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Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Standard Definitions for Common Types of Pavement Cracking. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25928.
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Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Standard Definitions for Common Types of Pavement Cracking. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25928.
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Page 5
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Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Standard Definitions for Common Types of Pavement Cracking. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25928.
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Page 6
Page 7
Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Standard Definitions for Common Types of Pavement Cracking. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25928.
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Standard Definitions for Common Types of Pavement Cracking IV Contents  C h a p t e r 1 .......................................................................................................................... 1  Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 1  Background ................................................................................................................................. 1  Report Outline ............................................................................................................................. 3  C h a p t e r 2 .......................................................................................................................... 4  Literature Review and Agency Survey ................................................................................. 4  Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 4  Cracking Data Collection Methods ............................................................................................. 4  Manual Survey ........................................................................................................................ 4  Automated Survey .................................................................................................................. 5  Cracking Data Protocols ............................................................................................................. 6  Protocols at the National Level ............................................................................................... 6  SHA Protocols ........................................................................................................................ 9  Survey of State Highway Agencies .......................................................................................... 15  Part I: Cracking Data Collection, Processing, and Common Issues ..................................... 16  Part II: Cracking Definitions ................................................................................................. 17  Part III: Wheel Path Definitions ........................................................................................... 23  Part IV: AASHTO R 85-18 Applications ............................................................................. 24  Part V: General Comments ................................................................................................... 24  Summary ................................................................................................................................... 24  C h a p t e r 3 ........................................................................................................................ 26  Role of Cracking Data in Decision-Making Processes .................................................. 26  Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 26  Network Level Decision-Making ............................................................................................. 26  Project Level Decision-Making ................................................................................................ 28  Precision and Bias Levels ......................................................................................................... 28  Summary ................................................................................................................................... 30  C h a p t e r 4 ........................................................................................................................ 31  Cracking Data Desired by State Highway Agencies ....................................................... 31  Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 31  Pavement Management ............................................................................................................. 31 

Standard Definitions for Common Types of Pavement Cracking V HPMS Reporting ....................................................................................................................... 33  MEPDG Local Calibration ....................................................................................................... 34  MAP-21 (FAST Act) and Asset Management .......................................................................... 35  Summary ................................................................................................................................... 36  C h a p t e r 5 ........................................................................................................................ 37  Proposed Standard Definitions for Common Cracking Types .................................... 37  Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 37  A Set of Standard Definitions ................................................................................................... 37  Asphalt Pavements ................................................................................................................ 40  Concrete Pavements .............................................................................................................. 44  AASHTO R85 and the Proposed Definitions ........................................................................... 45  Summary ................................................................................................................................... 46  C h a p t e r 6 ........................................................................................................................ 47  Testing of the Proposed Cracking Definitions ................................................................. 47  Field Data Collection ................................................................................................................ 47  Automatic Lane Marking Detection ..................................................................................... 48  Wheel Path and Grid Generation .......................................................................................... 50  Pavement Cracking Data Analysis with Proposed Definitions ................................................. 51  Level 3 Cracking Results ...................................................................................................... 51  Level 2 Cracking Results ...................................................................................................... 52  Level 1 Cracking Results ...................................................................................................... 57  Summary ................................................................................................................................... 60  C h a p t e r 7 ........................................................................................................................ 62  Conclusions............................................................................................................................... 62  References ................................................................................................................................. 64  Appendix A. Summary of Cracking Protocols ...................................................................... A-1  Appendix B. Survey Questionnaire and Responses .......................................................... B-1  Appendix C. Summary of Level 3 and Level 2 Cracking Data of Each Zone ..................C-1 

Standard Definitions for Common Types of Pavement Cracking VI Table of Figures  Figure 1 3D Laser triangulation imaging technology. .................................................................... 5  Figure 2 AASHTO R 85-18 wheel path definition (AASHTO 2018). ........................................... 9  Figure 3 Map of survey respondents with states in red as responding states. .............................. 16  Figure 4 Pavement cracking data collection and processing. ....................................................... 17  Figure 5 Transverse cracking. ....................................................................................................... 18  Figure 6 Longitudinal cracking. .................................................................................................... 19  Figure 7 Alligator cracking. .......................................................................................................... 20  Figure 8 Block cracking. ............................................................................................................... 21  Figure 9 Edge cracking. ................................................................................................................ 21  Figure 10 “D” cracking. ................................................................................................................ 22  Figure 11 Corner break. ................................................................................................................ 22  Figure 12 Other cracking data. ...................................................................................................... 23  Figure 13 Wheel path definitions. ................................................................................................. 23  Figure 14 Cracking data collection for different pavement types. ................................................ 32  Figure 15 Usage of cracking data. ................................................................................................ 33  Figure 16 Level 3 with 10 in. 10 in. (250 mm x 250 mm) grids with wheel paths. ................... 41  Figure 17 Sensitivity of cracking percent at Level 3 to grid size. ................................................ 42  Figure 18 Interface of ADA3D (courtesy of WayLink Systems Corporation). ............................ 48  Figure 19 ADA3D for lane marking detection (courtesy of WayLink Systems Corporation). .... 49  Figure 20 Illustration of lane marking detection (Zhang et al. 2018). .......................................... 49  Figure 21 An example of images with wheel paths and grids. ..................................................... 50  Figure 22 Summary of Level 3 cracking data. .............................................................................. 52  Figure 23 Level 2 cracking data for asphalt sites. ........................................................................ 54  Figure 24 Level 2 cracking data for JPCP sites. ........................................................................... 55  Figure 25 Summary of Level 2 cracking data at site 1. ................................................................ 57 

Standard Definitions for Common Types of Pavement Cracking VII Table of Tables  Table 1 Summary of Crack Protocols ............................................................................................. 7  Table 2 FHWA LTPP Cracking Protocol ....................................................................................... 7  Table 3 AASHTO R 85-18 Cracking Protocol ............................................................................... 8  Table 4 Summary of Crack Protocols by SHAs ........................................................................... 10  Table 5 Cracking Protocol for VTrans .......................................................................................... 13  Table 6 Cracking Protocol for Oregon DOT ................................................................................ 14  Table 7 Pavement Distresses Identified in ASTM D6433 (ASTM 2018) .................................... 27  Table 8 Proposed Initial Pavement Condition Acceptance Criteria (Ganesan et al. 2006) .......... 29  Table 9 Distress Data Desired for MEPDG Local Calibration (AASHTO 2020) ........................ 35  Table 10 Pavement Performance Measures for Cracking (FHWA 2016) .................................... 36  Table 11 Summary of Field Testing Sites ..................................................................................... 48  Table 12 Statistical Summary of Level 3 Cracking Data ............................................................. 51  Table 13 Statistical Summary of Level 2 Cracking Data ............................................................. 53  Table 14 Summary of Level 3 Cracking Data for Site 1 .............................................................. 56  Table 15 Summary of Level 2 Cracking Data for Site 1 .............................................................. 56  Table 16 Statistical Summary of Level 1 Cracking Data for Asphalt Sites .................................. 58  Table 17 Statistical Summary of Level 1 Cracking Data with Severity Levels for Asphalt Sites 59  Table 18 Statistical Summary of Level 1 Cracking Data for JPCP Sites ..................................... 61 

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New definitions will help pavement cracking survey providers and pavement engineers at state highway administrations conduct objective cracking measurements and encourage continuing technological innovations by researchers and vendors.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Web-Only Document 288: Standard Definitions for Common Types of Pavement Cracking helps develop standard, discrete definitions for common cracking types for asphalt and concrete pavements.

The standard definitions would be used to facilitate comparable measurement and interpretation of pavement cracking.

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