In order to maintain the health of students, teachers, and their communities, school districts are implementing measures that dramatically change the learning environment. This includes a wide variety of combinations of remote and virtual environments with classroom-based learning, including going completely virtual. Classroom environments themselves are also changing due to the need for social distancing and other safety measures. Some education communities are choosing to initially keep physical classrooms closed for some or all students and finding alternate environments for learning and teaching. Others are using physical classes for a few days a week for reduced numbers of students and engaging students remotely for the rest of the week.
Whether in-person, remote, hybrid, blended, or other flexible and innovative models have been chosen initially, other models may be used later, so it is helpful to plan for them ahead of time. Whatever model is used, good teaching and learning principles will need to be followed. The guiding questions in this chapter are intended to help education practitioners consider how this volume’s four foundational principles can be applied to planning for and adjusting instruction in changing environments:
Many students will be spending more of their time on formal schooling while at home during the pandemic, but this change does not mean the beginning
of learning at home. Home has always been a setting for learning, but learning at home often looks different from learning in school. The shift to doing formal schooling at home may mean that students, families, and teachers will need to revise how they think about the relationship between school and home and focus more on the experiences and resources that students can access outside of classrooms. This is a valuable opportunity to recognize the assets that families have in their communities, including the natural environment, designed structures, and knowledgeable family and community members. This is particularly true for science and engineering, which focus on explaining phenomena and solving problems in the real world.
There are advantages of both school-based and home-based learning environments for students’ formal education. For example, in school, there are typically materials, time, and dedicated space for learning. In addition, classes have established routines and norms that are familiar to students and teachers, and students have immediate contact with professional educators who can monitor and support their learning. However, in home environments, it may be easier to ground learning in places and scenarios that are relevant and meaningful to students. For example, when students are asked to examine the differences between living and nonliving things around them, using objects and organisms in their home and neighborhood might be more meaningful to them than would objects and organisms in their school yard. Students are more likely to be able to see how their learning experiences relate to their daily lives and to build a deeper connection to the resources in their neighborhoods and communities. There are also more opportunities to incorporate families and communities in the learning process when students do their schooling at home, supporting multigenerational communication and cultural transmission. In addition, remote learning is generally more flexible in terms of schedules, workspaces, and routines.1
School systems that choose a blended model, having students spend some time in classrooms and some time in home or other remote environments, could take advantage of the strengths of each. For example, when in remote environments, students could gather information about a phenomenon and take the time they need to think through their initial models for how the phenomenon works. Then students could come together in the classroom to test their models, potentially conducting investigations that require expensive or hazardous materials under the supervision of the teacher. In school systems that choose a hybrid model, where some students learn remotely and others participate in person, it
could be helpful to prioritize the use of classroom space for students who might have difficulties self-directing their learning outside of school, such as young children or students who have difficulties using the technology needed for remote learning.
In remote, blended, hybrid, or other flexible learning models, instruction time will likely be divided between synchronous and asynchronous time. Synchronous remote learning—when students and the teacher work at the same time—can help provide real-time interactions between students and a teacher, allowing the teacher to shift instruction immediately in response to student needs. This time is also useful for community building, dialog, and celebrating learning. In addition, synchronous learning can happen offline when students are expected to work independently at the same time, much like independent work in a classroom, and then come back together to share their work.
Asynchronous learning, in contrast, provides a great deal of flexibility and differentiation for students: those who need more time can take it, and those who are ready for more challenges can extend their learning. In the classroom, it can be difficult to let students work at their own pace, whereas remote asynchronous work can be designed to maximize autonomy for learners. During this time, students can watch videos and read texts to gather information, conduct investigations, design solutions to problems, leave feedback on their peers’ work, write to communicate their thinking, review feedback received, and reflect on their learning. Including a large amount of asynchronous time in the class schedule can also be helpful to support learners who do not have continuous access to devices or broadband, who have other obligations for their time, or who benefit from more time to process ideas. It is important to note that there are grade band considerations for planning synchronous and asynchronous time: students in middle and high school are likely to be better at self-regulating their remote schoolwork than are elementary school students, who are more likely to need adult support for remote learning.
