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Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues (2020)

Chapter: 3. Overview of Research Ideas

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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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Suggested Citation:"3. Overview of Research Ideas." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25857.
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15 3. Overview of Research Ideas Based on the previously described methodology, four high-level themes for the Airport Administration and HR Research Roadmap were developed. This section describes each of the themes and includes all the research ideas associated with each theme, as well the recommended research timeline and related research sources. Following the description of each research idea, this section concludes with a list of all the identified sub-topics and shows the research ideas aligned with each sub-topic. More details about the research topics, including importance ratings and related sub-topics can be found in the Research Idea Database. Research Idea Scalability Though these research themes emerged across multiple sources, it is important to consider the scalability of each idea when considering how they apply to any given individual airport. If research ideas are developed into ACRP problem statements or requests for proposals (RFPs), the resulting research should consider how the ideas are applicable to different types of airports or the types of research products that would benefit airports ranging in size from large hubs to small GA airports. Because airports vary in structure, priorities, and level of available resources, each airport must consider their own context, type, size, location, or other characteristics when determining the extent to which these research ideas can or should be prioritized in their own airport. This includes assessing how each research idea could provide benefit to their airport, what resources they already have to leverage for the research goal, and what products they may need to pursue a research topic. For example, small or GA airports may not be focused on setting a strategy across HR and administrative departments if these departments are not part of their organizational structure. Similarly, recruiting for diversity may not be a primary goal for airports located in a relatively homogeneous community though it may be a priority for airports located in a more diverse region. Administration and HR Context Research ideas within this theme provide information about how to effectively set strategy within airport Administration and HR departments. Airports are interested in learning about other airports’ policies, practices, and procedures to avoid “reinventing the wheel.” This topic also includes research on how the airport organizational structure impacts the HR and Administration departments. An examination of research needs within this topic resulted in the following research ideas:  Best Practices for the Changing Nature of Airport Administration Work o The nature of daily operations and administration in airports changes over time to meet the needs of the industry. The interest in the potential role of automation in replacing certain routine administrative tasks has caused inquiries of best practices for allocating effort to other tasks and training for required skills most effectively. To adapt and remain competitive with other industry organizational

16 structures, airports are considering the most optimal organizational structure. Updating the organizational structure may also be necessary in response to changing political, environmental, or economic events. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  Kenville, K. A. and J. F. Smith. (2013). ACRP Synthesis 40: Issues with Airport Organization and Reorganization. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/169008.aspx  Jesuthasan, R. & Boudreau, J. (2017). Thinking Through How Automation Will Affect Your Workforce. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2017/04/thinking-through-how-automation-will-affect-your- workforce  Documentation of Best Practices, Policies, and Procedures for Effective Administration and HR Departments o Administration and HR departments in airports across the country are implementing different practices, policies, and procedures aimed at most effectively supporting their individual airports. However, successful practices, policies, and procedures are often not widely shared or disseminated between airports. Airport Administration and HR leadership seek to understand the different practices, policies, and procedures that already are being implemented at other airports, so that they can leverage these best practices. Key focus areas to capture existing best practices include: setting strategies within airport administration and HR departments, airport organizational structuring, succession planning efforts, and Diversity and Inclusion initiatives. Case studies can be collected via interviews and/or surveys to document these best practices. Additionally, specific best practices can be used to develop written case studies. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  ICF Consulting, and Steer Davies Gleave. (2018). ACRP Research Report 186: Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C https://www.nap.edu/catalog/25263/guidebook-on-building-airport- workforce-capacity  Council of University Transportation Centers. (2012). National Transportation Workforce Summary of Results. National Transportation Workforce Summit 2012. http://cutcbanquet.com/wp- content/uploads/2013/06/NTWS_Summary-of-Results.pdf  Implementing a Positive Culture and Enhancing the Employee Experience to Improve Retention o Developing an airport workforce culture that is innovative and collaborative is important not only to adapt to changes within the industry, but also to help attract and retain employees. Airports exist in an environment that is faced with both external and internal changes (e.g. technology, staffing, etc.). While more tenured employees are accustomed to traditional work environments, they may be described as "old-fashioned" or "stuck in their ways." In contrast, younger incoming employees are often forward thinking and seeking a flexible work environment with an attractive organizational culture. Airports with more traditional government structures that lack flexibility in terms of scheduling or

17 work arrangements often fail to match younger employees' expectations and may be perceived as undesirable. To help improve retention, airports seek ways to best appeal to the workforce they want to attract and retain. This includes ways to enhance the full scope of benefits they offer to employees as an organization. Airports may need to consider going beyond traditional compensation packages to also include elements of the total work experience, such as organizational culture, the work environment, societal impact, and career opportunities. Airports seek strategies to adapt their culture in ways that, moving forward, can continuously adapt to the ever-shifting changes in the airport environment. As part of this, airports seek innovative practices for training both new and existing members of their workforce. Additionally, airports seek to understand the strategies that exist for encouraging a spirit of creativity and innovation among airport staff. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  Young, S. B. (2010). ACRP Synthesis 18: Aviation Workforce Development Practices. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. http://portjobs.org/storage/documents/acrp_syn_018.pdf  ICF Consulting, and Steer Davies Gleave. (2018). ACRP Research Report 186: Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/25263/guidebook-on-building-airport- workforce-capacity  Facilitation of Information Sharing Across the Airport Industry o Airports may be siloed or have limited communication with other airports outside of their geographical region or different size hub airports. In order to improve the lines of communication and increase efficiencies within the airport industry, there is a desire to increase the connectivity between airports across the country. Airports seek guidance on feasible ways of connecting with each other at regular intervals to encourage consistent sharing of information and best practices. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  Dillon, B. (2015). Knocking down data silos with BIM. International Railway Journal, 55(5), 28-31.  Ideal Organizational Structure Based on Airport Characteristics o While research exists around typical best practices for organizational structure, airports are interested in learning more information around airport-specific structures and best practices. Airports often have a structure that is complicated, given the nature of how they operate and function with relation to government involvement. Overall, there is rising pressure for increased efficiency and to tailor the organizational structure to address this. The perception is that by moving away from a traditional hierarchical organization matrix, towards an organization that allows people to effectively interact and communicate, effectiveness will be increased. Additionally, there are external pressures (e.g., increased competition, changing regulatory issues, increased economic pressures) that are driving airports to learn from and incorporate organizational structures from outside aviation. For example, the aviation industry may examine the impact of technology changes on organizational structures within other industries. Overall,

18 a well-understood and effective organizational structure can greatly help airports in meeting goals and facilitate the delivery of services. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  Kenville, K. A. and J. F. Smith. (2013). ACRP Synthesis 40: Issues with Airport Organization and Reorganization. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/169008.aspx  ACRP Research Results Digest 20: Taking Inventory of ACRP Research and the Next Challenges Facing the Airport Industry. (2014). Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/170068.aspx  Setting Strategy in Airport Administration and HR Departments o Unlike some other industries, Administration and HR departments within airports must consider and comply with various legislation and regulations when planning strategy. This includes aviation legislation, operating regulations, oversight functions, specific personnel qualification and training, licensing/certification/authorization and approval obligations, and safety concerns. These considerations may be airport-specific, or they could come from federal, state, and local regulations including from the FAA, ADA compliance, and more. Strategy will become more necessary in Administration and HR departments as well as across the airport due to rising irregular operations, increased competition, changing regulatory issues, and increased economic pressures. Airports may need to consider strategies such as updating the organizational structure and mergers. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  Kenville, K. A. and J. F. Smith. (2013). ACRP Synthesis 40: Issues with Airport Organization and Reorganization. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/169008.aspx  Airports Council International & American Association of Airport Executives. (2015). Modernizing the Passenger Facility Charge: The Key to Transforming America's Airports for a Competitive 21st Century. https://airportscouncil.org/wp- content/uploads/2018/10/modernizing_the_pfc_- _the_key_to_transforming_americas_airports_-_final.pdf  International Civil Aviation Organization. (2017). ICAO Aviation Training and Capacity-Building Roadmap for States: A Practical Guide. https://www.icao.int/training/Documents/ICAO%20Aviation%20Capacity- Building%20Roadmap_2107.pdf  Distribution of Responsibility Between Airports and City/Municipality/County o Most airports are not private institutions and are, to some capacity, government institutions aligned with a city, municipality, and/or county. Due to this relationship, a certain level of collaboration is required for daily operation and executing new initiatives. For example, airport activity growth may cause the need to hire more staff. The decision to hire more staff and receive the appropriate funding require approval from the associated government entity. Airports may also need to expand the physical property occupied, which would

