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Appendix A Acronyms and Abbreviations 5-MTHF 5-methyltetrahydrofolate 16:0 palmitic acid AA arachidonic acid AI Adequate Intake AND Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics APrON Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition BF breastfeeding BHA butylated hydroxyanisole BHT butylated hydroxytoluene BMI body mass index CAER Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Adverse Events Reporting CARDIA Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study CARE Community Access, Resources, and Education for Families Act CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDP cytidine diphosphate CDPâcholine cytidine diphosphateâcholine CH3 methyl group CM chylomicron COPSAC Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma 161 PREPUBLICATION COPYâUncorrected Proofs
162 NUTRITION DURING PREGNANCY AND LACTATION DARLING Davis Area Research on Lactation, Infant Nutrition, and Growth Study DHA docosahexaenoic acid DHSEA Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act DOHaD Developmental Origins of Health and Disease DOMInO DHA to Optimize Mother Infant Outcomes DRI Dietary Reference Intake EAR Estimated Average Requirement ECHO Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes Program EER Estimated Energy Requirement EPA eicosapentaenoic acid EPIC European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration GI Glycemic Index HAPO Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Study HMO human milk oligosaccharide IAAO indicator amino acid oxidation IBFAN International Baby Foods Action Network ICCIDD International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders ICP-MS inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry IFPS Infant Feeding Practices Study IQ intelligence quotient L-5-MTHF L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate LCPUFA long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids LNFPII lacto-N-fucopentaose II MET methionine MILQ Mothers, Infants and Lactation Quality MTHFR methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase MVM multivitamin and mineral NAPS Nutrition and Pregnancy Study NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NIH National Institutes of Health PREPUBLICATION COPYâUncorrected Proofs
APPENDIX A 163 NWA National WIC Association ODS Office of Dietary Supplements ORIP Omega-3 LCPUFA to Reduce the Incidence of Prematurity PA physical activity PAL physical activity level PC phosphatidylcholine PE phosphatidylethanolamine PEMT pathway phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase pathway PIN Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study PMVM prenatal multivitamin and mineral PRAMS Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System RBC red blood cell RDA Recommended Dietary Allowance SAM S-adenosylmethionine sFLT-1 soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 SNAP Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program SWIFT Study of Women, Infant Feeding and Type 2 Diabetes after Gestational Diabetes Pregnancy TCA tricarboxylic acid UL Tolerable Upper Intake Level UNICEF United Nations Childrenâs Fund USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture VLDL very low-density lipoprotein WABA World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action WATCH Women and Their Childrenâs Health WHO World Health Organization WIC Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children wt body weight PREPUBLICATION COPYâUncorrected Proofs
PREPUBLICATION COPYâUncorrected Proofs