It will not be feasible to replace seat time, minute per minute, with screen time. There are limitations on the time students can spend in synchronous remote learning, trying to concentrate and remain engaged during online sessions. In addition, even where schools are beginning the school year with in-person instructional models, the time in class is often reduced in comparison with previous
years. It is therefore important to think strategically about which activities to do in a whole class setting and which ones can be done independently, with students working remotely on their own or in small groups. Asynchronous work gives students time to thoughtfully develop their models, designs, and explanations, to think of new questions based on their prior experiences, and to gather information and ideas from people around them. Synchronous whole-class time is a great opportunity for student discussion and exchange of ideas and feedback, and for sharing student models, designs, and explanations. This kind of sharing is particularly important for science and engineering, as discussions often serve as the core component of student learning. However, some students will need more scheduling flexibility or may not have reliable internet access and should be provided opportunities to fully engage with instruction asynchronously, for example, by accessing recordings.
In a time of stress, it is important to give students as much of a sense of predictability as possible.2 Expectations for learning goals and instructional routines need to be established and communicated very clearly to both students and families at the beginning of each course and, ideally, for each activity. Even for those classes that are currently conducted in person, there is a risk that school could close at any time. It is therefore important to plan ahead for instructional routines that can be used in remote environments and get students accustomed to the tools that will be used.3
Students also need to see clear pathways to achieving success. They need to understand when and how they are expected to participate and what good participation looks like. Similarly, for each class assignment, rubrics that define what success looks like and video-recorded instructions that can be replayed as needed can be very helpful. Table 4-1 presents some general ideas for ways that expectations can be set for student participation and ways student learning can be supported whether learning is synchronous or asynchronous, and with or without access to computers and high-speed internet.
2 See Tetrick, L. E., & LaRocco, J. M. (1987). Understanding, prediction, and control as moderators of the relationships between perceived stress, satisfaction, and psychological well-being. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72(4), 538–543.
TABLE 4-1 Options for Setting Expectations and Supporting Student Learning
|Synchronous Online Learning||Asynchronous Learning Aided by Computers and Broadband||Remote Learning with Limited Access to Computers and Broadband|
SOURCE: Adapted from Staying Grounded When Teaching Remote.4
With a shift to remote learning in many places, it can be tempting to focus on finding technological tools that can make class time fun for students. However, the focus needs to stay on the vision for teaching and learning and not on the particular tool used to help achieve that vision. Even in remote environments, student learning in science and engineering needs to center on engaging in the three dimensions—science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas)—to explain phenomena and solve problems. Finding ways to maintain this three-dimensional focus during the pandemic is critical to students’ learning.
Whether in person or remotely, when learning is centered on student engagement in sense-making or problem solving, the teacher is not expected to provide the targeted information directly to students or to be the one primarily responsible for asking questions.5 Instead, it should be the students who ask the questions and who pull together data and evidence to try to make sense of phenomena or solve
Figure 4-1 shows an initial student work page intended for use with a remote, asynchronous class. The prompts were developed to help students ask questions that were used to drive instruction during the class, working toward sense-making of the phenomenon of increased forest fires in California.8 Traditionally, the teacher would have led the students through each one of these conversations in person, but in an asynchronous environment, these kinds of work pages were provided to encourage students to engage in thinking and wondering independently before sharing their ideas with the rest of the class.
Changing the roles of teacher and student to ensure that students can initiate and drive sense-making is not trivial and takes time. It is easier to just present information to students than to undertake student-driven learning. However, students need to feel ownership over the learning process. They need to clearly see the connections between their curiosity and the next instructional activity. When students know that the activity one day is helping them figure out what they wondered about the previous day, instruction becomes coherent from their perspective, even though the order of lessons and questions addressed may look different from if they were laid out by a disciplinary expert who already knew all of the answers from the beginning.9 When students perceive that instruction seems to follow their curiosity, they feel more associated with the process of learning and therefore are more likely to participate and be engaged. This engagement, while always important, is particularly relevant in the context of remote learning.
Helping students have these kinds of coherent experiences does not mean that instruction should go in whatever direction students are curious about:10
8 It is important for educators to be sensitive to student stress or trauma when focusing on phenomena such as forest fires that may have large negative effects on students’ lives, families, or communities.
10 For more information, see Design, Selection, and Implementation of Instructional Materials for the Next Generation Science Standards: Proceedings of a Workshop. Available: https://www.nap.edu/read/25001/chapter/4#27.