19 involve interfacing with urban planning in cities. Awareness of what responsibilities lie with which party in these situations and others for maximum efficiency on both sides would be beneficial for airports to understand. o Timeline Recommendation: 5+ years o Related Research  Airports Council International & American Association of Airport Executives. (2015). Modernizing the Passenger Facility Charge: The Key to Transforming America's Airports for a Competitive 21st Century. https://airportscouncil.org/wp- content/uploads/2018/10/modernizing_the_pfc_- _the_key_to_transforming_americas_airports_-_final.pdf  International Air Transport Association. (2018). Future of the Airline Industry 2035. https://www.iata.org/en/policy/future-of-airlines-2035/  Future of Administration and HR Performance Appraisals o Current methods of performance appraisal and measurement in airports are not driving improvement in the way airports are seeking. Some airports may consider leveraging new technologies, such as ubiquitous computing, to provide more constant feedback about process efficiency. Other airports may develop more formal assessment metrics for their performance appraisals related to competencies that are increasing in importance, like communication. These and other considerations of advancing performance measurement in airports are becoming more prevalent. o Timeline Recommendation: 5+ years o Related Research  Cascio, W. & Montealegre, R. (2016). How technology is changing work and organizations. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 3, 349-375. 10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-041015- 062352.  Harrington, S. (2016). Aviation HR Conference Report. Report on the 2016 Ground Handling International Aviation HR Conference, Lisbon. Retrieved from http://www.groundhandling.com/HR/index.html Impact of Technology The identified research ideas related to the impact of technology theme provide information about how technology will affect airport Administration and HR work. This includes research about how software and technology can enhance Administration and HR processes, how to evaluate new technologies for potential utilization, and new competencies required for hiring (since many jobs will require using new technology on the job). The research ideas identified for this theme include:  Securing Sensitive Data o Data is becoming an increasingly valuable resource and can be a liability to airports if not properly managed and protected. As HR platforms are becoming digitized, there is a risk of losing the data and/or losing control of the access to

20 this information. As part of this, some airlines are turning to technology to streamline application processes due to the increased volume of applicants to various airport jobs. For example, Emirates uses a new candidate screening process that utilizes digital technologies including online tests and video interviewing, which may contain sensitive information. Sources of big data (passenger/flight trends) can be a valuable resource to improving airport processes, but airports must ensure others are not improperly leveraging it. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  Institute for the Future. (2015). The Information Generation: Transforming the Future, Today Outlook Report. http://www.iftf.org/fileadmin/user_upload/downloads/ourwork/IFTF_Outloo k_Report_FINAL.pdf  International Air Transport Association. (2018). Aviation Human Resources Report. https://www.iata.org/en/training/pages/aviation- human-resources-report/  Webster, J. (2019). Digitization of Human Resources: Challenges and Opportunities. ACI Insights. Retrieved from https://blog.aci.aero/digitization-of-human-resources-challenges-and- opportunities/  Addressing IT and Cybersecurity Staffing Needs o The use of and need for cybersecurity is anticipated to increase over the next several years across industries, including aviation. It is additionally expected to drive some change in airport processes to operate in the most secure methods. As cybercrime/cyberattacks are advancing and being used in government agencies, it is not unlikely that some airports may be affected by cyberattacks as government affiliated organizations. Airports must decide whether an in-house cybersecurity team would be more appropriate compared to external cybersecurity contractors. IT services can also be in-house or contracted. The current airport workforce may not possess the necessary skills to manage new technology needs. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  ICF Consulting, and Steer Davies Gleave. (2018). ACRP Research Report 186: Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/25263/guidebook-on-building-airport- workforce-capacity  Institute for the Future. (2015). The Information Generation: Transforming the Future, Today Outlook Report. http://www.iftf.org/fileadmin/user_upload/downloads/ourwork/IFTF_Outloo k_Report_FINAL.pdf  International Air Transport Association. (2018). Future of the Airline Industry 2035. https://www.iata.org/en/policy/future-of-airlines-2035/  Cybersecurity Training for Airport Staff o As all airport staff have begun to utilize technology to some extent, they must be trained to prevent cybersecurity threats. This may include teaching new skillsets to identify threats and take precautions. Threats such as phishing emails can allow others to gain access to airport databases to take sensitive information and

21 hack airport systems to cause harm in daily operations. Developing or acquiring training programs to educate all employees of these potential technological threats will become more necessary. Explicit consideration will need to be given regarding security features of all software utilized within the airport. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  Cronin, C. B., A. Alexander, E. Majumdar, C. Riches, J. Jenkins, S. Van Beek, A. Bisker, B. Heinen, and C. Lewis. (2016). ACRP Web-Only Document 28: Identifying and Evaluation Airport Workforce Requirements. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_webdoc_028.pdf  ICF Consulting, and Steer Davies Gleave. (2018). ACRP Research Report 186: Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/25263/guidebook-on-building-airport- workforce-capacity  Council of University Transportation Centers. (2012). National Transportation Workforce Summary of Results. National Transportation Workforce Summit 2012. http://cutcbanquet.com/wp- content/uploads/2013/06/NTWS_Summary-of-Results.pdf  Wensveen, J. (2017). How to solve aviation's talent gap problem. International Airport Review. Retrieved from https://www.internationalairportreview.com/article/26445/aviation-talent- gap-john-wensveen/  Technology Use in Administration and HR o The emergence of new technologies is impacting the way airports are operating, including their areas of Administration and HR. The impact of technology is expected to be one of the biggest drivers of change over the next decade. Specifically within HR, technological updates can include online application processes, digitizing HR platforms, virtual training development options for airport employees, and continuous training on technology use to develop necessary technology skillsets. Similarly, software used to conduct routine Administration tasks is gaining new functionality. Software options will need to be examined to identify the best option within an airport and provide training on the most efficient use. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  ICF Consulting, and Steer Davies Gleave. (2018). ACRP Research Report 186: Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/25263/guidebook-on-building-airport- workforce-capacity  Council of University Transportation Centers. (2012). National Transportation Workforce Summary of Results. National Transportation Workforce Summit 2012. http://cutcbanquet.com/wp- content/uploads/2013/06/NTWS_Summary-of-Results.pdf  International Air Transport Association. (2018). Aviation Human Resources Report. https://www.iata.org/en/training/pages/aviation- human-resources-report/

22  Workforce Skill Gaps Due to Technology o Airports are concerned that certain skillsets that have previously been useful are becoming less critical as new technologies are able to perform such tasks more efficiently and effectively. These typically include skills associated with more routine tasks such as data entry. As technology increases the automation of certain tasks, other skillsets and competencies are becoming more important both to manage new technology and make airport employee and customer experiences more positive. For example, employees who commonly spent most of their time gathering basic information over the phone from employees or customers may now need more problem-solving and communication skills to dedicate more time answering complex questions, while technology can collect the basic information. More specifically related to technology skills, all employees will need to develop and be trained on how to effectively interact with newly implemented technology. Specific employees will need to have technological troubleshooting and big data management skills. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  Council of University Transportation Centers. (2012). National Transportation Workforce Summary of Results. National Transportation Workforce Summit 2012. http://cutcbanquet.com/wp- content/uploads/2013/06/NTWS_Summary-of-Results.pdf  International Air Transport Association. (2018). Aviation Human Resources Report. https://www.iata.org/en/training/pages/aviation- human-resources-report/  Wensveen, J. (2017). How to solve aviation's talent gap problem. International Airport Review. Retrieved from https://www.internationalairportreview.com/article/26445/aviation-talent- gap-john-wensveen/  Most Effective Use of Technology o With the increased use of technology in many industries comes new choices about which programs and systems would be the most effective to implement in aviation and within specific airports. There are software programs that can automate many routine processes that may be a worthwhile investment. Many data sources and operations can now be conducted online. Artificial intelligence and machine learning are also starting to be leveraged to provide more information in complex situations. Each of these and more may or may not be worth the investment of implementation and training based on specific needs. Considering IT capabilities within the airport when considering these decisions is worthwhile. o Timeline Recommendation: 2-5 years o Related Research  ACRP Research Results Digest 20: Taking Inventory of ACRP Research and the Next Challenges Facing the Airport Industry. (2014). Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/170068.aspx  Cronin, C. B., A. Alexander, E. Majumdar, C. Riches, J. Jenkins, S. Van Beek, A. Bisker, B. Heinen, and C. Lewis. (2016). ACRP Web-Only Document 28: Identifying and Evaluation Airport Workforce Requirements. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_webdoc_028.pdf

