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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Frontiers in Memristive Materials for Neuromorphic Processing Applications: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25938.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Frontiers in Memristive Materials for Neuromorphic Processing Applications: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25938.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Frontiers in Memristive Materials for Neuromorphic Processing Applications: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25938.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Frontiers in Memristive Materials for Neuromorphic Processing Applications: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25938.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Frontiers in Memristive Materials for Neuromorphic Processing Applications: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25938.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Frontiers in Memristive Materials for Neuromorphic Processing Applications: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25938.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Frontiers in Memristive Materials for Neuromorphic Processing Applications: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25938.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Frontiers in Memristive Materials for Neuromorphic Processing Applications: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25938.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Frontiers in Memristive Materials for Neuromorphic Processing Applications: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25938.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Frontiers in Memristive Materials for Neuromorphic Processing Applications: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25938.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Frontiers in Memristive Materials for Neuromorphic Processing Applications: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25938.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Frontiers in Memristive Materials for Neuromorphic Processing Applications: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25938.
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Prepublication Copy—Subject to Further Editorial Correction Frontiers in Memristive Materials for Neuromorphic Processing Applications PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP Paul Timothy Beaton, Rapporteur Condensed Matter and Materials Research Committee Board on Physics and Astronomy Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by Contract No. DMR-1830008 with the U.S. Department of Energy and DC- SC0019247 with the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25938 Cover: xxx xxxxx xxx xx xxxx xx x xxxxxx Graphic Artist: xxxxxxx This publication is available in limited quantities from Board on Physics and Astronomy 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 bpa@nas.edu https://sites.nationalacademies.org/bpa Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2020 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Frontiers in Memristive Materials for Neuromorphic Processing Applications: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.XXXXX/25938. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

PLANNING COMMITTEE ON FRONTIERS IN MEMRISTIVE MATERIALS FOR NEUROMORPHIC PROCESSING APPLICATIONS: A WORKSHOP LESLIE MOMODA, HRL Laboratories, Chair CHARLES AHN, Yale University GIULIA GALLI, University of Chicago TOM C. LUBENSKY, NAS,1 University of Pennsylvania IVAN SCHULLER, University of California, San Diego DMITRI STRUKOV, University of California, Santa Barbara R. STANLEY WILLIAMS, Texas A&M University THOMAS A. WITTEN, University of Chicago Staff CHRISTOPHER JONES, Program Officer JAMES LANCASTER, Board Director NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer AMISHA JINANDRA, Research Associate LINDA WALKER, Program Coordinator 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION v

CONDENSED MATTER AND MATERIALS RESEARCH COMMITTEE SUSAN COPPERSMITH, NAS,1 University of Wisconsin, Madison, Chair TOM WITTEN, University of Chicago, Vice Chair CHARLES AHN, Yale University RAYMUNDO ARROYAVE, Texas A&M University KARIN DAHMEN, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign THOMAS EPPS, University of Delaware GIULIA GALLI, University of Chicago OLIVIA A. GRAEVE, University of California, San Diego AHARON KAPITULNIK, NAS, Stanford University ANTHONY KU, National Institute of Clean and Low-Carbon Energy TOM C. LUBENSKY, NAS, University of Pennsylvania LESLIE MOMODA, HRL Laboratories PIERRE WILTZIUS, University of California, Santa Barbara KAREN WINEY, University of Pennsylvania STEVEN J. ZINKLE, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Staff CHRISTOPHER JONES, Program Officer JAMES LANCASTER, Board Director NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer AMISHA JINANDRA, Research Associate LINDA WALKER, Program Coordinator 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vi

BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY ABRAHAM LOEB, Harvard University, Chair ANDREW LANKFORD, University of California, Irvine, Vice Chair MEIGAN ARONSON, University of British Columbia WILLIAM BIALEK, NAS,1 Princeton University JILL DAHLBURG, Naval Research Laboratory SALLY DAWSON, Brookhaven National Laboratory LOUIS DIMAURO, Ohio State University WENDY FREEDMAN, NAS, University of Chicago TIM HECKMAN, NAS, Johns Hopkins University WENDELL HILL III, University of Maryland ALAN HURD, Los Alamos National Laboratory CHUNG-PEI MA, University of California, Berkeley NERGIS MAVALVALA, NAS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology SUNIL SINHA, University of California, San Diego WILLIAM A. ZAJC, Columbia University Staff JAMES LANCASTER, Director GREGORY MACK, Senior Program Officer CHRISTOPHER JONES, Program Officer NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer AMISHA JINANDRA, Research Associate LINDA WALKER, Program Coordinator BETH DOLAN, Financial Associate DONALD SHAPERO, Senior Scholar 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vii

Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: Wei D. Lu, University of Michigan, Tom C. Lubensky, NAS,1 University of Pennsylvania, and Dana Wheeler, HRL Laboratories, LLC. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by David W. Johnson, Jr., NAE,2 Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteur and the National Academies. 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 2 Member, National Academy of Engineering. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION ix

PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION x

Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 WORKSHOP PLENARIES 3 An Overview of Memristor Technologies, 3 RRAM: Mechanisms of Operation, 9 Neuromorphic Computing with Polymers, 17 Device Requirements and Challenges of Mixed-Signal Neuromorphic Hardware, 23 Device Architectures to Meet Neuromorphic Computing Challenges, 33 Future of Energy-Efficient Computing Based on Memristive Elements, 42 3 PANEL DISCUSSION 47 APPENDIXES A Statement of Task 57 B Workshop Agenda 58 C Workshop Participants 59 D Speaker and Planning Committee Biographical Information 63 E Acronyms 67 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xi

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Current von Neumann style computing is energy inefficient and bandwidth limited as information is physically shuttled via electrons between processor, short term non-volatile memory, and long-term storage. Biologically inspired neuromorphic computing, with its inherent autonomous learning capabilities and much lower power requirements based on analog processing, is seen as an avenue for overcoming these limitations. The development of nanoelectronic "memory resistors", or memristors, is essential to neuromorphic architectures as they allow logic-based elements for information processing to be combined directly with nonvolatile memory for efficient emulation of neurons and synapses found in the brain. Memristors are typically composed of a switchable material with nonlinear hysteretic behavior sandwiched between two conducting encoding elements. The design, dynamic control, scaling and fundamental understanding of these materials is essential for establishing memristive devices.

To explore the state-of-the-art in the materials fundamentally underlying memristor technologies: their science, their mechanisms and their functional imperatives to realize neuromorphic computing machines, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine's Board on Physics and Astronomy convened a workshop on February 28, 2020. This publication summarizes the presentation and discussion of the workshop.

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