National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25858.
×
Page R1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25858.
×
Page R2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25858.
×
Page R3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25858.
×
Page R4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25858.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25858.
×
Page R6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25858.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25858.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25858.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25858.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25858.
×
Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25858.
×
Page R12
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25858.
×
Page R13
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25858.
×
Page R14

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Prepublication Copy Uncorrected Proofs Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities Enriqueta Bond, Kenne Dibner, and Heidi Schweingruber, Editors Committee on Guidance for K-12 Education on Responding to COVID-19 Board on Science Education Board on Children, Youth, and Families Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Standing Committee on Emerging Infectious Diseases and 21st Century Health Threats A Consensus Study Report of

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the Spencer Foundation (202100015) and the Brady Education Foundation (unnumbered). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25858 Library of Congress Control Number OR Cataloging-in-Publication: Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2020 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. (2020). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25858 ii PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. iii PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. iv PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

COMMITTEE ON GUIDANCE FOR K-12 EDUCATION ON COVID-19 ENRIQUETA C. BOND (Chair), QE Philanthropic Advisors, LLC, Potomac, Maryland DIMITRI A. CHRISTAKIS, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington MICHAEL LACH, Township High School District 113, Illinois PHYLLIS D. MEADOWS, The Kresge Foundation, Troy, Michigan KATHLEEN MOORE, Retired State School Facilities Director, Sacramento, California CAITLIN RIVERS, Center of Health Security, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland KEISHA SCARLETT, Seattle Public Schools, Seattle, Washington NATHANIEL SCHWARTZ, Annenberg Institute for School Reform, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island JEFFREY VINCENT, Center for Cities & Schools, University of California, Berkeley, California KENNE DIBNER, Study Director HEIDI SCHWEINGRUBER, Director, Board on Science Education LETICIA GARCILAZO GREEN, Research Associate MATTHEW LAMMERS, Program Coordinator v PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

BOARD ON SCIENCE EDUCATION ADAM GAMORAN (Chair), William T. Grant Foundation (president), New York, New York MEGAN BANG, Learning Sciences, Northwestern University VICKI L. CHANDLER, Dean of Faculty, Minerva Schools at Keck Graduate Institute SUNITA V. COOKE, Superintendent/President, MiraCosta College RUSH HOLT, former Chief Executive Officer, American Association for the Advancement of Science CATHY MANDUCA, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College JOHN MATHER (NAS), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center TONYA MATTHEWS, STEM Learning Innovation, Wayne State University WILLIAM PENUEL, School of Education, University of Colorado Boulder STEPHEN L. PRUITT, President, Southern Regional Education Board K. RENAE PULLEN, K-6 Science Curriculum-Instructional Specialist, Caddo Parish Schools, Louisiana K. ANN RENNINGER, Social Theory and Social Action, Swarthmore College MARCY H. TOWNS, Department of Chemistry, Purdue University HEIDI SCHWEINGRUBER, Director vi PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

BOARD ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES DAVID BRITT, M.P.A. (Chair) Retired, Sesame Workshop HAROLYN M. E. BELCHER, Director, Center for Diversity in Public Health Leadership Training, Kennedy Krieger Institute RICHARD F. CATALANO, Professor, School of Social Work, University of Washington, Co- founder, Social Development Research Group TAMMY CHANG, Assistant Professor, Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan DIMITRI A. CHRISTAKIS, Pediatrician and Epidemiologist, University of Washington School of Medicine GREG DUNCAN, Distinguished Professor of Education, University of California, Irvine NANCY E. HILL, Charles Bigelow Professor of Education, Harvard University STEPHANIE MONROE, President, Wrenwood Group JAMES M. PERRIN, (NAM), Professor of pediatrics, Harvard Medical School NISHA SACHDEV, Senior director of Evaluation, Bainum Family Foundation MARTÍN J. SEPÚLVEDA, (NAM), IBM Fellow, CEO, CLARALUZ LLC MARTIN H. TEICHER, Director, Developmental Biopsychiatry Research Program, McLean Hospital JONATHAN TODRES, Professor of Law, Georgia State University College of Law JOANNA LEE WILLIAMS, Associate Professor, Curry School of Education and Human Development, University of Virginia NATACHA BLAIN, Director vii PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