“[T]he goal is to help students develop useable knowledge, so turning over complete control to students could take the investigations too far afield. Moreover, it can leave gaps in understanding that prevent students from developing reasonable explanations of phenomena.” (Science and Engineering for Grades 6–12: Investigation and Design at the Center, p. 142)
The teacher instead facilitates student conversations to support students in figuring out what kinds of investigations would be most helpful to answer their questions.
In order to support coherent instruction that is focused on sense-making and problem solving, students need opportunities to work together: brainstorming about possible ways to solve problems, collaborating to develop investigation plans, discussing data interpretations, and engaging in argument about how well the evidence supports an explanation for a phenomenon.11 The exchange of ideas helps students reflect on their own thinking and builds connections between their different ideas.12 This kind of dialog among students is a central mechanism for student learning,13 whether students are working remotely or in person, but it presents additional challenges for remote learning. Educators can adapt facilitation techniques and technological tools to support students’ remote exchange of ideas.
Box 4-1 details how one teacher adapted her classroom norms for student collaboration and discourse for use in a remote environment when her district shifted to remote instruction in spring 2020. Included in this story are glimpses of ways remote environments can positively affect how students participate in learning. Some students showed more agency, taking the initiative to write their ideas to share with the class, and one student participated more verbally than they had previously in person. The story also highlights that productive class routines and norms may take some time to become established and consistently used. Both students and teachers will need time to adjust.
When sharing ideas with others, students need to feel that their ideas and perspectives are valued. Creating and maintaining group norms of participation, respect, and openness to new ideas and to changing previous ideas is an important aspect of this kind of instruction.14 Teachers will need to ensure that student ideas are shared and considered equitably.15 Students may vary widely in how they share their ideas with each other, whether verbally, through gesture, or in writing. The teacher, and the class as a whole, may need to learn how to recognize and support diverse patterns of discourse.16
These kinds of shifts in class norms and procedures—especially in remote environments where it may be more difficult to gauge all students’ involvement—will require ongoing professional learning for teachers and opportunities to try strategies little by little over time.17 This might include strategies for facilitating student-to-student discourse through digital platforms using video, audio, text, and drawings. Teachers may need support for finding new ways to encourage students to share ideas in pairs, small groups, or with the whole class, as well as
ways to capture student ideas for engagement in argument, reflection, and revision. High-quality curriculum materials can also play a large role in supporting teachers to lead these kinds of conversations, providing suggested discussion starters, strategies for facilitating student discussion,18 and examples of student questions related to sense-making or problem solving.
All of these recommendations do not need to be implemented on day one of the new school year.19 They should be scaffolded and introduced over time. Teachers are not failing if everything is not implemented immediately. A shift to teaching and learning that mirrors the vision of the Framework was still new to many teachers even in an in-person classroom environment, and they will need additional effort to determine how best to continue this transition in new learning and teaching environments.
In any remote or nontraditional learning environment, students will be required to be more independent in their learning. They need to learn how to set goals, monitor their progress toward those goals, and follow through on accomplishing them.20 In addition to supporting their academic achievement in all disciplines, these are valuable life lessons. While establishing deeper relationships and new instructional routines, educators have an opportunity to support students in building agency and self-reflection skills that will help set them up for success in later schooling, careers, and their daily lives.
As discussed in the foundational principles in Chapter 1, instructional routines that focus on student sense-making of phenomena or problem solving help build student agency by engaging them in thinking through and planning instructional sequences. Similarly, giving students as many choices as possible—including the schedule for completion of work, the selection of research topics, the ordering of investigations when different orderings could each work coherently, and the modality of their assessment responses—helps them take ownership and stay engaged in their learning process. Providing students with flexibility of expression may mean that students need to be supported to access and use additional
20 See Shepard, L.A., Diaz-Bilello, E., Penuel, W.R., and Marion, S.F. (2020). Classroom Assessment Principles to Support Teaching and Learning. Boulder, CO: Center for Assessment, Design, Research and Evaluation, University of Colorado Boulder.
technological tools. For example, some students may not have access to video cameras21 that would be needed to record their gestures, which can communicate students’ scientific understanding even when they do not know all of the scientific vocabulary or grammar that would be needed to communicate orally or in writing.22
Box 4-2 presents the story of a teacher who found ways to provide more autonomy for her students in their learning, through both scheduling and choices for how to engage in investigations.