23  Société Internationale de Télécommunications Aéronautiques. (2018). Technology and the future of air transport. Retrieved from https://www.sita.aero/pressroom/news-releases/technology-and-the- future-of-air-transport  Impact of Technology Trends on Operations o Daily process operations have begun to change within Administration and HR due to emerging technologies and will continue to do so as technological advances continue. Because there is a greater reliance on data and digitized processing of operations including personnel tracking, recruitment, employee development, Administration and HR employees need additional skill sets in technology to carry out daily operation with greater efficiency. There will be an increased demand for training programs to provide employees with new skills and upgrades as the technologies evolve. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-5 years o Related Research  Cronin, C. B., A. Alexander, E. Majumdar, C. Riches, J. Jenkins, S. Van Beek, A. Bisker, B. Heinen, and C. Lewis. (2016). ACRP Web-Only Document 28: Identifying and Evaluation Airport Workforce Requirements. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_webdoc_028.pdf  Council of University Transportation Centers. (2012). National Transportation Workforce Summary of Results. National Transportation Workforce Summit 2012. http://cutcbanquet.com/wp- content/uploads/2013/06/NTWS_Summary-of-Results.pdf  Webster, J. (2019). Digitization of Human Resources: Challenges and Opportunities. ACI Insights. Retrieved from https://blog.aci.aero/digitization-of-human-resources-challenges-and- opportunities/  Impact of Automation and Artificial Intelligence on Administration and HR o Automation and artificial intelligence are impactful trends that will substantially change operations within Administration and HR. To best prepare on how to reskill employees, airports must identify which tasks will become automated. The transition to the automation of specific tasks within the airport will need to be carefully managed to address concerns of reskilling employees. Though automation is not likely to replace entire jobs, it can likely replace or streamline certain routine tasks. This is likely to affect tasks involved in payroll and some onboarding. Whereas automation typically replaces more routine tasks, artificial intelligence can be used to detect trends for more efficient processes using data. The use of artificial intelligence to help solve problems and plan for projects is expected to be more frequently utilized. o Timeline Recommendation: 5+ years o Related Research  Institute for the Future. (2015). The Information Generation: Transforming the Future, Today Outlook Report. http://www.iftf.org/fileadmin/user_upload/downloads/ourwork/IFTF_Outloo k_Report_FINAL.pdf  International Air Transport Association. (2018). Future of the Airline Industry 2035. https://www.iata.org/en/policy/future-of-airlines-2035/

24  Jesuthasan, R. & Boudreau, J. (2017). Thinking Through How Automation Will Affect Your Workforce. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2017/04/thinking-through-how-automation-will-affect-your- workforce  Société Internationale de Télécommunications Aéronautiques. (2018). Technology and the future of air transport. Retrieved from https://www.sita.aero/pressroom/news-releases/technology-and-the- future-of-air-transport  Ethical Boundaries in Using Technology o Ubiquitous computing describes constant measuring and data collection due to new technologies in computers or tablets. Airports and other industries are gaining the ability to use this data to inform performance management and appraisal, as well as provide continuous performance feedback to employees. New technology already embedded in many software and other technological tools can provide continuous data on how efficiently they are working, how much time they are spending on certain tasks, and live ratings on customer satisfaction. These types of data can be used to identify inefficient processes, whether employees may be spending too much time in one area over another, or areas of the airport that need attention in real time. Airports must consider how to most effectively use this data, but also consider ethical concerns or violations that may arise from such in-depth monitoring. Employee perceptions of fairness in using these methods should also be considered. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-5 years o Related Research  Cascio, W. & Montealegre, R. (2016). How technology is changing work and organizations. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 3, 349-375. 10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-041015- 062352.  Leveraging Social Media to Foster Engagement o Companies are integrating social media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, Instagram) into their intranets to share internal information and knowledge with employees. They are additionally using social media to share information with customers. To adapt to the incoming workforce, incorporating the use of social media to communicate internal information to employees may facilitate connectedness and loyalty to airports. Similarly, sharing promotions and engaging content about the airline via social media to passengers can keep airports on their mind even when they are not flying. This may contribute to recruitment. Additionally, with the increased usage of social media, airport Administration and HR may need to hire or train employees to manage social media accounts. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  ICF Consulting, and Steer Davies Gleave. (2018). ACRP Research Report 186: Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/25263/guidebook-on-building-airport- workforce-capacity  Carlisle, A. (2015). Airport business resilience: Plan for uncertainty and prepare for change. Airport Management, 9, 118-132. https://www.henrystewartpublications.com/sites/default/files/Carlisle.pdf

25  Cascio, W. & Montealegre, R. (2016). How technology is changing work and organizations. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 3, 349-375. 10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-041015- 062352.  Airport Positions to Manage Social Media o The use of corporate social media accounts to engage employees, as well as draw customer attention to increase brand awareness relies upon consistent updates and postings. Individuals familiar with various social media platforms and educated on the most effective content to post to targeted audiences would be best suited for such positions. To best leverage social media resources, it would be beneficial for airports to consider these types of positions within marketing departments or from external contractors. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-5 years o Related Research  Cascio, W. & Montealegre, R. (2016). How technology is changing work and organizations. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 3, 349-375. 10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-041015- 062352.  Impact of Technology on Future Recruitment and Necessary Skillsets o Updates in technology are starting to influence both how individuals are recruited, as well as the need for specific skillsets. Online application platforms and some automated processing are changing the application process for both applicants and HR employees. New recruiting platforms and tools may soon be leveraged to recruit top talent. As more and more employees in all areas of the airport are being required to interact with technology at some level, technological foundations are becoming more necessary for incoming employees. Automation is anticipated to change the types of tasks performed by employees, shifting from more routine tasks to more complex problem solving and customer service. Related skillsets will become more important. Hiring for technology-specific positions, like those in IT departments, will also become more prevalent to manage these new technologies. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  ACRP Research Results Digest 20: Taking Inventory of ACRP Research and the Next Challenges Facing the Airport Industry. (2014). Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/170068.aspx  Council of University Transportation Centers. (2012). National Transportation Workforce Summary of Results. National Transportation Workforce Summit 2012. http://cutcbanquet.com/wp- content/uploads/2013/06/NTWS_Summary-of-Results.pdf  Institute for the Future. (2015). The Information Generation: Transforming the Future, Today Outlook Report. http://www.iftf.org/fileadmin/user_upload/downloads/ourwork/IFTF_Outloo k_Report_FINAL.pdf

26  International Air Transport Association. (2018). Aviation Human Resources Report. https://www.iata.org/en/training/pages/aviation- human-resources-report/  Webster, J. (2019). Digitization of Human Resources: Challenges and Opportunities. ACI Insights. Retrieved from https://blog.aci.aero/digitization-of-human-resources-challenges-and- opportunities/  Wensveen, J. (2017). How to solve aviation's talent gap problem. International Airport Review. Retrieved from https://www.internationalairportreview.com/article/26445/aviation-talent- gap-john-wensveen/  Best Practices in Managing a Highly Connected Workforce o It is becoming more common that employees have access to their own personal electronic devices at work. This may cause changes in the workplace. To make workplace processes more efficient, workplace applications can be installed. However, this may involve some security risks. Alternatively, airports can provide their employees with workplace-specific devices. Managing the use of technology in the workplace with a workforce that is becoming more accustomed to constant access to technology is of great concern. o Timeline Recommendation: 5+ years o Related Research  Cascio, W. & Montealegre, R. (2016). How technology is changing work and organizations. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 3, 349-375. 10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-041015- 062352.  Council of University Transportation Centers. (2012). National Transportation Workforce Summary of Results. National Transportation Workforce Summit 2012. http://cutcbanquet.com/wp- content/uploads/2013/06/NTWS_Summary-of-Results.pdf  Institute for the Future. (2015). The Information Generation: Transforming the Future, Today Outlook Report. http://www.iftf.org/fileadmin/user_upload/downloads/ourwork/IFTF_Outloo k_Report_FINAL.pdf  NIST Cyber Framework in Aviation o The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) along with other stakeholders developed a cybersecurity framework aimed to counter threats and support organizations. The percent of U.S. organizations using this framework has been on the rise since 2014, with about half of organizations currently using it. The framework utilizes best practices and industry standards to manage cybersecurity risks and respond to cyber incidents. As the framework continues to grow, it may become more utilized within airports and the aviation industry. Strategy and direction as to how to best incorporate the NIST framework into airport Administration and HR practices, processes, and operations will be necessary as security becomes an increased priority for airports. o Timeline Recommendation: 5+ years o Related Research  National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Department of Commerce. (2017). Cybersecurity Framework. https://www.nist.gov/topics/cybersecurity

