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Building Educational Equity Indicator Systems: A Guidebook for States and School Districts (2020)

Chapter: INDICATORS OF EQUITY RELATED TO EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

« Previous: INDICATORS OF EQUITY RELATED TO K-12 EDUCATION
Suggested Citation:"INDICATORS OF EQUITY RELATED TO EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Building Educational Equity Indicator Systems: A Guidebook for States and School Districts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25833.
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INDICATORS OF EQUITY RELATED TO
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT


Education is a critically important way for individuals to pursue their goals in life. On average, higher levels of educational attainment are associated with higher levels of financial, emotional, and physical well-being over people’s lifetimes. And research consistently shows that differences in educational attainment are related to race/ethnicity and gender, with substantial implications for disparities later in life.


For more detail and supporting research:

See pages 67-72 of Monitoring Educational Equity.

Suggested Citation:"INDICATORS OF EQUITY RELATED TO EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Building Educational Equity Indicator Systems: A Guidebook for States and School Districts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25833.
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Indicator:

Disparities in On-Time Graduation

Graduating from high school on time and with a diploma remains one of the most critical educational objectives for all students. Disparities in high school graduation rates by racial/ethnic and other demographic factors remain substantial. These disparities are problematic because high school graduation paves the way to a multitude of positive life outcomes, including the increased likelihood of attending college.

What to Measure What Data to Use Examples of Data Collection Instruments Some Considerations and Challenges
Group differences in on-time graduation* Administrative data No data collection instruments needed: the Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate is calculated based on existing data
*These data are already collected by districts and reported by states using a common measure.
Suggested Citation:"INDICATORS OF EQUITY RELATED TO EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Building Educational Equity Indicator Systems: A Guidebook for States and School Districts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25833.
×

Indicator:

Disparities in Postsecondary Readiness

Despite widespread agreement about the importance of college readiness, there is no single, evidence-based definition of college readiness—especially one that is related to between-group differences in college completion. Broadly speaking, college readiness can be considered to be a student’s preparedness to enroll in the degree-granting institution of their choice (2 or 4 year) without the need for remedial courses, to persist, and, ultimately, to earn a degree. Academic readiness is central to this definition, but college readiness encompasses more than academic achievement. The nonacademic aspects of college readiness, such as managing the application and financial aid processes and choosing an appropriate college, are especially important for students who do not come from families with college backgrounds.

Measures of all aspects of college readiness are not well developed. Until they are developed, it is important to track the paths of high school graduates, including 2- and 4-year college programs, the military, employment, and unemployment. Even among high school graduates, there are large disparities in the paths taken by students from different groups. These disparities can contribute to disparities in economic well-being into adulthood. The most fundamental aspect to track is whether students are enrolled in any type of college.

What to Measure What Data to Use Examples of Data Collection Instruments Some Considerations and Challenges
Group differences in enrollment in college, entry into the workforce, or enlistment in the military* Administrative data that track students beyond high school

Data on collegiate enrollment and degree information from the National Student Clearinghouse (requires a subscription)
No data collection instruments needed: indicator can be based on calculations of existing data Developing methods for tracking different types of postsecondary pathways

Identifying college enrollment levels that are relevant to equity

*These data are already collected by districts and reported by states.

Suggested Citation:"INDICATORS OF EQUITY RELATED TO EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Building Educational Equity Indicator Systems: A Guidebook for States and School Districts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25833.
×

FOR FURTHER READING:


E. Allensworth, J. Nagaoka, and D.W. Johnson. (2018). High School Graduation and College Readiness Indicator Systems: What We Know, What We Need to Know. UChicago Consortium on School Research. Available: http://ncos.iamempowered.com/essa-report-card.html.


Suggested Citation:"INDICATORS OF EQUITY RELATED TO EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Building Educational Equity Indicator Systems: A Guidebook for States and School Districts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25833.
×
Page 29
Suggested Citation:"INDICATORS OF EQUITY RELATED TO EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Building Educational Equity Indicator Systems: A Guidebook for States and School Districts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25833.
×
Page 30
Suggested Citation:"INDICATORS OF EQUITY RELATED TO EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Building Educational Equity Indicator Systems: A Guidebook for States and School Districts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25833.
×
Page 31
Suggested Citation:"INDICATORS OF EQUITY RELATED TO EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Building Educational Equity Indicator Systems: A Guidebook for States and School Districts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25833.
×
Page 32
Next: DEVELOPING A SYSTEM OF EQUITY INDICATORS: WHAT STATES, DISTRICTS, AND THEIR PARTNERS CAN DO »
Building Educational Equity Indicator Systems: A Guidebook for States and School Districts Get This Book
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How can states and schools use data to support their efforts to improve educational equity? Building Educational Equity Indicator Systems: A Guidebook for States and School Districts, provides information to help state and school district leaders develop ways of tracking educational equity within their preK – 12 systems.

The guidebook expands on the indicators of educational equity identified in the 2019 National Academies report, Monitoring Educational Equity, showing education leaders how they can measure educational equity within their states and school districts. Some of the indicators focus on student outcomes, such as kindergarten readiness or educational attainment, while others focus on student access to opportunities and resources, such as effective instruction and rigorous curriculum. Together, the indicators provide a robust picture of the outcomes and opportunities that are central to educational equity from preK through grade 12.

For each indicator of educational equity identified in the report, the guidebook describes what leaders should measure and what data to use, provides examples of data collection instruments, and offers considerations and challenges to keep in mind. The guidebook is meant to help education leaders catalogue data they already collect and identify new data sources to help them fill gaps.

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