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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 221 2020 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation â¢ Environment â¢ Planning and Forecasting Measuring Quality of Life in Communities Surrounding Airports Katherine B. Preston Julia Nagy Harris Miller Miller & Hanson, inc. Burlington, MA Julie Blue Rebecca DeVries erG Lexington, MA Jim Crites J. M. crites, llc Fort Worth, TX
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 221 Project 02-83 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-48176-2 Library of Congress Control Number 2020941453 Â© 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.nationalacademies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 221 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Joseph D. Navarrete, Senior Program Officer Hana Vagnerova, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Cassandra Franklin-Barbajosa, Editor ACRP PROJECT 02-83 PANEL Field of Environment Michael Pape, Idaho Division of Aeronautics, Boise, ID (Chair) Casey-Marie Claude, Boston Region MPO, Boston, MA Sam A. Mehta, Gresham, Smith, Fremont, CA Barbara Packer-Muti, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL Akiya Simms, HartsfieldâJackson Atlanta International Airport, Atlanta, GA Meghna Tare, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX Jackie Sweatt-Essick, FAA Liaison Michon L. Washington, FAA Liaison Veronica Bradley, Airlines for America Liaison Sabrina Johnson, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Liaison Molly Cervinia Laster, U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) Liaison Melinda Z. Pagliarello, Airports Council InternationalâNorth America Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are extremely grateful for the tremendous amount of support, information sharing, and participa- tion provided by the staff of the three partner airports and their community stakeholders before, during, and after the airport workshops: DallasâFort Worth International Airport â¢ Kris Russell, Environmental Program Manager â¢ J.J. Cawelti, Assistant Vice President, Community Engagement â¢ Sandy Lancaster, Environmental Program Manager â¢ Sam Tan, Environmental Project Manager â¢ Zoe Bolack, Air Quality and Sustainability â¢ Francisco Rodriguez, Board and Owner Cities Relations Specialist â¢ City of Coppell â¢ Town of Flower Mound â¢ North Central Texas Council of Governments (continued on page vi)
ACRP Research Report 221 provides a comprehensive, systematic method for assessing an airportâs influence on the quality of life of neighboring communities. Compared to studies limited to discrete impacts (e.g., economic and noise studies), a quality of life assessment provides a more holistic view of the positive and negative impacts resulting from an airport and its activities. The report will be of particular interest to industry practitioners who wish to better understand their airportsâ impacts on quality of life, take advantage of new tools to interact and build trust with communities, and enhance their planning and support of their airportsâ long-term goals. Quality of life is a broad and multidimensional concept that usually includes an indi- vidualâs perception of his or her position in life and encompasses positive and negative aspects. It includes objective factorsâsuch as health, work status, and living conditionsâ and the subjective perceptions one may have of these factors within the context of culture, values, and spirituality. Airports may influence quality of life positively (e.g., creating jobs, attracting and supporting business, and serving as hubs for transportation networks) and negatively (e.g., generating noise and affecting air quality). These complexities make measuring the impact of airports on quality of life challenging. Airports often undertake economic and environmental impact studies. But, to date, no guidance on comprehen- sively measuring the impact of airport-related activity on overall quality of life has been available. The research, led by Harris Miller Miller & Hanson, Inc., began with a comprehensive literature review to gain an understanding of existing quality of life frameworks and methods, with particular focus on transportation-related factors. The literature review was followed by outreach to industry stakeholdersâincluding airportsâthat were incorporat- ing aspects of sustainability and social equity into their missions. Based on the information gathered, the team developed a draft quality of life assessment method that was built on industry-accepted standardized tools and practices and that is flexible, adaptable, and scalable to various-sized airports and communities. After testing at several airports and communities, the team completed the final quality of life assessment method. It considers nearly 100 indicators in six high-level categories, including economic, environmental, health, local governanceâcommunity services, social relationships, and transportation. Indicators are also identified by the degree to which airports can influence them and whether they can be measured quantitatively or qualitatively. F O R E W O R D By Joseph D. Navarrete Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
The guidebook will help readers undertake a quality of life assessment for their unique situation, including engaging with stakeholders, defining the study area, identifying rele- vant indicators, administering the survey, measuring and weighting data, and reporting and communicating the results. A Quality of Life Assessment Survey Tool, an Indicator Thresholds and Quantitative Data Sources Excel spreadsheet, and a Sample Quality of Life Assessment Introduction PowerPoint are available at www.trb.org by searching for âACRP Research Report 221.â ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (Continued) Tampa International Airport â¢ Melissa Solberg, Manager, Sustainability and Wellness â¢ Janet Scherberger, Vice President, Communications â¢ Gina Evans, Director, Government Affairs â¢ Alexandra Carey, Department of Human Resources â¢ City of Tampa, Economic and Urban Development Department â¢ Sunset Park Homeowners Association â¢ Hillsborough Metropolitan Planning Organization â¢ Pinellas County Economic Development Office â¢ Dana Shores Civic Association Portland International Jetport â¢ Paul Bradbury, Airport Director â¢ Judy Harris, Marketing and Communications Coordinator â¢ Zachary Sundquist, Assistant Director â¢ Barry Brown, Deputy Director, Operations and Maintenance â¢ Stroudwater Village Association â¢ Unum This publication would not have been possible without contributions from the following individuals: Mary Ellen Eagan, HMMH; Jessica Spencer, HMMH; Vincent Ma, HMMH; Dr. Alexander Metzger, ERG; and Carolyn Gillette, ERG.
1 Summary 5 Chapter 1 Introduction 6 1.1 Quality of Life Concept 6 1.2 Quality of Life and Sustainability 8 1.3 Role of Airports 9 1.4 Purpose and Objective of the Guidebook 11 1.5 Research Approach 13 Chapter 2 Quality of Life Methodology 13 2.1 Quantitative and Qualitative Indicators 16 2.2 Selection of Indicators 18 2.3 Indicator Quality of Life Scoring Mechanism 19 2.4 Indicator Weighting Mechanism 20 Chapter 3 Conducting a Quality of Life Assessment 20 Step 1. Initiate Quality of Life Dialogue Internally 22 Step 2. Engage Key External Stakeholder Organizations 25 Step 3. Determine Study Area and Gather Quantitative Data 25 Step 4. Administer Survey 26 Step 5. Analyze Data 27 Step 6. Review or Update Assessment at Later Date 29 Chapter 4 Gathering Data 29 4.1 Gathering Data for Quantitative Indicators 31 4.2 Gathering Data for Qualitative Indicators 34 Chapter 5 Analyzing and Communicating Results of Assessment 34 5.1 Visualizing Data in a Quadrant Plot 35 5.2 Interpreting a Quadrant Plot 36 5.3 Examples of Quadrant Plots 39 5.4 Communicating Results 40 Chapter 6 Conclusion 40 6.1 Recommended Further Research 42 References and Bibliography 46 Acronyms C O N T E N T S
47 Appendix A Quality of Life Assessment Survey Tool 80 Appendix B Indicator Thresholds and Quantitative Data Sources 81 Appendix C Existing Quality of Life Resources 86 Appendix D Process for Developing Quality of Life Assessment Methodology 96 Appendix E Airport Workshop Summaries 105 Appendix F Sample Quality of Life Assessment Introduction PowerPoint 106 Appendix G Examples of Data Visualizations Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.