STANDING COMMITTEE ON EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND 21ST CENTURY HEALTH THREATS HARVEY V. FINEBERG (Chair), President, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation KRISTIAN G. ANDERSEN, Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Scripps Research RALPH BARIC, Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina MARY T. BASSETT, Director, FXB Center for Health and Human Rights, Harvard University TREVOR BEDFORD, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center GEORGES C. BENJAMIN, Executive Director, American Public Health Association DONALD M. BERWICK, President Emeritus, Institute for Healthcare Improvement RICHARD E. BESSER, President and CEO, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation R.A. CHARO, University of Wisconsin Law School PETER DASZAK, EcoHealth Alliance JEFFREY S. DUCHIN, University of Washington School of Medicine ELLEN P. EMBREY, Stratitia, Inc BARUCH FISCHHOFF, Carnegie Mellon University DIANE E. GRIFFIN, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health ROBERT M. GROVES, Georgetown University MARGARET A. HAMBURG, National Academy of Medicine DAN HANFLING, In-Q-Tel, Inc. JOHN L. HICK, Hennepin County Medical Center University of Minnesota KENT E. KESTER, Sanofi Pasteur PATRICIA A. KING, Georgetown University Law Center JONNA A. MAZET, University of California, Davis PHYLLIS D. MEADOWS, The Kresge Foundation TARA O’TOOLE, In-Q-Tel, Inc. ALEXANDRA PHELAN, Georgetown University DAVID A. RELMAN, Stanford University MARK S. SMOLINSKI, Ending Pandemics DAVID R. WALT, Brigham and Women’s Hospital LISA BROWN, Director viii PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

PREFACE When the Committee on Guidance for K-12 Education on Responding to COVID-19 began work on this study in May 2020, we were cognizant of the need to provide immediate, evidence- based guidance to education stakeholders around the nation on reopening schools for in-person learning. In order to offer guidance that would be useful in the planning process in advance of Fall 2020, we prepared a Consensus Study Report on a significantly abbreviated timeline. We could not have predicted the manner in which the discussions around the issue of reopening would explode while we completed this report. As we discuss in this document, the research on the spread and mitigation of SARS-CoV-2 is expanding rapidly, leading to greater clarity on some topics while also pointing out new areas for investigation. Guidance documents for schools and districts are emerging at breakneck speed. In July 2020, opinion pieces are dominating the news media landscape, many of them staking out positions on either side of a “to reopen or not” debate and making bold claims about what is “safe”. The politics of the moment are ablaze: one need only scan the headlines of U.S. newspapers to uncover the ways in which the politics around the question of reopening have overshadowed the scientific evidence. The National Academy of Sciences (now expanded to the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine) was chartered by President Abraham Lincoln in 1863 to meet the government's urgent need for an independent adviser on scientific matters. Our organization is founded on the principle that independent guidance based on scientific evidence is essential for making sound policy. Development of that guidance needs to focus on interpreting scientific research without political influence: essentially, independence is necessary to ensure the integrity of the guidance. Further, as the committee refers to in the Epilogue of this report, we know that evidence and data do not provide policy direction on their own: evidence and data must be interpreted, and these interpretations are never neutral. For this reason, the consensus study process at the National Academies demands that multiple perspectives are brought to bear on the available evidence: while “neutrality” is never possible, including multiple perspectives at the table can ix PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