27 Talent Acquisition and Management This theme includes research ideas that present information about how to attract employees to airports, compete for talent within local job markets, engage in succession planning, and implement Diversity and Inclusion initiatives. The identified research ideas include the following:  Talent Acquisition Methods for Long-Term Sustainability o There is significant anticipation over demographic changes in the workforce and the impact these changes will have on airports. Specifically, there is concern regarding the retirement rate and the subsequent loss of institutional knowledge and required employee skillsets. With the retirement of the Baby Boomer generation, there will be increased pressure to ensure there is adequate hiring of qualified individuals. This hiring will bring in individuals from younger generations, which may change the needs of the workforce. The industry needs to invest in workplace strategies to keep pace with the changing workforce and make the aviation industry a sought after industry for younger job-seekers. There is a general lack of public awareness of airport careers, and particularly about specialized occupations. In general, outreach programs do not seem to be encouraging an optimal number of students to enter airport-related careers. Marketing budgets for these positions or programs are often small; however, in addition to budgets, the industry also needs new marketing practices. Research is needed to investigate ways to most efficiently promote awareness of airport careers in schools and communities. This would contribute to increased participation in aviation training and development degrees or certificate programs. Finding ways to attract and attain new talent will enhance airport industry success in the long-term. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  Cronin, C. B., A. Alexander, E. Majumdar, C. Riches, J. Jenkins, S. Van Beek, A. Bisker, B. Heinen, and C. Lewis. (2016). ACRP Web-Only Document 28: Identifying and Evaluation Airport Workforce Requirements. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_webdoc_028.pdf  Harl, T. (2014). The perfect storm of aviation workforce issues. AviationPros. Retrieved from https://www.aviationpros.com/aircraft/maintenance- providers/mro/article/11505632/the-perfect-storm-of-aviation-workforce- issues  International Air Transport Association. (2018). Future of the Airline Industry 2035. https://www.iata.org/en/policy/future-of-airlines-2035/  Enhancement of Diversity and Inclusion Initiatives and the Impact on HR Processes o Currently, the airports industry is perceived as limited in the diversity of employees. While diversity is oftentimes only thought of in terms of race and

28 gender, there are many different ways in which employees can be diverse, including differences in age, educational levels, socio-economic status, work styles, marital status, parental status, and military service, among other areas. Given the growing, shifting, diverse populations in the U.S., the perspective of a variety of groups (e.g. racial groups, ethnic groups) is important to consider when developing strategic plans and HR processes. Diversity objectives can best be accomplished by helping leaders to achieve their business goals by supporting diversity through the promotion of its benefits and value as well as by providing an environment in which employees feel safe, respected, and valued. The creation of inclusive work environments requires a deep understanding of how all policies, procedures, and practices have an impact on employee inclusion. This requires a review of organizational policies for impact on diverse employee groups, including policies and practices on recruitment, performance management, leadership development, succession planning, and all aspects of the employee life cycle. Heterogeneous teams consistently outperform homogenous teams in terms of creativity, productivity, and efficiency. Therefore, a focus on recruiting diverse applicants as well as developing initiatives to retain these diverse employees is warranted. Airports could also consider embracing immigrant workers to facilitate globalization, reduce language barriers and address customer service challenges. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  Cronin, C. B., A. Alexander, E. Majumdar, C. Riches, J. Jenkins, S. Van Beek, A. Bisker, B. Heinen, and C. Lewis. (2016). ACRP Web-Only Document 28: Identifying and Evaluation Airport Workforce Requirements. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_webdoc_028.pdf  Critical Issues in Transportation 2019. Transportation Research Board. Washington, D.C. (2018). https://www.nap.edu/catalog/25314/critical- issues-in-transportation-2019  Wahl, C. (2011). HR in the Aviation Industry: Time to Develop a New Generation of Leaders. EgonZehnder. Retrieved from https://www.egonzehnder.com/functions/human-resources/insights/hr-in- the-aviation-industry-time-to-develop-a-new-generation-of-leaders  Best Practices for Airport Employee Performance Management o When airports are encouraged to perform strategic planning as part of an internal assessment, one of the areas of consideration is whether and how the airport conducts employee performance appraisals, and more broadly performance management. While many airports may already have a performance management and/or appraisal process in place, research should determine optimal program design features for the airport industry. Utilizing best practices in performance management can help to ensure that employees are motivated to perform better, understand areas for performance improvement, and understand how their performance will be managed. Additionally, by making sure that a well- developed performance management plan is in place, airports can help to streamline their operations (i.e., managers understand how to engage in the process, timelines are established) and enhance employee retention, as employees will understand what is expected of them and be motivated to perform high-quality work.

29 o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  Ricondo & Associates, Inc., Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc., George Mason University, and National Service Research. (2009). ACRP Report 20: Strategic Planning in the Airport Industry. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. http://www.calairports.com/ACRP%20Report%2020%20- %20Strategic%20Planning%20in%20the%20Airport%20Industry.pdf  Increasing Applicant Interest in Airport Jobs o The airport industry is suffering from a talent gap. Trends indicate that the gap will widen annually unless measures are taken to bridge the gap between academic institutions, training organizations, policy makers, and the industry itself. The number of skilled and qualified graduates from traditional suppliers to the industry is on the decline due to competition from other industries, barriers associated with high “costs” of entry, length of time to complete studies, affordability, and accessibility, to name some examples. The demand for aviation talent is on the increase but there is less supply than ever before. As such, it is important to find ways to increase applicant interest in airport jobs, focusing on efforts that will make these jobs more appealing and attractive to a wide applicant pool. Previous research indicates there is a general lack of public awareness of airport careers, particularly in specialized occupations. Many airports have not found a way to market their jobs in a way that attracts the necessary number of applicants to fill important positions. Airports need to raise awareness about their careers as well as promote and define their career opportunities. This could also involve determining what makes a job attractive to new applicants and highlighting those elements of existing airport jobs or finding ways to incorporate related elements into the airport work environment. For example, there is a need to articulate an "employee value proposition" showcasing the appeal and benefits of working within airports. It would be worth investigating how to most efficiently promote awareness in schools, communities, and other locations where prospective employees would see them. Through efforts to understand what makes airport careers attractive and how to implement related strategies, airports will learn how to better increase applicant interest in their jobs, ultimately improving recruiting and hiring efforts. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  Cronin, C. B., A. Alexander, E. Majumdar, C. Riches, J. Jenkins, S. Van Beek, A. Bisker, B. Heinen, and C. Lewis. (2016). ACRP Web-Only Document 28: Identifying and Evaluation Airport Workforce Requirements. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_webdoc_028.pdf  Council of University Transportation Centers. (2012). National Transportation Workforce Summary of Results. National Transportation Workforce Summit 2012. http://cutcbanquet.com/wp- content/uploads/2013/06/NTWS_Summary-of-Results.pdf