21 Note that it is important to ensure that the privacy rights of both students and educators are protected when cameras are used. In addition, many students may feel uncomfortable if peers and the teacher can see or hear what is occurring in their home environments.
22 See Suarez, E. (2020). “Estoy Explorando Science”: Emergent bilingual students problematizing electrical phenomena through translanguaging. Science Education, 104(5), 791–826. doi: https://doi/org/10.1002/ sce.21588.
The students in this story recognized and valued the choices they offered and expressed a desire to be offered such opportunities more often. This highlights students’ perceptiveness about whether they are viewed as full and competent partners in their learning.
To ensure that students develop a sense of competence, they need enough support so that they never feel completely lost. Students need support as they work to understand directions and assignments and to realize that they have the tools and capability to complete the assigned work. Students, themselves, can assist in this process by doing such things as helping to brainstorm ways their class peers can learn to use new tools and procedures. They can also become partners in troubleshooting when something goes wrong—if the technology is not working as expected, if a classmate is disruptive, if they do not understand something someone said, or if their remote environment makes it difficult to engage.
Investigations are a central part of how students learn science and engineering.23 In some classrooms, investigations have been traditionally used to allow students to physically engage with materials and confirm what was taught in the textbooks, but it is now well understood that investigations can be more fundamental to the learning process.
“Students learn by doing. Science investigation and engineering design provide an opportunity for students to do. When students engage in science investigation and engineering design, they are able to engage deeply with phenomena as they ask questions, collect and analyze data, generate and utilize evidence, and develop models to support explanations and solutions. Research studies demonstrate that deeper engagement leads to stronger conceptual understandings of science content than what is demonstrated through more traditional, memorization-intensive approaches. Investigations provide the evidence that students need to construct explanations for the causes of phenomena. Constructing understanding by actively engaging in investigation and design also creates meaningful and memorable learning experiences for all students. These experiences pique students’ curiosity and lead to greater interest and identity in science.” (Science and Engineering for Grades 6–12: Investigation and Design at the Center, p. vii)
This process is still central when learning takes place remotely. Many science and engineering investigations do not need to be confined to classrooms or use of specialized equipment. Students can explore phenomena in their homes and communities, and they can engage in the science and engineering practices—such as asking questions, collecting and analyzing data, and arguing about evidence—to learn about the world and solve problems without being in a traditional laboratory.24 Some investigations are purely based on students’ observations, such as recording information about the weather over time, and teachers are already accustomed to helping students make these observations in their home environments. Some investigations that have typically been done in class could easily be supported with objects commonly found around the home, such as designing a
Rube Goldberg device to test energy transfer. Some districts are considering providing inexpensive materials that might not be available in all homes, such as magnets, to each student.
Box 4-3 describes how educators collaborated with families and caretakers to creatively figure out what kinds of materials could be used to support students in their engineering investigations.
This story illustrates the role families can play in helping to think through how to provide materials necessary to engage in investigations. To participate effectively in this planning process, however, the families in the story needed time in advance to save materials or think of alternatives, and they needed access to the course educators for troubleshooting discussions.
