National Academies Press: OpenBook

Evaluating Strategies for Work Zone Transportation Management Plans (2020)

Chapter: 3.0 Survey Results Regarding the Use and Effectiveness of Individual TMP Strategies

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Suggested Citation:"3.0 Survey Results Regarding the Use and Effectiveness of Individual TMP Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evaluating Strategies for Work Zone Transportation Management Plans. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25930.
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Suggested Citation:"3.0 Survey Results Regarding the Use and Effectiveness of Individual TMP Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evaluating Strategies for Work Zone Transportation Management Plans. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25930.
×
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Suggested Citation:"3.0 Survey Results Regarding the Use and Effectiveness of Individual TMP Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evaluating Strategies for Work Zone Transportation Management Plans. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25930.
×
Page 12
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Suggested Citation:"3.0 Survey Results Regarding the Use and Effectiveness of Individual TMP Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evaluating Strategies for Work Zone Transportation Management Plans. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25930.
×
Page 13
Page 14
Suggested Citation:"3.0 Survey Results Regarding the Use and Effectiveness of Individual TMP Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evaluating Strategies for Work Zone Transportation Management Plans. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25930.
×
Page 14
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Suggested Citation:"3.0 Survey Results Regarding the Use and Effectiveness of Individual TMP Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evaluating Strategies for Work Zone Transportation Management Plans. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25930.
×
Page 15
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Suggested Citation:"3.0 Survey Results Regarding the Use and Effectiveness of Individual TMP Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evaluating Strategies for Work Zone Transportation Management Plans. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25930.
×
Page 16

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10 3.0 Survey Results Regarding the Use and Effectiveness of Individual TMP Strategies This chapter describes the survey used for this project and summarizes its primary findings. 3.1. Methodology An electronic survey was distributed to state DOTs work zone coordinators and safety practitioners in May 2015 to gain insight into which individual TMP strategies were used most frequently and which TMP strategies DOT staff were most interested in investigating for further research. The survey also solicited information and perspectives regarding how highway agencies manage a variety of work zone challenges and their success in doing so. The survey form that was distributed is attached as Appendix A. The survey was based on the FHWA grouping of strategies―TO, TTC, and public information. The following outline shows the strategies included in the survey: A. Part A related to TO strategies and TTC strategies. TO and TTC strategies are further subdivided into various categories: • Demand management strategies (9 individual strategies) • Corridor/network management strategies (7 individual strategies) • Work zone safety management strategies (9 individual strategies) • Traffic/incident management and enforcement strategies (14 individual strategies) • Control strategies (6 individual strategies) • Traffic control devices (descriptive questions) • Intermodal Control Strategies (descriptive questions) B. Part B related to the Public Information strategies, which were subdivided into the following: • Public awareness strategies (6 individual strategies) • Motorist information strategies (10 individual strategies) C. Part C related to Project Coordination and Innovative Construction Strategies. Under each subject area groupings, practitioners were first asked to indicate their agency’s experience using a rating system based on frequency of use, applicable roadways, effectiveness, and public feedback response. Respondents were requested to provide two example projects where individual strategies have been used. Respondents were also asked to indicate if their agency conducted any research, field trials, before-after studies, etc., on individual strategies.

11 After ranking the individual strategies, the respondents were next asked to choose two strategies for further investigation. Respondents could also add other factors of interest using free response text boxes. The electronic survey also provided an option to upload documents. The practitioner survey responses are voluminous and therefore are provided as a separate standalone document. 3.2. Results Thirty-nine (39) states completed the survey. The results of each category of strategies are discussed below. 3.2.1 Demand Management Strategies The survey results indicated that: • Demand management strategies are not frequently used. Many states have indicated that their traffic volumes and delays are not high enough to warrant using demand management strategies. • Transit service improvements were used on a limited basis by 38 percent of respondents, mainly on arterial roadways, and was considered to be highly effective by almost 29 percent. Public response was cited as satisfactory by 15.4 percent of respondents. • Shuttle services were used by 61 percent of respondents on a limited basis, mainly on arterial roadways (59 percent), and was considered highly effective by 20 percent. Public response was cited as satisfactory by 13 percent of respondents. Respondents were also asked to identify their choice of demand management strategies that they were interested in learning more about or for further research/investigation. The highest rated strategies were: • Park-and-ride promotion (14 percent). • Shuttle services (11 percent). 3.2.2 Corridor/Network Management Strategies The survey results indicated that: • Corridor/network management strategies are not frequently used. Many states have indicated that their traffic volumes and delays are not high enough to warrant use of corridor/network management strategies. • Sixty-two percent of respondents indicated they used street/intersection improvements on a limited basis. Fifty percent indicated using this strategy on arterial roadways and 42 percent considered them highly effective. Public response was cited as very good by 16 percent of the respondents.