30  Harl, T. (2014). The perfect storm of aviation workforce issues. AviationPros. Retrieved from https://www.aviationpros.com/aircraft/maintenance- providers/mro/article/11505632/the-perfect-storm-of-aviation-workforce- issues  Harrington, S. (2016). Aviation HR Conference Report. Report on the 2016 Ground Handling International Aviation HR Conference, Lisbon. Retrieved from http://www.groundhandling.com/HR/index.html  Wensveen, J. (2017). How to solve aviation's talent gap problem. International Airport Review. Retrieved from https://www.internationalairportreview.com/article/26445/aviation-talent- gap-john-wensveen/  Airport Succession Planning Guidance and Best Practices o Airports are facing impending retirements, many of which include high-profile and long-tenured senior leaders. Proper succession planning and leadership development will be required to prevent major losses of institutional knowledge and skills as well as prepare remaining employees for advancement. However, current leadership training practices among entry/mid-level employees are not adequate to fill the leader pipeline for promotion when leaders retire. This makes it difficult to promote from within, and the cost to hiring external to the airport is that external professionals may not be familiar with the airport. The focus tends to be on immediately filling a vacant position as it arises, rather than training current staff in anticipation of future vacancies. Furthermore, political issues make it difficult to hire externally and have those new hires shadow the incumbent (i.e. cannot hire until the position is vacant, and it can take months to fill). Additionally, a shift in hiring practices and greater job flexibility may be required to align with expectations of the future workforce. There is a need for the airport industry to research succession planning to understand the best ways to engage in the transition and support leader development and knowledge transfer. Airports seek to integrate younger and older workforces effectively and develop creative ways to retain employees and obtain return on investment. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  Cronin, C. B., A. Alexander, E. Majumdar, C. Riches, J. Jenkins, S. Van Beek, A. Bisker, B. Heinen, and C. Lewis. (2016). ACRP Web-Only Document 28: Identifying and Evaluation Airport Workforce Requirements. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_webdoc_028.pdf  ICF Consulting, and Steer Davies Gleave. (2018). ACRP Research Report 186: Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/25263/guidebook-on-building-airport- workforce-capacity  Airport Talent Acquisition Guidance: Remaining Competitive in Local Markets o Airports should implement strategies for attracting commuters and local residents to apply for jobs. Airports require employees with specialized skill sets that may be in high demand or difficult to find in a local community. To exacerbate this

31 challenge, competing for local talent in occupations popular across industries (e.g. IT, electricians) can be challenging due to more competitive wages at other employers, inflexible municipal hiring systems, or a lack of exposure to airport careers. Identifying ways to attract local employees can help airports maintain a qualified applicant pool that is available to fill open positions. Examples of strategies that airports could begin to use to stay competitive in their local job markets include improving airport career reputation through marketing, increasing accessibility to the region, offering incentives to non-residential workers, and creating amenities for employees. This could also involve partnering with local community colleges and universities to identify talent, as students may want to stay local for a job once they graduate. To accomplish the goal of staying competitive to local talent, this research would help to identify strategies and develop action plans or guidance. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  ICF Consulting, and Steer Davies Gleave. (2018). ACRP Research Report 186: Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/25263/guidebook-on-building-airport- workforce-capacity  Gollain, M. V. (2016). Key factors of attractiveness for airport areas the special role of human resources. Presented at the 2016 SAA Conference, Atlanta, USA. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/IAUIDF/key- factors-of-attractiveness-for-airport-areas-and-the-special-role-of-human- resources  Understanding the Source of Current Airport Talent o To remain successful, airports need to have sufficiently qualified staff to fill their open positions. The number of skilled and qualified graduates from traditional sources to the industry is on the decline for a variety of reasons, including competition from other industries, barriers associated with high “costs” of entry, length of time to complete studies, affordability, and accessibility of training programs. The demand for aviation talent is on the increase, but there is less supply than ever before. As such, airports would benefit from understanding the best sources of high-caliber talent and building on using these sources in recruitment efforts. Additionally, this research will help to identify sources that may not be producing high quality applicants and identify ways to improve the quality of applicants from those sources. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  Wensveen, J. (2017). How to solve aviation's talent gap problem. International Airport Review. Retrieved from https://www.internationalairportreview.com/article/26445/aviation-talent- gap-john-wensveen/  Methods of Providing Competitive Compensation to Enhance Talent Acquisition o Whether based on factual information regarding pay scales or individual perceptions, airport jobs are often perceived as being uncompetitive in compensation, which makes it harder to attract external talent. Often, airports are unable to increase compensation to be competitive with the private sector due to municipal pay scales or budgetary restrictions. However, there may be ways that

32 overall compensation packages can be developed to be more competitive or appealing to applicants. For example, airports could identify benefits that employees find appealing (e.g. employee well-being offerings, alternative work schedules) and add those to compensation packages to increase the competitiveness of the overall employee compensation. Beyond just identifying ways to improve overall compensation, this research could examine how pay practices are evolving as well as the impact of having represented and non- represented employees on compensation practices and offerings. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  Wahl, C. (2011). HR in the Aviation Industry: Time to Develop a New Generation of Leaders. EgonZehnder. Retrieved from https://www.egonzehnder.com/functions/human-resources/insights/hr-in- the-aviation-industry-time-to-develop-a-new-generation-of-leaders  Airport Talent Acquisition Guidance: Attracting and Retaining Employees Across Generations o In the near future, the airport workforce is expected to get younger due to the retirements of Baby Boomers. However, the number of workers under the age of 25 is also expected to decrease. Further, the average educational attainment of the workforce is expected to increase as more individuals are completing high school and obtaining degrees. This can change the type of employees available in the local economy as well as the types of work opportunities they are seeking. Demographic changes will impact the work environment within airports as younger generations typically have different experiences with and expectations from technology, its usage, how it works, and how it is integrated within the work environment. There are also increased pressures from the younger generations for greater work-life balance and different expectations for flexible scheduling and working remotely. Based on the expected demographic changes to airports' workforce and applicant pool, there is a need to discover how generational differences impact the way work is structured or processes are put in place. Additionally, research is needed to understand the impact on future leadership within airport environments. While it is important to make sure that airport jobs are attractive to employees from younger generations, it is also important that employees from older generations are not alienated or put-off from the airport as an employer. Part of this effort to appeal across generations is to make sure that there are elements of the workplace that attract these differing groups of employees. All of these factors that signal the need for cross-generational talent acquisition. This research would help to identify those factors that will make jobs appealing across generations and help to create a strong workforce with high-quality employees. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  ACRP Research Results Digest 20: Taking Inventory of ACRP Research and the Next Challenges Facing the Airport Industry. (2014). Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/170068.aspx

33  Council of University Transportation Centers. (2012). National Transportation Workforce Summary of Results. National Transportation Workforce Summit 2012. http://cutcbanquet.com/wp- content/uploads/2013/06/NTWS_Summary-of-Results.pdf  Harl, T. (2014). The perfect storm of aviation workforce issues. AviationPros. Retrieved from https://www.aviationpros.com/aircraft/maintenance- providers/mro/article/11505632/the-perfect-storm-of-aviation-workforce- issues  Harrington, S. (2016). Aviation HR Conference Report. Report on the 2016 Ground Handling International Aviation HR Conference, Lisbon. Retrieved from http://www.groundhandling.com/HR/index.html  International Air Transport Association. (2018). Future of the Airline Industry 2035. https://www.iata.org/en/policy/future-of-airlines-2035/  Virginia Department of Aviation (2012). Competitive Analysis of Virginia's Aviation Industry. https://studylib.net/doc/8331372/competitive-analysis- of-virginia-s-aviation-industry  Wensveen, J. (2017). How to solve aviation's talent gap problem. International Airport Review. Retrieved from https://www.internationalairportreview.com/article/26445/aviation-talent- gap-john-wensveen/  Guidance on Creating Policy to Address External Hiring vs. Internal Training o Airport jobs often require employees to have specialized skillsets. However, airport leaders have indicated that they have difficulty providing adequate developmental opportunities to teach these skills and also experience challenges recruiting qualified employees with these skillsets. As such, leaders must understand the best ways to evaluate whether training existing employees or hiring new employees will be able to best meet their staffing needs. This applies to all jobs within airports but may be especially critical for leadership positions. Airports seek effective leaders through (1) strengthening their internal pipeline through talent management and developmental opportunities and (2) recruiting external top performers. Many airport leaders do not feel able to predict the management skills required in the future. Furthermore, airport leaders indicated that they believe the existing internal talent pool within airports is not sufficient in size or quality (i.e. employees do not possess necessary competencies). Research is needed to help airports understand best practices in evaluating whether to hire pre-developed talent or to increase training within the airport. Understanding these evaluations, as well as how to implement training or recruiting to meet human capital needs is very important for today’s airports. o Timeline Recommendation: 2-5 years o Related Research  ICF Consulting, and Steer Davies Gleave. (2018). ACRP Research Report 186: Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/25263/guidebook-on-building-airport- workforce-capacity

