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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 214 2020 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation â¢ Terminals and Facilities BIM Beyond Design Guidebook Jack Ray CCI EngInEErIng SErvICES Columbus, OH
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 214 Project 09-15 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-48157-1 Library of Congress Control Number 2020938327 Â© 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.nationalacademies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 214 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Brittany Summerlin-Azeez, Program Coordinator Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Ellen M. Chafee, Senior Editor ACRP PROJECT 09-15 PANEL Field of Maintenance Mark J. Day, Blue Grass Airport, Lexington, KY (Chair) Eddie R. Clayson, Salt Lake City Department of Airports, Salt Lake City, UT Jennifer L. Mims, Jacobs Engineering, Seattle, WA John M. Payne, Pueblo Technology Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA Mindy J. Price, Direct Effect Solutions, Inc., Columbus, OH John A. Walewski, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX Danielle J. Rinsler, FAA Liaison Paul J. Eubanks, Airports Council InternationalâNorth America Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This Guidebook was developed under ACRP Project 09-15 by CCI Engineering Services; Intellis, Inc.; Wil GuzmÃ¡n Consulting, LLC; Facility Matters, LLC; and Stoughton Consulting, LLC. CCI Engineering Services was the contractor for this project. Jack Ray, CM-BIM, CCI Engineering Services, was the Author and Principal Investigator. Angela Newland, P.E., CCI Engineering Services, was the Co-Author and Project Manager. Additional contributors included â¢ Joyce K. Johnson, CCI Engineering Services â¢ Peter Miller, CCI Engineering Services â¢ Wil GuzmÃ¡n, Wil GuzmÃ¡n Consulting, LLC â¢ Nancy Johnson, Facility Matters, LLC â¢ Steve Warshaw, Intellis, Inc. â¢ Neil Jacobsen, Intellis, Inc. â¢ Gerry Stoughton, Stoughton Consulting, LLC
ACRP Research Report 214: BIM Beyond Design Guidebook provides guidelines for how airport practitioners can build the business case to utilize building information modeling (BIM) for asset management once a construction project is completed. By using these guide- lines, airport staff will be able to develop their BIM strategy, identify the stakeholders, and determine their BIM governance structure and the appropriate implementation metrics. Airport staff will also be able to identify how to scale the use of BIM for their organization considering the level of implementation sought with a current asset management system. BIM is a well-known tool, first used by architects to design facilities. The cost benefit of using BIM has long been established within the construction industry, and therefore will continue to be used. Digital representation of a facilityâs physical and functional characteristics allows BIM to be leveraged as a comprehensive facility management system. When the information in BIM is updated during construction, it generates as-built data that can be used in a computerized maintenance management system. BIM can also be scaled for construction projects of various sizes, renovations of existing facilities, and for more efficient management of planned utility shutdowns. Under ACRP Project 09-15, CCI Engineering Services was tasked with developing guidance for airports on using BIM beyond design, that is, after construction, for facility management. The research included surveying and interviewing airports on their use of BIM, as well as organizations in other industries. The guidance includes how to conduct the financial analysis to make the business case, data requirements, performance metrics, how to integrate BIM with existing systems, and case studies from domestic and international airports and other organizations. Airport staff in maintenance, facility management, and engineering and planning will benefit from the information provided in this report. F O R E W O R D By Marci A. Greenberger Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
