National Academies Press: OpenBook

Potential Liability Associated with Unstable Slope Management Programs (2020)

Chapter: APPENDIX A. STATE UNSTABLE SLOPE MANAGEMENT RESOURCES

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Page 49
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A. STATE UNSTABLE SLOPE MANAGEMENT RESOURCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Potential Liability Associated with Unstable Slope Management Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25836.
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Page 49
Page 50
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A. STATE UNSTABLE SLOPE MANAGEMENT RESOURCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Potential Liability Associated with Unstable Slope Management Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25836.
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Page 50

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NCHRP LRD 82 49 Principal references: • Darren Beckstrand et al., Rockfall Hazard Pro- cess Assessment, Report No.  FHWA/MT-17-008/8239- 001 (Oct. 2017). • Darren Beckstrand et al., Rockfall Hazard Clas- sification and Mitigation System, Report No. FHWA/ MT-05-011/8176 (Sep. 2005). 4. New York Rock Slope Rating Procedure The New York State DOT rock slope rating procedure is in- fluential in the way that it distinguishes between risk types in order to determine the total relative risk of injury due to rockfall. Principal references: • NYSDOT, Rock Slope Rating Procedure, Geotechnical Engineering Manual GEM-15 (2015), available at https:// www.dot.ny.gov/divisions/engineering/technical-services/ technical-services-repository/GEM-15b.pdf. • Douglas Hadjin, New York State Department of Transporta- tion Rock Slope Rating Procedure and Rockfall Assessment, 1786 Transp. Res. Rec.: J. Transp. Res. Bd. 60–68 (2002). 5. Ohio Geological Hazard Management System The Ohio DOT is pursuing development of a comprehensive geological hazard management system (GHMS), accounting for different geological hazards or failure modes including rockfalls and landslides. In furtherance of this development, the Ohio DOT has adopted both a rockfall hazard rating matrix and a landslide hazard rating matrix. Website: Ohio DOT, Geohazard Resources, http://www.dot. state.oh.us/Divisions/Engineering/Geotechnical/Pageds/ GeoHazards.aspx. Principal references: • Robert Y. Liang, Landslide Hazard Rating Matrix and Database for the Ohio DOT, FHWA Rep. No. FHWA/OH- 2007/18 (Dec. 2007). • Martin J. Woodard, Development of a Rockfall Hazard Rating Matrix for the Ohio DOT (May 2004) (Ph.D. disserta- tion, Kent State Univ.). 6. Oregon Unstable Slopes Program With FHWA assistance, the Oregon DOT developed the original Rockfall Hazard Rating System (RHRS) which has been adopted by a number of states. The Oregon DOT has expanded its unstable slope management program to include soil slope hazards such as landslides. Website: ODOT, Unstable Slopes, https://www.oregon.gov/ ODOT/GeoEnvironmental/Pages/Unstable-Slopes.aspx. APPENDIX A. STATE UNSTABLE SLOPE MANAGEMENT RESOURCES Following is a summary of unstable slope management pro- grams used by State DOTs. 1. Alaska Unstable Slope Management Program The Alaska DOT&PF Unstable Slope Management Program (USMP) is advertised as the first geotechnical asset manage- ment program, accounting for rock slopes, soil slopes and em- bankments, and retaining walls. Website: Alaska DOT&PF, Geotechnical Asset Management, http://www.dot.state.ak.us/stwddes/desmaterials/mat_geotech_ services/mat_gam2.shtml. Principal references: • Paul Thompson et al., Statewide Geotechnical Asset Management Program Development, Alaska DOT&PF Report No. STP4000(126)(A) (Sep. 2017). • Scott L. Huang et al., Unstable Slope Management Program, Report No. FHWA-AK-RD-12-14 (Aug. 2009). 2. Colorado Geohazard Program The Colorado DOT uses the RHRS to prioritize rock slopes, and a landslide hazard rating system based on the Washington State DOT USMS to prioritize soil slopes. Notably, the Colorado DOT has also developed the Colorado Rockfall Simulation Pro- gram (CRSP) to provide a higher fidelity probabilistic assess- ment of the rockfall hazard at a given site. Website: CDOT, Geohazard Program,https://www.codot.gov/ business/designsupport/materials-and-geotechnical/programs/ geohaz. Principal references: • Dan Pratt & Paul Santi, A Landslide Hazard Rating System for Colorado Highways, Proceedings of Rocky Mountain Geo-Conference, Lakewood, Colo. (Nov. 2014). • Scott Anderson & Matthew DeMarco, Use of Rockfall Rating Systems in the Design of New Slopes, Geochallenges: Ris- ing to the Geotechncial Challenges of Colorado, Proceedings of the Biennial Geotechnical Seminar, Denver, Colo. (Nov. 2012). 3. Montana Rock Slope Asset Management Program An early adopter of the RHRS, the Montana DOT is transi- tioning to a Rock Slope Asset Management Program (RAMP) to provide improved asset management of its rock slopes. Website: MDT, Rockfall Management System, https://www. mdt.mt.gov/research/projects/geotech/rockfall.shtml.

50 NCHRP LRD 82 Principal references: • Lawrence A. Pierson & Robert Van Vickle, Rockfall Hazard Rating System—Participant’s Manual, Rep. No. FHWA-SA-930-57 (Aug. 1993). • Lawrence A. Pierson, Rockfall Hazard Rating System, 1343 Transp. Res. Rec.: J. Transp. Res. Bd. 6–13 (1992). 7. Utah Rockfall Hazard Rating System The Utah DOT developed an RHRS originally modeled after the Oregon DOT RHRS, but employing a total relative risk calculation modeled after the New York State DOT rock slope rating procedure. Principal references: • Robert T. Pack, Kenn Boie, Stoney Mather & Jamie Farrell, UDOT Rockfall Hazard Rating System: Final Report and User’s Manual, Utah DOT Rep. No. UT-06.07 (Jan. 2006). • Robert T. Pack & Ken Boie, Utah Rockfall Hazards Inventory, Utah DOT Rep. No. UT-03.01 (Apr. 2002). 8. Washington Unstable Slope Management System The Unstable Slope Management System (USMS) developed by the Washington State DOT is one of the earliest unstable slope management programs, and the first to include soil slopes as well as rock slopes. The Washington State DOT is converting the USMS into a geotechnical asset management program. Principal references: • WSDOT, WSDOT’s Unstable Slope management Pro- gram (Jan. 2018), available at https://www.wsdot.wa.gov/ sites/default/files/2011/03/11/Unstable-Slope-Management- Program-Folio.pdf. • Steve Lowell et al., Conceptual Designs and Cost Estimates: A Critical Step in Managing Unstable Slopes Along Wash- ington State Highways, Proceedings of 56th Highway Geology Symposium, Wilmington, N.C., 19 (May 2005), available at http://www.highwaygeologysymposium.org/ wp-content/uploads/56_hgs-OPT.pdf. • Carlton L. Ho & Russell A. Knutson, Pilot Study of an Unstable Slope Management System, Washington State DOT Rep. No. WA-RD 297.1 (Oct. 1994).

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Slope failures pose serious risks for state transportation agencies and federal agencies that own or maintain roads, highways, and/or adjacent property. Many transportation agencies have adopted unstable slope management programs and standards as part of a larger effort to provide an efficient and effective methodology to prevent or control landslides or rockfalls.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP LRD 82: Potential Liability Associated with Unstable Slope Management Programs provides a detailed description of several specific unstable slope management programs, including the type of data collected and rating systems that are utilized.

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