34  Wahl, C. (2011). HR in the Aviation Industry: Time to Develop a New Generation of Leaders. EgonZehnder. Retrieved from https://www.egonzehnder.com/functions/human-resources/insights/hr-in- the-aviation-industry-time-to-develop-a-new-generation-of-leaders  Airport Workforce Planning Timing and the Development or Updating of Staffing Models o Airports are "doing more with less." The industry model has often been to lay off employees when needed, cross-train other employees to perform multiple duties, and outsource many of the main functional job classifications. This has increased the workload for airport employees, especially those in smaller airports. Given the looming amount of retirements that will take place in the near future, airports will need to increase hiring soon. To plan accordingly and anticipate needed human capital, airports seek to understand when to start plans related to hiring for various positions, as well as creating and executing workforce planning activities. Although airports are moving toward greater self-sufficiency and more entrepreneurial business models, state and local government leaders continue to wield influence over airport management. Airport leaders must maintain relationships with community stakeholders and satisfy political leaders, while sustaining the airport financially. Requirements to use standard civil service staffing and HR systems also impact airports’ flexibility and responsiveness to staffing and workforce needs. Airports seek to understand when to adjust workforce planning or staffing models and how best to do so, especially given the current complexities of airport human resource context. o Timeline Recommendation: 2-5 years o Related Research  Kenville, K. A. and J. F. Smith. (2013). ACRP Synthesis 40: Issues with Airport Organization and Reorganization. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/169008.aspx  ICF Consulting, and Steer Davies Gleave. (2018). ACRP Research Report 186: Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/25263/guidebook-on-building-airport- workforce-capacity  Determining Minimum Qualifications for Airport Jobs to Facilitate Recruitment o Airports often have trouble recruiting qualified candidates due to the need for a specialized skill set for airport jobs. As such, airports must anticipate hiring challenges and work on finding sources of talent (e.g. downsizing organizations, educational programs). One avenue that could be fruitful in making the process more efficient is developing list of required competencies as a standard for recruitment. For example, while different airport occupations can differ in skills required, various skills rise to the top as areas of need for airports; for example, STEM (Science, Technology, Education, Math) education, data science, big data, data analytics, cloud-based computing, proficiency with cutting edge technologies, security, financial analysis, logic trouble shooting, spatial visualization, and strategic thinking are all competencies that are becoming more important for a variety of jobs. Clearly defining the minimum job requirements

35 across airport jobs will help as airports seek out new job candidates and work to expand their applicant pools to include new sources of employees. Having minimum job requirements clearly detailed helps to ensure that the right people apply for jobs, and there is a pre-existing understanding of the type of job applicants who will be well-suited for airport jobs. o Timeline Recommendation: 2-5 years o Related Research  Cronin, C. B., A. Alexander, E. Majumdar, C. Riches, J. Jenkins, S. Van Beek, A. Bisker, B. Heinen, and C. Lewis. (2016). ACRP Web-Only Document 28: Identifying and Evaluation Airport Workforce Requirements. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_webdoc_028.pdf  Incorporating Flexibility in Talent Acquisition into HR Systems o Due to an ever-evolving work environment that includes technology changes, new rule or regulations, and changing working environments, airports need to be able to update the way in which they hire employees or the types of employees needed to fill open positions. Even the types of jobs that airports need to fill can change based on the changing work environment. Especially for airports that are part of municipal or governmental organizations, the civil service hiring systems can limit hiring and firing flexibility. Often, formal job descriptions or civil service regulations prohibit reorganization of roles and responsibilities. This is problematic because inadequate talent in critical positions can be risky. Specific positions may not be able to be filled because of position requirements or wage/benefit structures of state or municipal governments. When employees with adequate training leave airport employment to go to better paying private sector jobs, it can be difficult to encourage these employees to stay or to fill the open positions. Due to the variable talent needs of airports, airports need to understand how to design more flexibility into the talent acquisition processes. o Timeline Recommendation: 5+ years o Related Research  Cronin, C. B., A. Alexander, E. Majumdar, C. Riches, J. Jenkins, S. Van Beek, A. Bisker, B. Heinen, and C. Lewis. (2016). ACRP Web-Only Document 28: Identifying and Evaluation Airport Workforce Requirements. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_webdoc_028.pdf  Using Predictors of Performance to Make Employee Selection Decisions o Airports need to hire new staff to fill open positions and adequately staff their organizations. However, hiring "just anyone" may not bring in employees with needed qualifications. The key is to hire qualified individuals who will successfully perform required job responsibilities. Results from the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Universal Safety Oversight Audit Programme (USOAP) audits identified concerns regarding a lack of competency identification for airport occupations. In other words, the competencies that are required to effectively perform airport jobs have not been clearly identified and linked to job performance. In general, personnel selection decisions should be made using available valid predictors of job performance to obtain more qualified talent. This requires analyzing airport jobs to identify the required tasks and aligning these with

36 employee knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) and the associated competencies. By understanding these requirements, employees who will be successful in airport jobs can be identified. This can then be used to make hiring and selection decisions. o Timeline Recommendation: 5+ years o Related Research  International Civil Aviation Organization. (2017). ICAO Aviation Training and Capacity-Building Roadmap for States: A Practical Guide. https://www.icao.int/training/Documents/ICAO%20Aviation%20Capacity- Building%20Roadmap_2107.pdf  Standardization of Airport Job Descriptions and Pay Grades/Scales o Even though there has been an overall increase in median pay in recent years in the United States, more than 30% of the surveyed airport jobs showed a decrease to some degree, both in base pay and in total cash. In general, significant year-over-year change in average pay is an indicator of high turnover. Long-tenured “baby boomer” incumbents in certain jobs are retiring and those positions are being filled with replacements who may be much younger and lower-paid, or in any case much differently paid. Airports are generally seen as uncompetitive in compensation, which makes it harder to attract external talent. Beyond pay, airports also have similar jobs across airports or within different departments, but there is often not standardization in the way jobs are described or listed. This lack of consistency can make it more difficult for employees to find jobs for which they are qualified and to understand the types of jobs for which they would be a good fit. By increasing consistency in job descriptions, pay can also be more standardized within and across airports based on the required job qualifications and tasks performed. Given these findings, airports would benefit from understanding a method or methods to standardize job descriptions and pay grades. Additionally, this research seeks to determine ways in which the ACI compensation survey can be more valuable. For example, additional pay-related questions that airports would like answered can be considered for inclusion by outlining these questions and methods for providing the needed information. o Timeline Recommendation: 5+ years o Related Research  Treder, S. (2018). Airports Council International - North America Compensation & Benefits Survey - White Paper. https://airportscouncil.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/AC18-White- Paper_CompBenefitsSurvey.pdf  Wahl, C. (2011). HR in the Aviation Industry: Time to Develop a New Generation of Leaders. EgonZehnder. Retrieved from https://www.egonzehnder.com/functions/human-resources/insights/hr-in- the-aviation-industry-time-to-develop-a-new-generation-of-leaders  Guidance on Creating Policy to Effectively Allocate Duties to Contract Employees vs. In-House Employees o There are many situations in which airport leaders may find it necessary to use contractors or contracted employees rather than internal staff to complete necessary work. For example, outside contractors may be used to reduce costs (i.e., the cost is only incurred when the service is needed, and not paid for full

