Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
ANNUAL REPORT OF PROGRESS 2019 TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMTC Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation 2019
TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nationâs growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is nec- essary to solve operating problems, adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and intro- duce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit indus- try can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213âResearch for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recog- nized the need for local, problem-solving research. TCRP, modeled after the successful National Coop- erative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes various transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Proposed by the U.S. Department of Trans- portation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Inter- modal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA), reauthorized in June 1998 by the Transpor- tation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), again reauthorized in August 2005 by the Safe, Account- able, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU), reauthorized again in 2012 by Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21), and reauthorized in 2015 by the Fixing Americaâs Surface Transportation (FAST) Act. On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlin- ing TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organizations: FTA; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organi- zation established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Commission. This memorandum agreement was updated on January 12, 1999. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by any- one at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Com mission to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Com mission defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contrac- tors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and select- ing research agencies has been used by TRB in man- aging cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired effect if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminating TCRP results to the intended users of the research: transit agen- cies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. For additional information, go to www.trb.org/TCRP. ADDRESS INFORMATION TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD Cooperative Research Programs 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, D.C. 20001 Phone: 202-334-3224 www.trb.org ON THE COVER Cover photograph: Chicago Skyline âAerial View at Dusk by Marchello74, iStock Cover design: National Academies Press
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF Director Christopher J. Hedges Deputy Director and NCHRP Manager Lori L. Sundstrom TCRP Manager Gwen Chisholm Smith ACRP Manager Marci A. Greenberger Senior Program Officers Velvet Basemera-Fitzpatrick Mark S. Bush Camille Crichton-Sumners Waseem Dekelbab B. Ray Derr Mariela Garcia-Colberg Jo Allen Gause Lawrence D. Goldstein Matthew Griffin Amir N. Hanna Edward T. Harrigan Ann M. Hartell David Jared Inam Jawed Andrew C. Lemer Sid Mohan Joseph D. Navarrete Stephan A. Parker William C. Rogers Theresia H. Schatz Dianne S. Schwager Gail R. Staba Administrative Coordinator Joseph J. Snell Administrative Associate Cynthia E. Butler Program Coordinators Keyara Dorn Deborah Irvin Brittany Summerlin-Azeez Program Associate Sheila A. Moore Travel Specialists Daniel J. Magnolia Robert Turner II Web Developer Natassja K. Linzau Senior Program Assistants Anthony P. Avery Stephanie L. Campbell Megan A. Chamberlain Cheryl Keith Thu M. Le Jarrel McAfee Hana Vagnerova Demisha Williams Director of Publications Eileen P. Delaney Associate Director of Publications Natalie Barnes Senior Editors Ellen M. Chafee Linda A. Dziobek Doug English Hilary Freer Margaret B. Hagood Scott E. Hitchcock Janet M. McNaughton Ann E. Petty Editors Kami Cabral Lea Camarda Cassandra Franklin-Barbajosa Sharon Lamberton Sreyashi Roy Heidi Willis Publishing Projects Manager Jennifer J. Weeks Assistant Editor Jennifer Correro Senior Editorial Assistant Kathleen Mion Systems Analyst Roy N. Mesler Synthesis Program Contractors Christopher E. Dunne Thomas J. Helms, Jr. M. Andre Primus Tanya M. Zwahlen
CONTENTS Annual Report of Progress, 1 Introduction, 1 How TCRP Programs Are Formulated, 2 Research Program, 4 Financing the Program, 5 How TCRP Is Organized to Administer Research Programs, 6 Project Panels, 8 How Projects Are Placed Under Contract, 9 Monitoring Research in Progress, 10 Promoting Dissemination and Application of Research Results, 11 Current Status, 12 Accomplishments in 2019, 12 FY 2020 Program, 26 Policies on Bias and Conflict of Interest, 26 Summary, 28 Publications of the Transit Cooperative Research Program, 29 Summary of Project Status, 50 Summary of Project D-7 Status, 90 Summary of Project J-4 Status, 92 Summary of Project J-5 Status, 99 Summary of Project J-6 Status, 105 Summary of Project J-7 Status, 111 Summary of Project J-9 Status, 124 Summary of Project J-10 Status, 125 Summary of Project J-11 Status, 127 New Projects and Continuations, 130 Notice to Readers, 131 How to Order, 131
PHOTO CREDITS: Page 1 Bay Area Rapid Transit, San Francisco Photo: Thomas Hawk, Flickr Page 7 Street Car in Downtown Atlanta Photo: Lauren Holly, Flickr Page 28 Transit in Chicago Photo: Benjamin Curz, Pexels