12 • Fifty-nine percent of respondents indicated using truck/heavy vehicle restrictions on a limited basis. Sixty-four percent indicated using this strategy on both interstates/freeways and arterial roadways, and 52 percent considered this strategy moderately effective. Public response was cited as satisfactory by 16 percent of respondents. Respondents were also asked to identify their choice of corridor/network management strategies that they were interested in learning more about or for further research/investigation. The highest rated strategies were: • Dynamic lane closure system (36 percent of respondents). • Truck lane restrictions (20 percent of respondents). ( ) refers to percent of respondents. 3.2.3 Work Zone Safety Management Strategies The survey results indicated: • Frequently used work zone safety management strategies are: — Speed limit reduction (73 percent)―83 percent indicated using this strategy on both interstates/freeways and arterial roadways and 57 percent considered this strategy moderately effective. — Positive protection (84 percent)―86 percent indicated using this strategy on both interstates/freeways and arterial roadways and 84 percent considered this strategy highly effective. • Work zone safety management strategies used on a limited basis are: — Temporary rumble strips (61 percent)―50 percent indicated using this strategy on arterial/local roadways and 36 percent considered this strategy moderately effective. — Movable traffic barrier (49 percent)―68 percent indicated using this strategy on interstates/freeways and 70 percent considered this strategy highly effective. — Automated Flagger Assistance Devices (AFAD) (43 percent)―100 percent indicated using this strategy on arterial/local roadways and 47 percent considered this strategy moderately effective. Respondents were also asked to identify their choice of work zone safety management strategies that they were interested in learning more about or for further research/investigation. The highest rated strategies were: • Temporary Rumble Strips (18 percent). • Variable Speed Limits (18 percent).

13 3.2.4 Traffic/Incident Management and Enforcement Strategies The survey results indicated that: • Most frequently used traffic/incident management and enforcement strategy is increased penalties for work zone violations (85 percent). About 87 percent indicated using this strategy on both interstates/freeways and arterial roadways and 48 percent considered this strategy moderately effective. • Traffic/incident management and enforcement strategies used on a limited basis are: — ITS for traffic monitoring/management (53 percent)―60 percent indicated using this strategy on interstates/freeways and 52 percent considered this strategy moderately effective. — ITS for detouring traffic (56 percent)―65 percent indicated using this strategy on interstates/freeways and 43 percent considered this strategy moderately effective. — Tow/freeway service patrol (53 percent)―92 percent indicated using this strategy on interstates/freeways and 58 percent considered this strategy highly effective. — Paid police enforcement (48 percent)―55 percent indicated using this strategy on both interstates/freeways and arterial roadways and 50 percent considered this strategy highly effective. — Surveillance (Closed-Circuit Television [CCTV, loop detectors, lasers, probe vehicles]) (42 percent)―55 percent indicated using this strategy on interstates/freeways and 40 percent considered this strategy moderately effective. Respondents were also asked to identify their choice of traffic/incident management and enforcement strategies that they were interested in learning more about or for further research/investigation. The highest rated strategies were: • ITS for traffic monitoring/management (19 percent). • Queue Warning System (19 percent). • Automated Enforcement (17 percent). 3.2.5 Control Strategies The literature review showed several case studies, most of them relating to accelerated bridge construction techniques, where agencies used control strategies. However, no evaluations were found. The survey results indicated that: • Frequently used control strategies are: — Night Work (84 percent)―83 percent indicated using this strategy on both interstates/freeways and arterial roadways and 44 percent considered this strategy highly effective.