37 time), to access specialized skills, or to deal with a loss of in-house staff (e.g., due to retirements, inability to hire). When airport leaders feel that they do not have the internal talent, it is common to turn to contracting out work. For these reasons, outsourcing is becoming a more common tactic to reduce cost and introduce more flexible labor practices/be more efficient (e.g. contracting for cleaning, security services, car parking management). Airports are using a variety of staffing methods and talent sources, including both internal staff and external contractors. However, when choosing to contract out work, it is necessary for airports to follow a structured decision-making process that can help determine whether specific work should be contracted out rather than performed by airport employees. Factors such as the effect of outsourcing work, duration of work to be performed, availability of airport employees to perform the work, uniqueness of the work, and cost of outsourcing are all elements that should be considered. Guidance is needed for airports to help determine when it is in their best interest to use internal staff or external contractors to complete various types of work. o Timeline Recommendation: 5+ years o Related Research  Carlisle, A. (2015). Airport business resilience: Plan for uncertainty and prepare for change. Airport Management, 9, 118-132. https://www.henrystewartpublications.com/sites/default/files/Carlisle.pdf  Eger, R. J. and S. Samaddar. (2010). Outsourcing Decision Making in Public Organizations: Proposed Methodology and Initial Analytic Results from a Department of Transportation. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2199, 27-47. https://doi.org/10.3141/2199-05  Wahl, C. (2011). HR in the Aviation Industry: Time to Develop a New Generation of Leaders. EgonZehnder. Retrieved from https://www.egonzehnder.com/functions/human-resources/insights/hr-in- the-aviation-industry-time-to-develop-a-new-generation-of-leaders Training and Development The final high-level theme, Training and Development, incorporates research ideas that are designed to provide information about how to train and develop airport employees (including leadership and management) effectively and efficiently, which includes a focus on how to emphasize institutional knowledge retention. The research ideas within this theme include:  Best Practices for Airport Knowledge Management and Knowledge Transfer o An identified challenge in the airport industry is how to transition the organization through changes in leadership, senior staff, and other key technical and professional positions. Employees across different levels are eligible for retirement; thus, capturing and managing their knowledge is essential. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  Ricondo & Associates, Inc., Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc., George Mason University, and National Service Research. (2009). ACRP Report 20: Strategic Planning in the Airport Industry. Transportation Research Board

38 of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. http://www.calairports.com/ACRP%20Report%2020%20- %20Strategic%20Planning%20in%20the%20Airport%20Industry.pdf  Effective Methods to Incorporate Institutional Knowledge Transfer into Training o Sources show that there will be a lack of well-qualified, trained and/or certified personnel to meet the needs of current and retiring personnel replacements due in large part to retirements of earlier generations, changing demographics, and the rising demands of world aviation employee numbers. An identified challenge within the airport industry is to determine how to effectively transition the organization through changes in leadership, senior staff, and other key technical and professional positions. Employees across different levels are eligible for retirement; thus, capturing and managing their knowledge is essential to smooth, efficient, and effective continuity of operations. Institutional knowledge transfer should be incorporated into all training delivery platforms. Because of this, airports seek to understand how to effectively incorporate institutional knowledge transfer into training programs so that trainees can access this knowledge from more experienced personnel. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  Ricondo & Associates, Inc., Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc., George Mason University, and National Service Research. (2009). ACRP Report 20: Strategic Planning in the Airport Industry. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. http://www.calairports.com/ACRP%20Report%2020%20- %20Strategic%20Planning%20in%20the%20Airport%20Industry.pdf  Council of University Transportation Centers. (2012). National Transportation Workforce Summary of Results. National Transportation Workforce Summit 2012. http://cutcbanquet.com/wp- content/uploads/2013/06/NTWS_Summary-of-Results.pdf  Identification of Employee Training for Upcoming Technology o As transportation systems become more complex, the future workforce will need higher skill levels in fields such as information technology, data management, and communications. Current training initiatives are not enough to prepare the workforce for new and emerging technologies. Applicants and employees value training and professional development opportunities, but HR professionals do not think the aviation industry is effective enough in this area. Organizations report that they will be looking externally to improve training effectiveness. Airports seek to train employees how to use new and emerging technology as well as upcoming technology. Airports need to identify the most appropriate training content and methods for those various technologies. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  International Air Transport Association. (2018). Aviation Human Resources Report. https://www.iata.org/en/training/pages/aviation- human-resources-report/  International Civil Aviation Organization. (2017). ICAO Aviation Training and Capacity-Building Roadmap for States: A Practical Guide. https://www.icao.int/training/Documents/ICAO%20Aviation%20Capacity- Building%20Roadmap_2107.pdf

39  Critical Issues in Transportation 2019. Transportation Research Board. Washington, D.C. (2018). https://www.nap.edu/catalog/25314/critical- issues-in-transportation-2019  Identification and Prioritization of Skills for Training for Various Airport Positions o Current training initiatives are not adequate to prepare the workforce for various responsibilities expected of them, including leadership and management. The International Civil Aviation Organization, (ICOA) reports that (1) training programs not effectively implemented, and furthermore (2) the required competencies for current and future jobs are not identified or well understood. Airport organizations report they will be looking externally to improve training effectiveness. Leadership training among entry/mid-level employees is not enough to allow for promotion when leaders retire. Specific information about relevant and required skills is important. For example, training in safety, customer service, IT and digital skills are deemed important, but more information is needed regarding which skills to prioritize for different positions. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  Cronin, C. B., A. Alexander, E. Majumdar, C. Riches, J. Jenkins, S. Van Beek, A. Bisker, B. Heinen, and C. Lewis. (2016). ACRP Web-Only Document 28: Identifying and Evaluation Airport Workforce Requirements. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_webdoc_028.pdf  International Air Transport Association. (2018). Aviation Human Resources Report. https://www.iata.org/en/training/pages/aviation- human-resources-report/  International Civil Aviation Organization. (2017). ICAO Aviation Training and Capacity-Building Roadmap for States: A Practical Guide. https://www.icao.int/training/Documents/ICAO%20Aviation%20Capacity- Building%20Roadmap_2107.pdf  Ray, L. (2019). Human Resource Trends in Aviation Training. Chron. https://smallbusiness.chron.com/human-resource-trends-aviation-training- 81148.html  Identification of Effective Training Methods o HR leaders are concerned about the skills and quality of future talent in aviation, including leadership. Current training initiatives are not sufficient to prepare the workforce for various responsibilities expected of them, including leadership and management. There is a lack of training and development to support technical skills and personal effectiveness, in addition to a lack of a solid career track, and lack of emphasis on leadership development. Given this, knowledge regarding effective training methods are needed in the industry. Airports need guidance regarding the most effective methods that should be used to train employees for specific skillsets relevant to their position, including management and leadership. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  Harrington, S. (2016). Aviation HR Conference Report. Report on the 2016 Ground Handling International Aviation HR Conference, Lisbon. Retrieved from http://www.groundhandling.com/HR/index.html

40  International Air Transport Association. (2018). Aviation Human Resources Report. https://www.iata.org/en/training/pages/aviation- human-resources-report/  Development of Airport-Specific Training Across Occupations o The topic of how to provide effective training specifically in airports is generally under-researched, representing a gap in the current literature. While some airports may offer an "Airports 101" course for board members or senior staff to introduce airport context to newcomers, this practice is not extremely common. Moreover, there is interest in expanding such offerings beyond current leadership positions. More research is needed to customize existing or commonly used industry training materials for airport contexts. o Timeline Recommendation: 2-5 years o Related Research  ACRP Research Results Digest 20: Taking Inventory of ACRP Research and the Next Challenges Facing the Airport Industry. (2014). Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/170068.aspx  Harl, T. (2014). The perfect storm of aviation workforce issues. AviationPros. Retrieved from https://www.aviationpros.com/aircraft/maintenance- providers/mro/article/11505632/the-perfect-storm-of-aviation-workforce- issues  Incorporating Talent Development and Career Planning into Strategic Planning Initiatives o Historically, workforce development within airports has been more focused on individual training rather than organizational or systematic components of a comprehensive workforce development program. Emphasizing talent development during the strategic planning phases of business and management is likely to enhance the focus of attracting and developing quality talent for airports, and result in increased outcomes. Given the impending retirements and recruiting issues, it is important to emphasize long-term career opportunities to retain airport employees. o Timeline Recommendation: 0-2 years o Related Research  ACRP Research Results Digest 20: Taking Inventory of ACRP Research and the Next Challenges Facing the Airport Industry. (2014). Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/170068.aspx Research Idea Sub-Topics In addition to being aligned to a single high-level theme, research ideas represent 13 separate sub-topics. Research ideas may be aligned to multiple sub-topics. The following table presents each of the sub-topics, along with their associated research ideas.