In general, many types of investigations can be managed effectively in remote settings. However, without access to measurement equipment often used in classrooms, such as digital scales, graduated cylinders, or scientific thermometers, students might not be fully prepared to engage in some discussions about data accuracy until they return to a classroom. Students would still be able to engage in robust collaborative discussions of the details of an investigative plan, but the quality of data collected at home might not be as high as that collected at school. Alternately, if there are data students cannot collect, the teacher could remotely demonstrate some data collection and measurement issues, or students may be able to analyze data from existing databases,25 such as those provided by the United States Geological Survey26 or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.27 When using data sets, there could be implications for how students engage in analyzing and interpreting data and developing evidence-based explanations if they cannot use data from their own investigations. Students may need extra support to see how the data fit together with the phenomenon or problem being addressed when they are not able to collect their own data.28
Most importantly, activities that involve handling any potentially toxic chemicals or dangerous maneuvers should not be used in remote environments, so this constraint will limit the scope of some investigations. When instructional units rely on student engagement in such activities, it could be helpful to move these instructional units to later in the school year or to a different school year, or to set up laboratory access for rotating small groups of students in a classroom or community partner location, such as a museum. However, even when classes take place in person, there are extensive safety issues to consider in light of the pandemic.29 For example, students and teachers should frequently wash their hands, and materials and equipment need to be cleaned after each person uses them. The
National Science Teaching Association Safety blog has compiled detailed recommendations for safe investigations in both remote and classroom environments.30 It could also be helpful to make use of outdoor learning spaces because they have many benefits to learning and might facilitate social distancing and reduce the number of common materials handled by students.31 All of the established safety considerations related to outdoor learning spaces will still be applicable, though, in addition to the safety considerations related to COVID-19.32
Due to the difficulties of engaging in some investigations safely during the pandemic, many teachers are exploring the use of simulations for student investigations. Simulations can be especially effective for allowing students to visualize and explore phenomena that are not normally visible, such as the movement of particles.33 Use of simulations also provides an opportunity to support students in the science and engineering practice of using computational thinking, using and developing computer models of phenomena to collect data or test engineering designs,34 and seeing the effect of new parameters or data on simulation outcomes. Ideally, simulations could be paired with comparisons to other investigations that students conduct themselves. Some sources of simulations are free online, such as those created by Phet35 and the Concord Consortium.36 To use these tools effectively, teachers will need support for incorporating them into instruction and helping students interpret the results.37 In particular, younger students may need more scaffolding to make appropriate connections and distinctions between a simulation and the real world.
The challenges related to conducting investigations in remote environments may provide educators with a new opportunity to reconsider the purpose of each investigation used in instructional units. If an investigation had been previously included for the purpose of giving students “hands-on” experience with materials and helping them confirm conclusions, that investigation does not need to be incorporated into remote instruction. Educators can instead focus on
investigations that are used as a central part of students’ work to figure out science and engineering ideas and build proficiencies such as thinking through investigation design considerations.38 Because secondary school teachers typically have had more experience teaching traditional lab classes, they might need extra support to shift away from confirmatory labs.
Once educators have chosen their approach to effective remote instruction—including how students will be sense-making or problem solving, how the experience will be coherent and collaborative, and how student agency will be supported—technological tools to support this approach can be chosen. A wide variety of apps are available to support research-based science and engineering learning and teaching, including using discourse-driven sense-making of phenomena.39 Some districts and states are sharing lists of suggested tools with teachers.40 When choosing tools to support instructional routines, it is important to keep instructional goals in mind and to select tools and uses that will best support students even if those tools are not the newest or flashiest available. High-quality learning and teaching need to remain the central focus.41
Students may be excited, at least initially, to have the opportunity to use some new types of software and hardware for their learning.42 However, student engagement is not the only goal. Productive engagement means that students are motivated to figure out a phenomenon or solve a problem, and many types of technological tools can support and even extend this kind of engagement.43 Programs such as Jamboard,44 Padlet,45 or Pinup46 could support student exchange of ideas in a similar way to how a driving question board could be used in a physical classroom, but also provide the option for discussions to continue
asynchronously at students’ own pace. Similarly, online modeling tools can augment students’ ability to visualize their own thinking and communicate their learning.47 Models drawn on paper and then photographed can serve many of these purposes, but digital models can be more easily revised as students’ learning progresses, and some can even be used to test ideas.48,49 The Google Science Journal app50 can support students’ work with investigations, allowing students to both collect and write about data. Many of these tools used for online and remote learning could also be useful and valuable for in-person classroom engagement.
For example, Figure 4-2 shows a 6th-grade student’s initial model on Jamboard as an attempt to make sense of one part of a phenomenon—how heartworms got into a dog’s bloodstream. This was used in class as a steppingstone to building an understanding about how different parts of an ecosystem interact with one another and are affected by environmental changes. The student pasted images, labels, and a description to develop their model. Their classmates were then able to add questions or feedback to the page, and students were encouraged to reflect on this feedback to determine whether they wanted to make changes to their models.
