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Highway Hydraulic Engineering State of Practice A Synthesis of Highway Practice Melanie Kueber Watkins Brian Barkdoll David W. Watkins Katelyn Zelinski Michigan Technological UniversiTy Houghton, MI 2020 Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration Subscriber Categories Highways â¢ Geotechnology â¢ Hydraulics and Hydrology N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP SYNTHESIS 551
Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.nationalacademies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP SYNTHESIS 551 Project 20-05, Topic 50-02 ISSN 0547-5570 ISBN 978-0-309-48156-4 Library of Congress Control Number 2020937967 Â© 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Cover figure: Pilgrim River Bridge, US Highway 41, Houghton County, MI. Photo credit: David W. Watkins, PhD., PE. NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; the FHWA; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transporta- tion results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to high- way authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniquesâthe National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation, under Agree- ment No. 693JJ31950003. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRBâs recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRBâs relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs iden- tified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the FHWA. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&Iâs recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP SYNTHESIS 551 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Jo Allen Gause, Senior Program Officer Deborah Irvin, Program Coordinator Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications NCHRP PROJECT 20-05 PANEL Joyce N. Taylor, Maine DOT, Augusta, ME (Chair) Socorro âCocoâ Briseno, California DOT (Retired), Sacramento, CA Anita Bush, Nevada DOT, Carson City, NV Joseph D. Crabtree, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY Mostafa âMoeâ Jamshidi, Nebraska DOT, Lincoln, NE Cynthia L. Jones, Ohio DOT, Columbus, OH Jessie X. Jones, Arkansas DOT, Little Rock, AR Brenda Moore, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh, NC Ben Orsbon, South Dakota DOT, Pierre, SD Randall R. âRandyâ Park, Avenue Consultants, Bluffdale, UT Brian Worrel, Iowa DOT, Ames, IA Jack Jernigan, FHWA Liaison Jim McDonnell, AASHTO Liaison Stephen F. Maher, TRB Liaison TOPIC 50-02 PANEL Victoria Bains, Virginia DOT, Richmond, VA Guohong âJenniferâ Duan, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ Andrea C. H. Hendrickson, Minnesota DOT, Oakdale, MN Casey M. Kramer, Northwest Hydraulic Consultants, Olympia, WA Saul A. Nuccitelli, Texas DOT, Austin, TX Nicholas J. Wark, Vermont Agency of Transportation, Montpelier, VT Cynthia Nurmi, FHWA Liaison Nancy M. Whiting, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Information on current practice was provided by many highway and transportation agencies for case examples. Their cooperation and assistance are appreciated. Additionally, a special thanks to Erik Carlson, Hydraulics Unit Supervisor, Michigan Department of Transportation (DOT); M. Brad McManus, PE, State Roadway Hydraulics Engineer; Susan Beck, PE, State Bridge Hydraulics Engineer; Gary Pierce, PE, Bridge Hydraulics Engineer; Toan Nguyen, PE, Bridge Hydraulics Engineer, Georgia DOT; Stephen Morgan, PE, State Hydraulics Engineer, Hydraulics Unit; Jerry Snead, PE, CFM, Engineering Supervisor, Hydraulics UnitâHighway Floodplain Program, North Carolina DOT; and Stephen M. Sisson, PE, Design Resource Engineer, North Project Development, Delaware DOT.
ABOUT THE NCHRP SYNTHESIS PROGRAM Highway administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which information already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This infor- mation may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to highway administrators and engineers. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day- to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evalu ating such useful information and to make it available to the entire highway community, the American Association of State High- way and Transportation Officialsâthrough the mechanism of the National Cooperative Highway Research Programâauthorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, NCHRP Project 20-05, âSynthesis of Information Related to Highway Problems,â searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an NCHRP report series, Synthesis of Highway Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. FOREWORD By Jo Allen Gause Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This synthesis documents significant changes in highway hydraulic engineering practices imple- mented by state departments of transportation (DOTs) over the past decade. The synthesis focuses on eight subtopics of highway hydraulic engineering: roadway drainage; culvert aquatic organism passage; bridge scour computations and countermeasures; advanced hydraulic modeling; regulatory require- ments; floodplain impacts and mitigation; coastal hydraulics; and alternative project delivery methods. Information for this study was gathered through literature review, a survey of state DOTs, and follow-up interviews with four selected agencies for case examples. Melanie Kueber Watkins, Brian Barkdoll, David W. Watkins, and Katelyn Zelinski, Michigan Tech- nological University, collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report. The synthesis is an immediately useful document that records practices that were acceptable with the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.
C O N T E N T S 1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Introduction 5 Chapter 2 Literature Review 5 Introduction 5 Roadway Drainage 8 Culvert Aquatic Organism Passage 11 Bridge Scour Computations and Countermeasures 16 Advanced Hydraulic Modeling 18 Regulatory Requirements 22 Floodplain Impacts and Mitigation 25 Coastal Hydraulics 29 Alternative Project Delivery Methods 35 Chapter 3 Survey Questionnaire 35 Survey Summary 36 Roadway Drainage 37 Culvert Aquatic Organism Passage 38 Bridge Scour Computations and Countermeasures 44 Advanced Hydraulic Modeling 44 Regulatory Requirements 48 Floodplain Impacts and Mitigation 51 Coastal Hydraulics 52 Alternative Project Delivery Methods 55 Chapter 4 Case Examples 55 Overview 55 Data Challenges in 2D Advanced Hydraulic Modeling (Michigan DOT) 57 Model Type Determination, FEMA Acceptance, and Calibration in 2D Advanced Hydraulic Modeling (Georgia DOT) 59 Programmatic Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between North Carolina Floodplain Mapping Program (NCFMP) and North Carolina DOT 62 Improving Infrastructure on a Case-by-Case Basis at Delaware DOT 65 Chapter 5 Conclusions 65 Roadway Drainage 65 Culvert Aquatic Organism Passage 65 Bridge Scour Computations and Countermeasures 66 Advanced Hydraulic Modeling 66 Regulatory Requirements 66 Floodplain Impacts and Mitigation 66 Coastal Hydraulics 67 Alternative Project Delivery Methods
68 Bibliography A-1 Appendix A Survey Questionnaire B-1 Appendix B Survey Questionnaire Responses Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.