41 Airport Administration and HR Research Roadmap Sub-Topics Sub-Topic High-Level Theme Associated Research Ideas Career Pathways and Succession Planning Administration and HR Context  Best Practices, Policies, and Procedures for Effective Administration and HR Departments Talent Acquisition and Management  Talent Acquisition Methods for Long-Term Sustainability  Increasing Applicant Interest in Airport Jobs  Airport Succession Planning Guidance and Best Practices  Airport Talent Acquisition Guidance: Remaining Competitive in Local Markets  Understanding the Source of Current Airport Talent  Determining Minimum Qualifications for Airport Jobs to Facilitate Recruitment Training and Development  Best Practices for Airport Knowledge Management and Knowledge Transfer  Incorporating Talent Development and Career Planning into Strategic Planning Initiatives Change Management Administration and HR Context  Best Practices for the Changing Nature of Airport Administration Work Impact of Technology  Workforce Skill Gaps Due to Technology  Most Effective Use of Technology  Impact of Automation and Artificial Intelligence on Administration and HR Talent Acquisition and Management  Airport Workforce Planning Timing and the Development or Updating of Staffing Models Training and Development  Best Practices for Airport Knowledge Management and Knowledge Transfer Diversity Administration and HR Context  Best Practices, Policies, and Procedures for Effective Administration and HR Departments  Implementing a Positive Culture and Enhancing the Employee Experience to Improve Retention Talent Acquisition and Management  Enhancement of Diversity and Inclusion Initiatives and the Impact on HR Processes  Airport Talent Acquisition Guidance: Attracting and Retaining Employees Across Generations Employee Competencies Administration and HR Context  Future of Administration and HR Performance Appraisals

42 Airport Administration and HR Research Roadmap Sub-Topics Sub-Topic High-Level Theme Associated Research Ideas Impact of Technology  Addressing IT and Cybersecurity Staffing Needs  Cybersecurity Training for Airport Staff  Workforce Skill Gaps Due to Technology  Impact of Technology Trends on Operations  Impact of Automation and Artificial Intelligence on Administration and HR  Impact of Technology on Future Recruitment and Necessary Skillsets Talent Acquisition and Management  Guidance on Creating Policy to Address External Hiring vs. Internal Training  Determining Minimum Qualifications for Airport Jobs to Facilitate Recruitment  Using Predictors of Performance to Make Employee Selection Decisions  Standardization of Airport Job Descriptions and Pay Grades/Scales  Guidance on Creating Policy to Effectively Allocate Duties to Contract Employees vs. In-House Employees Training and Development  Identification and Prioritization of Skills for training for Various Airport Positions  Identification of Effective Training Methods  Development of Airport-Specific Training Across Occupations Knowledge Transfer and Management Administration and HR Context  Best Practices, Policies, and Procedures for Effective Administration and HR Departments  Facilitation of Information Sharing Across the Airport Industry Impact of Technology  Securing Sensitive Data Talent Acquisition and Management  Airport Succession Planning Guidance and Best Practices  Determining Minimum Qualifications for Airport Jobs to Facilitate Recruitment Training and Development  Best Practices for Airport Knowledge Management and Knowledge Transfer  Effective Methods to Incorporate Institutional Knowledge Transfer into Training  Identification and Prioritization of Skills for training for Various Airport Positions Marketing Impact of Technology  Leveraging Social Media to Foster Engagement  Airport Positions to Manage Social Media Talent Acquisition and Management  Talent Acquisition Methods for Long-Term Sustainability  Increasing Applicant Interest in Airport Jobs  Airport Talent Acquisition Guidance: Remaining Competitive in Local Markets  Understanding the Source of Current Airport Talent Organizational Culture Administration and HR Context  Implementing a Positive Culture and Enhancing the Employee Experience to Improve Retention Impact of Technology  Leveraging Social Media to Foster Engagement

43 Airport Administration and HR Research Roadmap Sub-Topics Sub-Topic High-Level Theme Associated Research Ideas Talent Acquisition and Management  Enhancement of Diversity and Inclusion Initiatives and the Impact on HR Processes  Airport Talent Acquisition Guidance: Attracting and Retaining Employees Across Generations Training and Development  Effective Methods to Incorporate Institutional Knowledge Transfer into Training Organizational Structure Administration and HR Context  Best Practices for the Changing Nature of Airport Administration Work  Ideal Organizational Structure Based on Airport Characteristics  Setting Strategy in Airport Administration and HR Departments  Distribution of Responsibility Between Airports and City/Municipality/County Impact of Technology  Addressing IT and Cybersecurity Staffing Needs Talent Acquisition and Management  Incorporating Flexibility in Talent Acquisition into HR Systems  Guidance on Creating Policy to Effectively Allocate Duties to Contract Employees vs. In-House Employees Performance Management Administration and HR Context  Future of Administration and HR Performance Appraisals Impact of Technology  Ethical Boundaries in Using Technology  Best Practices in Managing a Highly Connected Workforce Talent Acquisition and Management  Best Practices for Airport Employee Performance Management Recruitment and Retention Administration and HR Context  Implementing a Positive Culture and Enhancing the Employee Experience to Improve Retention Impact of Technology  Airport Positions to Manage Social Media  Impact of Technology on Future Recruitment and Necessary Skillsets Talent Acquisition and Management  Talent Acquisition Methods for Long-Term Sustainability  Increasing Applicant Interest in Airport Jobs  Airport Talent Acquisition Guidance: Remaining Competitive in Local Markets  Understanding the Source of Current Airport Talent  Methods of Providing Competitive Compensation to Enhance Talent Acquisition  Airport Talent Acquisition Guidance: Attracting and Retaining Employees Across Generations  Determining Minimum Qualifications for Airport Jobs to Facilitate Recruitment  Incorporating Flexibility in Talent Acquisition into HR Systems

44 Airport Administration and HR Research Roadmap Sub-Topics Sub-Topic High-Level Theme Associated Research Ideas Technology Impact of Technology  Securing Sensitive Data  Addressing IT and Cybersecurity Staffing Needs  Cybersecurity Training for Airport Staff  Technology Use in Administration and HR  Workforce Skill Gaps Due to Technology  Most Effective Use of Technology  Impact of Technology Trends on Operations  Impact of Automation and Artificial Intelligence on Administration and HR  Ethical Boundaries in Using Technology  Impact of Technology on Future Recruitment and Necessary Skillsets  Best Practices in Managing a Highly Connected Workforce  NIST Cyber Framework in Aviation Training and Development  Identification of Employee Training for Upcoming Technology Workforce Development Administration and HR Context  Best Practices for the Changing Nature of Airport Administration Work  Implementing a Positive Culture and Enhancing the Employee Experience to Improve Retention Impact of Technology  Cybersecurity Training for Airport Staff  Technology Use in Administration and HR  Most Effective Use of Technology  Impact of Technology Trends on Operations  Impact of Automation and Artificial Intelligence on Administration and HR  Airport Positions to Manage Social Media  Impact of Technology on Future Recruitment and Necessary Skillsets Talent Acquisition and Management  Guidance on Creating Policy to Address External Hiring vs. Internal Training  Incorporating Flexibility in Talent Acquisition into HR Systems  Using Predictors of Performance to Make Employee Selection Decisions

45 Airport Administration and HR Research Roadmap Sub-Topics Sub-Topic High-Level Theme Associated Research Ideas Training and Development  Best Practices for Airport Knowledge Management and Knowledge Transfer  Effective Methods to Incorporate Institutional Knowledge Transfer into Training  Identification of Employee Training for Upcoming Technology  Identification and Prioritization of Skills for training for Various Airport Positions  Identification of Effective Training Methods  Development of Airport-Specific Training Across Occupations  Incorporating Talent Development and Career Planning into Strategic Planning Initiatives Workforce Planning Administration and HR Context  Best Practices, Policies, and Procedures for Effective Administration and HR Departments  Setting Strategy in Airport Administration and HR Departments  Distribution of Responsibility Between Airports and City/Municipality/County Impact of Technology  Addressing IT and Cybersecurity Staffing Needs  Impact of Technology on Future Recruitment and Necessary Skillsets Talent Acquisition and Management  Airport Workforce Planning Timing and the Development or Updating of Staffing Models  Using Predictors of Performance to Make Employee Selection Decisions  Guidance on Creating Policy to Effectively Allocate Duties to Contract Employees vs. In-House Employees Training and Development  Incorporating Talent Development and Career Planning into Strategic Planning Initiatives

Next: Appendix A: Visual Research Roadmap »
Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues Get This Book
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The administration and human resources functions within an airport can experience great challenges as airports grow, diversify, experience changing priorities, bring in new technologies, or change in other ways.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Web-Only Document 49: Research Roadmap on Airport Administration & Human Resource Issues recommends priorities and timing, sets a research strategy, and provides a rationale for the research recommendations.

Supplemental materials with this report include a Visual Research Roadmap and a Microsoft Excel-based Research Idea Database.

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