www.naep.org, accessed on May 18, 2020. Net Impact. 2020. https://www.netimpact.org, accessed on May 18, 2020. Rittel, H. W. J., and M. M. Weber. 1973. Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences 4(2), 155–169. Thompson, G., and L. Glasø. 2015. Situational leadership theory: A test from three perspectives. Leadership & Organization Development Journal 36(5), 527–544. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ LODJ-10-2013-0130. Van Poeck, K., J. Læssøe, and T. Block. 2017. An exploration of sustainability change agents as facilitators of nonformal learning: Mapping a moving and intertwined landscape. Ecology and Society 22(2).

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Over the past decade there has been a growing interest in sustainability education in colleges and universities across the United States, with a marked increase in the number of undergraduate and graduate degree programs, research institutes, and centers focused on sustainability. Evidence-based core competencies for interdisciplinary sustainability programs can provide suitable guidance for curricular and program development, research, policy, communication, and pedagogical approaches at academic institutions. They can also serve as a guide for students to select academic programs and potential career options, a reference for employers to understand qualifications of graduates, and the foundation for a potential specialized accreditation for interdisciplinary sustainability programs. The growing demand for well-qualified sustainability professionals within the public, private, and nonprofit sectors also points to the value of developing core competencies.

Strengthening Sustainability Programs and Curricula at the Undergraduate and Graduate Levels provides expert insights for strengthening the emerging discipline of sustainability in higher education in the United States. This report describes the local, national, and global landscape related to sustainability education; examines the history and current status of sustainability education programs in the United States and globally; discusses employment prospects for sustainability graduates in terms of the opportunities and the skills that employers seek; and addresses diversity, equity, and inclusion in sustainability-related education and employment.

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