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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation: Exploring New Evidence: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25841.
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Appendix A

Acronyms and Abbreviations

5-MTHF 5-methyltetrahydrofolate
16:0 palmitic acid
μg microgram
μmol micromole
AI Adequate Intake
APrON Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition Study
ASN American Society for Nutrition
BF breastfeeding
BHA butylated hydroxyanisole
BHT butylated hydroxytoluene
BMI body mass index
CARDIA Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study
CARE Community Access, Resources, and Education for Families Act
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CDP cytidine diphosphate
CDRR Chronic Disease Risk Reduction Intake
CH3 methyl group
CHILD Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development Study
CM chylomicron
COPSAC Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation: Exploring New Evidence: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25841.
×
DARLING Davis Area Research on Lactation, Infant Nutrition and Growth Study
DASH Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
DHA docosahexaenoic acid
DOHaD Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
DOMInO DHA to Optimize Mother Infant Outcomes Study
DRI Dietary Reference Intake
DSHEA Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act
EAR Estimated Average Requirement
ECHO Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes Program
EER Estimated Energy Requirement
EPA eicosapentaenoic acid
EPIC European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration
g gram
GDM gestational diabetes
GI Glycemic Index
HAPO Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Study
HMO human milk oligosaccharide
IAAO indicator amino acid oxidation
IBFAN International Baby Foods Action Network
ICCIDD International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders
IFPS Infant Feeding Practices Study
IQ intelligence quotient
kcal kilocalorie
kg kilogram
L liter
L-5-MTHF L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate
LCPUFA long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid
LNFPII lacto-N-fucopentaose II
m meter
MET methionine
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation: Exploring New Evidence: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25841.
×
mg milligram
MILQ Mothers, Infants and Lactation Quality Study
mL milliliter
MTHFR methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase
MVM multivitamin and mineral
NAPS Nutrition and Pregnancy Study
ng nanogram
NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
NIH National Institutes of Health
NWA National WIC Association
ODS Office of Dietary Supplements
ORIP Omega-3 Fats to Reduce the Incidence of Prematurity
PA physical activity
PAHO Pan American Health Organization
PAL physical activity level
PC phosphatidylcholine
PE phosphatidylethanolamine
PEAS Pregnancy Eating Attributes Study
PEMT phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase
PIN Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study
PlGF placental growth factor
PMVM prenatal multivitamin and mineral
PRAMS Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System
RBC red blood cell
RDA Recommended Dietary Allowance
SAHMRI South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute
SAM S-adenosylmethionine
SD standard deviation
sFlt-1 soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1
SNAP Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
SNAP-Ed Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education
SWIFT Study of Women, Infant Feeding and Type 2 Diabetes after Gestational Diabetes Pregnancy
TCA tricarboxylic acid
UBC The University of British Columbia
UIC University of Illinois at Chicago
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation: Exploring New Evidence: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25841.
×
UL Tolerable Upper Intake Level
UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund
USAID U.S. Agency for International Development
USC University of Southern California
USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture
USP United States Pharmacopeia
WABA World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action
WaTCH Women and Their Children’s Health Study
WHO World Health Organization
WIC Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children
wt body weight
y year
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation: Exploring New Evidence: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25841.
×
Page 161
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation: Exploring New Evidence: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25841.
×
Page 162
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation: Exploring New Evidence: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25841.
×
Page 163
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation: Exploring New Evidence: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25841.
×
Page 164
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The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine last reviewed the state of the science on nutrition during pregnancy and lactation 30 years ago. The resulting consensus study reports from the Institute of Medicine—Nutrition During Pregnancy (IOM, 1990) and Nutrition During Lactation (IOM, 1991)—summarized the scientific evidence and provided nutrient recommendations. In the decades since the release of these two reports, the body of evidence on the relationships between nutrition during pregnancy and lactation and maternal and infant health and chronic disease has continued to grow and evolve. At the same time, the demographics of the population have shifted, giving rise to new considerations. To explore the evidence that has emerged, the National Academies conducted a 2-day workshop in January 2020. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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