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A National Strategy to Reduce Food Waste at the Consumer Level (2020)

Chapter: Appendix B: Literature Search Approach

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Literature Search Approach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A National Strategy to Reduce Food Waste at the Consumer Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25876.
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Page 173
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Literature Search Approach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A National Strategy to Reduce Food Waste at the Consumer Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25876.
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Page 174
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Literature Search Approach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A National Strategy to Reduce Food Waste at the Consumer Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25876.
×
Page 175
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Literature Search Approach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A National Strategy to Reduce Food Waste at the Consumer Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25876.
×
Page 176
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Literature Search Approach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A National Strategy to Reduce Food Waste at the Consumer Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25876.
×
Page 177
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Literature Search Approach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A National Strategy to Reduce Food Waste at the Consumer Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25876.
×
Page 178
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Literature Search Approach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A National Strategy to Reduce Food Waste at the Consumer Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25876.
×
Page 179
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Literature Search Approach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A National Strategy to Reduce Food Waste at the Consumer Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25876.
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Page 180

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Appendix B Literature Search Approach T wo sets of literature searches were conducted (in 2019) to inform the committee’s work. The first was conducted to identify imple- mentation strategies to reduce food waste at the consumer level. The second was done to identify reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses of drivers and strategies to intervene for consumer or household behaviors related to energy saving, recycling, water conservation, waste prevention, and diet change. In order to obtain a more rounded set of results that accounted for dif- ferences in indexing practices and use of vocabulary in titles and abstracts, the first set was split into two groups. The first iteration explicitly included behavior-related terms and avoided prevention-related terms. The second iteration left out behavior-related terms and targeted prevention-related terms. Searches were conducted in six online databases: Agricola, Embase, Medline, ProQuest Research Library, PubMed, and Scopus. Articles were included if they were published within the last 15 years, available in Eng- lish, peer-reviewed, and conducted in Europe or English-speaking countries. The search terms for both iterations are shown in Table B-1. The searches yielded 548 unduplicated articles from the first group and 234 unduplicated articles from the second group. 173

174 NATIONAL STRATEGY TO REDUCE FOOD WASTE TABLE B-1  Search Terms Used to Identify Relevant Literature on Food Waste Topic Search Terms Food Waste Domestic food waste Food Food discard Food loss Food scraps Food shrink Food wastage Food waste Household food waste Leftovers Meals Plate waste Restaurant food waste School food waste Surplus food Wasted food Consumer Behavior Consumer Customer Diner End user Final consumer Food purchaser Household Shopper Attitude Behavioral change Behavioral modification Intervention Food Waste Reduction Avoid Avoidance Compost Control Decrease Doggy bag Lower Minimization Minimize Prevent Prevention Reduce Reduction

APPENDIX B 175 The second set of searches, which targeted other efforts to change con- sumer or household behaviors, was also conducted in two parts. The first focused on strategies to promote energy saving and recycling behaviors. The second was directed at strategies to promote energy saving, recycling, water use conservation, waste prevention behaviors, and diet change, but it was limited to systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Both sets of searches were conducted in ProQuest Research Library, PubMed, and Scopus. The first search on energy-saving behaviors included papers that were published within the last 15 years, and it was limited to reviews, including, but not limited to, systematic reviews from Europe and English-speaking countries. The second search used the same terms, but it was restricted to systematic reviews and meta-analyses that had been published in English since 2000. Search terms are presented in Table B-2. The first search yielded 380 undu- plicated studies; the second search yielded 406 unduplicated studies. TABLE B-2  Search Terms Used to Identify Relevant Literature on Energy-Saving and Recycling Behaviors Topic Search Terms Energy-Saving Behaviors Attitudes Behavior modification Behavioral change Behavioral modification Choice behavior Consumer Consumer attitudes Consumer behavior Customer Decision making Demand side management Domestic Efficient energy use End user Energy conservation Energy efficiency Energy saving Final consumer Food purchaser Home Household Imitative behavior Intention Shopper User behavior continued

176 NATIONAL STRATEGY TO REDUCE FOOD WASTE TABLE B-2  Continued Topic Search Terms Recycling Behaviors Attitude Behavior modification Behavioral change Behavioral modification Choice behavior Consumer Consumer attitudes Consumer behavior Customer Decision making Domestic Efficient energy use End users Energy conservation Energy efficiency Energy saving Final consumer Food purchaser Home Home recycling Household Household recycling Imitative behavior Intention Recycling Shopper User behavior

APPENDIX B 177 TABLE B-2  Continued Topic Search Terms Water Consumption and Water Attitudes Use Conservation Behaviors Behavior modification Behavioral change Behavioral modification Choice behavior Consumer Consumer attitudes Consumer behavior Customers Decision making Domestic End users Final consumer Food purchaser Home Household Imitative behavior Intention Residential water conservation Residential water use Shopper User behavior Wasting water Water conservation Water consumption Water use conservation Water wasting continued

178 NATIONAL STRATEGY TO REDUCE FOOD WASTE TABLE B-2  Continued Topic Search Terms Waste Prevention Behaviors Attitude Behavior modification Behavioral change Behavioral modification Choice behavior Consumer Consumer attitudes Consumer behavior Customer Decision making Domestic End users Final consumer Food purchaser Home Households Imitative behavior Intention Preventing waste Reduce waste Reducing waste Shopper User behavior Waste minimization Waste prevention Waste reduction

APPENDIX B 179 TABLE B-2  Continued Topic Search Terms Diet Change Behaviors Attitude Behavior modification Behavioral change Behavioral modification Changing diet Choice behavior Consumer Consumer attitudes Consumer behavior Customer Decision making Diet change Diet habits Dietary habits Domestic Eating behavior Eating habits End user Final consumer Food habits Food policy Food purchaser Home Household Imitative behavior Intention Nutrition policy Shopper User behavior

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Approximately 30 percent of the edible food produced in the United States is wasted and a significant portion of this waste occurs at the consumer level. Despite food's essential role as a source of nutrients and energy and its emotional and cultural importance, U.S. consumers waste an estimated average of 1 pound of food per person per day at home and in places where they buy and consume food away from home. Many factors contribute to this waste—consumers behaviors are shaped not only by individual and interpersonal factors but also by influences within the food system, such as policies, food marketing and the media. Some food waste is unavoidable, and there is substantial variation in how food waste and its impacts are defined and measured. But there is no doubt that the consequences of food waste are severe: the wasting of food is costly to consumers, depletes natural resources, and degrades the environment. In addition, at a time when the COVID-19 pandemic has severely strained the U.S. economy and sharply increased food insecurity, it is predicted that food waste will worsen in the short term because of both supply chain disruptions and the closures of food businesses that affect the way people eat and the types of food they can afford.

A National Strategy to Reduce Food Waste at the Consumer Level identifies strategies for changing consumer behavior, considering interactions and feedbacks within the food system. It explores the reasons food is wasted in the United States, including the characteristics of the complex systems through which food is produced, marketed, and sold, as well as the many other interconnected influences on consumers' conscious and unconscious choices about purchasing, preparing, consuming, storing, and discarding food. This report presents a strategy for addressing the challenge of reducing food waste at the consumer level from a holistic, systems perspective.

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