A heavier reliance on screen time for teaching and learning may introduce new difficulties with communications, but it may also augment communications in many other ways. For example, many devices and applications do not support use of closed captioning or sign language. However, technology makes it easy for students to rewatch videos as many times as they need to, view transcripts and translations of the audio, and submit ideas and questions through various modalities, including text, audio and video recordings, and photos. For example, students could take pictures of their engineering designs to communicate their initial ideas about how to solve a problem and share those pictures with the class and the teacher. The use of video cameras could also improve remote communication during both synchronous and asynchronous exchanges because they allow students and teachers to attend to nonverbal cues such as gestures and facial expressions.51
47 For more information, see Science and Engineering for Grades 6–12: Investigation and Design at the Center. Available: https://www.nap.edu/read/25216/chapter/10#239; also see https://sagemodeler.concord.org/.
48 For more information, see Science and Engineering for Grades 6–12: Investigation and Design at the Center. Available: https://www.nap.edu/read/25216/chapter/6#97; also see https://www.edsurge.com/news/201802-01-how-samr-and-tech-can-help-teachers-truly-transform-assessment.
51 Note that it is important to ensure that the privacy rights of both students and educators are protected when cameras are used. In addition, many students may feel uncomfortable if peers and the teacher can see or hear what is occurring in their home environments.
Asynchronous sections of a class can allow students time to think and reflect before contributing ideas or to work in small groups in their native language before translating to English. Working in breakout rooms can allow students to share their ideas in small groups in a low-pressure situation before sharing them with the whole class.52
Similarly, some accommodations for students with visual and mobility impairments,53 such as using a camera to capture and then broadcast what a teacher sees through a microscope, are supportive of all students’ learning in remote environments as well. Whether in remote or in-person environments, following the principles of universal design for learning can maximize students’ opportunities to engage in scientific and engineering investigations.54 This can
52 For more information, see Science and Engineering for Grades 6–12: Investigation and Design at the Center. Available: https://www.nap.edu/read/25216/chapter/7#130. Also see English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives. Available: https://www.nap.edu/read/25182/chapter/5#60.
include using assistive technology, providing materials in multiple formats, and allowing students to participate through multiple modalities.55 The International Society for Technology in Education has resources to help educators think through accessibility issues with online learning.56
There have never been as many choices of tools available for instructional support as there are now. However, when students are asked to learn to use new programs or applications for each activity or for each class, they may be distracted from their learning and could become frustrated. To help ensure that students are supported to believe that they can succeed, it might be helpful to provide step-by-step use videos for each new program required and to reduce the number of new programs introduced. It may also be helpful to support coordination between teachers to decide about whether the same programs can be used in multiple classes. Such coordination is particularly important for middle and high schools, where students typically have different teachers for classes.
In addition, many students may not have access to a computer or broadband internet or may not be able to access them at the same time as the rest of the class due to multiple siblings sharing one device or family members working from home. It is therefore important to plan for ways to provide access to learning for all students and to consider equity of access when selecting learning activities, such as simulations. Providing offline or low-bandwidth materials may be essential.57 As noted in Chapter 3, some teachers are taking advantage of students’ access to a parent’s or caretaker’s cell phone to support participation, although cell phones do not provide students with the same type of experience as they would have on a computer.
As the tools and routines selected may be new to many teachers, professional learning opportunities could be provided to enable teachers to have firsthand experience with the tools and routines as a learner, allowing them to develop new strategies for use with their students and to plan for remote classroom management.58 Such opportunities could support innovation, allowing educators the flexibility to think creatively and apply what they learn to effectively support the individual needs of their students.
More information about educational resources and organizations that can be helpful partners in supporting teaching and learning remotely have been compiled by SETDA.59 In addition, the National Science Teaching Association is hosting an ongoing series of webinars supporting remote learning.60
- Provide supports to ensure equitable access for all students to instruction, whether providing technology access or ensuring that low bandwidth tools are available.
- Provide guidance to teachers about:
- how best to divide synchronous and asynchronous time;
- the importance of establishing equitable norms for participation and discussion;
- ways to help build student agency in the learning process, including providing students with choices in their learning; and
- whether online breakout rooms are allowed and, if not, what alternate methods could be used to facilitate small group remote discussions.
- Provide examples and templates to teachers for using student curiosity about sense-making and problem solving to drive instruction.
- Find ways to reduce the number of different technological tools students have to use for their different classes, for example, by providing common tools or encouraging teachers to share resources with each other.
- Ensure that students, families, and teachers are all aware of and commit to safe practices for engaging in investigations whether remotely or in classrooms.