1 Section 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Why BIM? 2 1.2 What Is BIM? 4 1.3 The Value of BIM to Airport Operators 5 1.4 Strategic Asset Management 6 1.5 Leveraging Future Innovations 6 1.6 Using This Guidebook 9 Section 2 Pre-BIM ActivitiesâBIM Organizational Assessment 9 2.1 Needs Assessment Process 10 2.2 Data Flow Diagrams 10 2.3 Prioritization 14 2.4 BIM and Asset Management Strategy 18 2.5 Summary 19 Section 3 Pre-BIM ActivitiesâPreparing the Organization and Stakeholders for Implementation 19 3.1 BIM Capabilities Maturity Tools 26 3.2 Other BIM CMM Options 27 3.3 Cultural Change Requirements 29 3.4 Summary 30 Section 4 Pre-BIM ActivitiesâFinancial Analysis 31 4.1 Developing a BIM Business Case 32 4.2 Example 1: BIM Enterprise Business Case 35 4.3 Example 2: Tactical Business Case for Individual BIM Uses 39 4.4 Managing Cost and Risks 41 4.5 Measuring BIM ROI 47 4.6 ROI Industry Standards 48 4.7 Airport ROI Expectations 49 4.8 Strategic ALCM and BIM 58 4.9 Summary 59 Section 5 BIM ImplementationâBIM Process 59 5.1 Developing the BIM Life Cycle Process 59 5.2 Strategy 60 5.3 BIM Uses 61 5.4 Process Mapping 62 5.5 Asset Information 65 5.6 Infrastructure 65 5.7 Personnel 66 5.8 Phasing 68 5.9 BIM Development and Maintenance 70 5.10 Summary C O N T E N T S
71 Section 6 BIM ImplementationâScaling BIM Implementation 71 6.1 Life Cycle Scaling 72 6.2 Facilities Included 72 6.3 LOD 72 6.4 Asset Management 73 6.5 Data Accessibility 73 6.6 Small Airport Scalability 74 6.7 Other Small Airport Implementation Considerations 74 6.8 Summary 75 Section 7 BIM ImplementationâTechnical Architecture 76 7.1 System Architecture 77 7.2 Existing Conditions Data-Processing Server 78 7.3 BIM-Authoring Servers 78 7.4 Open BIM Server 79 7.5 CMMS/EAM 79 7.6 Application Servers 79 7.7 Cloud Server and Firewall 80 7.8 BIM Application Map 80 7.9 Summary 81 Section 8 BIM ImplementationâIntegration of BIM with Existing Systems 81 8.1 Data Formats 86 8.2 Classification Systems 87 8.3 Integration Process 90 8.4 Summary 92 Section 9 BIM ImplementationâStandards, Execution Plans, Required Data Elements 92 9.1 BIM Standards 93 9.2 Technology Reference Standards 94 9.3 Practice Standards 95 9.4 BIM Execution Plan Templates 100 9.5 Required Data Elements 104 9.6 International Standards 106 9.7 Summary 108 Section 10 BIM ControlsâGovernance 108 10.1 Organizational Structure 109 10.2 Roles and Responsibilities 111 10.3 BIM Policies 113 10.4 Summary 114 Section 11 BIM ControlsâProgress Metrics 114 11.1 Maintenance Planning 115 11.2 Asset Management 116 11.3 Additional Metrics 116 11.4 Data Collection 117 11.5 Summary
118 Section 12 BIM ControlsâLegal and Liability Issues 118 12.1 Liability 119 12.2 Ownership of BIM 120 12.3 BIM Legal Status 121 12.4 Digital Data Delivery 121 12.5 Summary 122 Section 13 Conclusions 124 Section 14 Case Studies 124 14.1 Denver International Airport: Hotel and Transit Center Post-Construction BIM 126 14.2 San Francisco International Airport: Asset Creation 128 14.3 Massachusetts Port Authority: BIM Roadmap 134 14.4 Heathrow International Airport: Terminal 5 136 14.5 John F. Kennedy International Airport: Terminal 5 Redevelopment 137 14.6 The Ohio State University: Buckeye BIM Initiative 142 14.7 Western Michigan University 145 14.8 Public Housing Work Order and Condition Assessment Analysis 148 14.9 New York Presbyterian Hospital 150 14.10 Perth Childrenâs Hospital 151 14.11 New Royal Adelaide Hospital: BIM O&M 153 14.12 Sydney Opera House 156 Bibliography 158 Abbreviations A-1 Appendix A Denver International Airport Contract Language B-1 Appendix B Penn State CIC Business Case Template C-1 Appendix C FAA Minimum BIM Requirements D-1 Appendix D Sample BIM Roadmaps: Korea Rail BIM 2030 Roadmap and Massport BIM Roadmap Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.