support an interpretation of the evidence that reflects the concerns of multiple constituencies and is as independent from individual bias as possible. The Committee on Guidance for K–12 Education on Responding to COVID-19 has used this consensus study process to make sense of the best available evidence related to the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 while considering the contexts of schools and districts, and how best to maintain the health and wellbeing of children, school staff and their broader communities. To the best of our ability, we have attempted to articulate guidance that will support decision-makers in doing the extremely challenging work of understanding and weighing risk, leveraging local assets, and balancing constraints in local resources. We have done this while new evidence is made available daily, and we recognize that the guidance contained in this report will need to be continually revisited as the science emerges around transmission and mitigation. Ultimately, we have written a report that puts science – what we know, as well as what we do not – at the center of the decision to reopen schools. Given the urgent need for immediate guidance in advance of the impossibly challenging decisions ahead, the committee is acutely aware of the limitations in existing evidence. We know that one size does not fit all, and that every district will need undertake a process that involves families, administrators, experts and community leaders in the difficult task of how to redesign and reimagine what schools will look like in these uncertain times. We hope this report can offer support to education stakeholders around the nation as they make these deeply challenging decisions. Enriqueta Bond, Committee Chair Kenne Dibner, Study Director x PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Claire L. Barnett, Executive Director, Healthy Schools Network ;Richard E. Besser, President and CEO, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; Xavier Botana, Superintendent, Portland School District, Portland, ME; Catherine P. Bradshaw, Research and Faculty Development, Curry School of Education, University of Virginia; David V.B. Britt, Retired President and Chief Executive Officer, Sesame Workshop; Benjamin Cowling, School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong; Kathryn M. Edwards, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine; Thomas V. Inglesby, Bloomberg School of Public health and School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University; Jennifer O’Day, Institute Fellow, American Institutes for Research; Diane S. Rentner, Center on Education Policy, Graduate School of Education and Human Development, The George Washington University; Jerry Roseman, Environmental Science and Occupational Safety and Health, Philadelphia Federation of Teachers; Megan M. Tschudy, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Adam Gamoran, President, W.T. Grant Foundation and Maxine Hayes, School of Medicine and School of Public Health, University of Washington. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. xi PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. The committee’s work benefitted greatly from multiple outside experts who volunteered generously to share their expertise with the committee (see Appendix A). We especially thank the study sponsors – the Spencer Foundation, the Brady Education Foundation, and the National Academies’ Standing Committee on Emerging Infectious Diseases and 21st Century Health Threats – for their commitment to this work. It was a great privilege to work with such dedicated committee members who thoroughly engaged in the study and contributed significant time and effort to this very compressed endeavor. This committee was fortunate to work with a diligent and outstanding team of National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine staff: thank you to Kenne Dibner, for her expert direction of this study from beginning to end. We thank Board on Science Education Director Heidi Schweingruber for her visionary leadership in conceiving of this study as well as her steadfast commitment to both substance and detail in all aspects of completing this report. We thank Leticia Garcilazo Green for her excellent work in both research and report production. We thank Matthew Lammers for his invaluable administrative work for this project, and Mary Filardo for her ongoing and insightful contributions as a consultant to the committee. Kirsten Sampson Snyder of the DBASSE staff deftly guided us through the National Academies review process, and Rona Briere and Allie Boman provided invaluable editorial assistance. Yvonne Wise of the DBASSE staff oversaw the production of the report. Enriqueta Bond, Committee Chair xii PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Table of Contents Summary .........................................................................................................................................1 Equity and Reopening Schools………………………………….…………………..………….1 COVID-19, Children, and Transmission…………..……………….………………………......2 Weighing the Risks of Building Closures……….……………………..……………………….2 The Decision to Reopen………………………………………………………………………...3 Implementing Mitigation Strategies…………………………...………………………………..4 Recommendations….……………………………………………………………………….......4 Chapter 1: K–12 Schools and COVID-19: Context and Framing .............................................8 Study Scope and Approach ..........................................................................................................9 Equity and COVID-19 ...............................................................................................................12 The Question of Reopening........................................................................................................14 Report Purpose and Audiences ..................................................................................................14 Report Organization ...................................................................................................................14 Chapter 2: COVID-19: What Is and Is Not Known .................................................................17 Preliminary History of COVID-19 .............................................................................................17 Prevalence and Distribution .......................................................................................................18 Transmission ..............................................................................................................................19 Impact on Children .....................................................................................................................20 Impact on Adults ........................................................................................................................22 Disproportionate Impacts on Marginalized Communities .........................................................23 Preliminary Mitigation Efforts ...................................................................................................24 Conclusions ................................................................................................................................26 Chapter 3: Schools and the Pandemic………………………………………………………..28 The Multiple Purposes of Schools………………………………………..…………………...28 Inequity in American Education.................................................................................................29 Risks of Extended Building Closures .........................................................................................30 Considerations for Opening and Operating Schools During COVID-19…………………......37 Conclusions ................................................................................................................................40 Chapter 4: Deciding to Reopen Schools .....................................................................................42 Understanding Risk and Decision Making During COVID-19 .................................................42 xiii PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Existing Guidance for Schools ...................................................................................................44 A Framework for Deciding When to Reopen Schools for In-Person Learning .........................45 Approaches to Collective Decision Making...............................................................................49 Monitoring COVID-19 Conditions ............................................................................................52 Conclusions ................................................................................................................................53 Chapter 5: Reducing Transmission When School Buildings are Open……………………..55 Implementing Mitigation Strategies…………………………………………………..…….....56 Creating a Culture for Maintaining Health………………………………………………........68 What to Do When Someone Gets Sick ......................................................................................69 Conclusions ................................................................................................................................70 Chapter 6: Recommendations and Urgent Research ...............................................................75 Epilogue ........................................................................................................................................83 References .....................................................................................................................................85 Appendices Appendix A: The Committee’s Review of Existing Evidence ............................................................................... 95 Appendix B: Guidance Documents Collected by the Committee ........................................................................... 97 Appendix C: Example District Plans for Reopening Schools…………………………………………...……….102 Appendix D: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff .............................................................. 104 xiv PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Next: Summary »
Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities Get This Book
×
Buy Prepub | $54.00 Buy Paperback | $45.00
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented unprecedented challenges to the nation's K-12 education system. The rush to slow the spread of the virus led to closures of schools across the country, with little time to ensure continuity of instruction or to create a framework for deciding when and how to reopen schools. States, districts, and schools are now grappling with the complex and high-stakes questions of whether to reopen school buildings and how to operate them safely if they do reopen. These decisions need to be informed by the most up-to-date evidence about the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19; about the impacts of school closures on students and families; and about the complexities of operating school buildings as the pandemic persists.

Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities provides guidance on the reopening and operation of elementary and secondary schools for the 2020-2021 school year. The recommendations of this report are designed to help districts and schools successfully navigate the complex decisions around reopening school buildings, keeping them open, and operating them safely.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!