14 — Weekend Work (57 percent)―81 percent indicated using this strategy on both interstates/freeways and arterial roadways and 42 percent considered this strategy highly effective. — Two-way traffic on one side of a divided facility (crossover) (51 percent)―51 percent indicated using this strategy on both interstates/freeways and arterial roadways and 52 percent considered this strategy highly effective. • Control strategies used on a limited basis were: — Full Roadway Closures (73 percent)―58 percent indicated using this strategy on both interstates/freeways and arterial roadways and 72 percent considered this strategy highly effective. — Offsite detours/use of alternative routes (62 percent)―69 percent indicated using this strategy on both interstates/freeways and arterial roadways and 48 percent considered this strategy moderately effective. Respondents were also asked to identify their choice of control strategies that they were interested in learning more about or for further research/investigation. The highest rated strategies were: • Night Work (24 percent). • Full Roadway Closure (21 percent). • Reversible Lanes (21 percent). 3.2.6 Traffic Control Devices None of the respondents indicated conducting research or an interest in evaluating new traffic control devices, revisions to the application or manner of use of an existing traffic control device, or a provision not specifically described in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) (e.g., colored temporary pavement markings, alternative signs, and colored drums). 3.2.7 Public Awareness Strategies The literature review showed several examples of using Public Awareness Strategies. No evaluations were found relating to the effectiveness of individual public awareness strategies. The survey results indicated that: • Most frequently used public awareness strategy is Social media (Twitter, Facebook, etc.) (59 percent). About 81 percent indicated using this strategy on both interstates/freeways and arterial roadways and 58 percent considered this strategy moderately effective. • Public awareness strategies used on a limited basis are:

15 — Project Website (55 percent)―75 percent indicated using this strategy on both interstates/freeways and arterial roadways and 57 percent considered this strategy highly effective. — Community task forces (39 percent)―46 percent indicated using this strategy on both interstates/freeways and arterial roadways and 43 percent considered this strategy moderately effective. — Real-time video display of project road/s information on Website (34 percent)―61 percent indicated using this strategy on both interstates/freeways and arterial roadways and 33 percent considered this strategy moderately effective. Respondents were also asked to identify their choice of public awareness strategies that they were interested in learning more about or for further research/investigation. The highest rated strategies were: • Social media (Twitter, Facebook, etc.) (27 percent). • Real-time video display of project road/s information on Website (21 percent). • Project Website (15 percent). 3.2.8 Motorist Information Strategies Changeable message signs (CMSs) and dynamic speed message signs are two of the most widely evaluated TMP strategies followed by temporary motorist information signs and CB Wizard Alert system. The only evaluation found of Highway advisory radio (HAR) was from 1981. No evaluations were found of the remaining motorist information strategies (traffic radio, extinguishable signs, highway information network, 511 systems, and TMC). The survey results indicated that: • Frequently used motorist information strategies are: — CMS (91 percent)―94 percent indicated using this strategy on both interstates/freeways and arterial roadways and 48 percent considered this strategy moderately effective. — 511 travel information (wireless, handheld, in vehicle) (50 percent)―78 percent indicated using this strategy on both interstates/freeways and arterial roadways. — Temporary motorist information signs (42 percent)―83 percent indicated using this strategy on both interstates/freeways and arterial roadways and 71 percent considered this strategy moderately effective. • Public awareness strategies used on a limited basis were: — Dynamic speed message sign (44 percent)―52 percent indicated using this strategy on both interstates/freeways and arterial roadways and 62 percent considered this strategy moderately effective.

16 — HAR (41 percent)―75 percent indicated using this strategy on interstates/freeways and 31 percent considered this strategy effective. — Highway information network (Web-based) (39 percent)―72 percent indicated using this strategy on both interstates/freeways and arterial roadways and 43 percent considered this strategy moderately effective. Respondents were also asked to identify their choice of motorist information strategies that they were interested in learning more about or for further research/investigation. The highest rated strategies were: • Dynamic speed message sign (20 percent). • Freight travel information (20 percent). 3.2.9 Project Coordination and Innovative Construction Strategies The survey indicated that states use innovative construction strategies to accelerate project completion. However, respondents did not provide sufficient information on the advantages, selection factors, and price and time reduction information to draw specific conclusions. General conclusions are as follows: • Legal issues remain a barrier to implementation, especially with design–build contracting methods. • Agencies use very few systematic selection processes to guide the implementation. • Very few agencies perform a systematic analysis of the benefits derived from using contracting methods.

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Transportation management plans (TMPs) are a set of coordinated strategies designed to help agencies achieve work zone project goals related to traffic mobility, efficient system operation, motorist and worker safety, and other operational targets.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program'sNCHRP Web-Only Document 276: Evaluating Strategies for Work Zone Transportation Management Plans focuses on the field evaluations that are part of NCHRP Research Report 945: Strategies for Work Zone Transportation Management Plans.

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